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2013 PCCD Victim Services Needs Assessment Crime Victim Needs: Insights from Research Institute of State and Regional Affairs Penn State Harrisburg.

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Presentation on theme: "2013 PCCD Victim Services Needs Assessment Crime Victim Needs: Insights from Research Institute of State and Regional Affairs Penn State Harrisburg."— Presentation transcript:

1 2013 PCCD Victim Services Needs Assessment Crime Victim Needs: Insights from Research Institute of State and Regional Affairs Penn State Harrisburg

2 Key Findings 5 Main areas will be reviewed : Profile of Crime Victims Service Barriers Underserved Populations Service Provision Best Practices/Usefulness of Services

3 Profile of Crime Victims Demographics: Males have a higher rate of violent victimization Violent crimes are more often committed by known offenders Females experience more acts of victimization by known offenders Those who identified as two or more races experienced higher rates of violent victimization Younger individuals(age 18-24) are increasingly becoming victimized Urban residents experience higher rates of victimization than suburban or rural residents Married or widowed individuals have lower rates of victimization (Harrell, 2012b; Rennison, 2002; Truman, 2011; Truman & Planty, 2012; Truman & Rand, 2010)

4 Profile Of Crime Victims Help-Seeking Profile: Major factors that influence the rate/kind of help a victim will seek: Type of victimization Characteristics of the victim Victim-perpetrator relationship Characteristics of the incident (McCart et al., 2010; Sabina, Cuevas, & Schally, 2012; Starzynski, Ullman, Townsend, Long, & Long, 2007; Ullman & Filipas, 2001) About 46% of violently victimized individuals report the crime to police. (McCart, Smith, & Sawyer, 2010). Victims that seek mental health services range from 12-16%. (McCart, Smith, & Sawyer, 2010). Crimes that involve a weapon and incidents where there is an injury are more likely to be reported. (Langton & Berzofsky, 2012).

5 Service Barriers Barriers to help seeking are varied but share commonalities: Shame and embarrassment Not believing that services can or will help Lack of awareness about services Victim service providers need to be aware of and responsive to the multi-dimensional needs of victims and work to address barriers.

6 Underserved Victim Populations VSOs are expected to assist all victims. Unfortunately many of these populations face numerous barriers to services and remain underserved. Agencies need to abandon one size fits all approach to serving victims. Emphasis on education, outreach, targeted and culturally competent services, and inter-agency collaboration can help serve these populations.

7 Underserved Victim Populations Male crime victims Often assumed to be the offender Lack of gender-inclusive services Reluctant to seek help due shame, embarrassment or denial (Douglas & Hines, 2011; Tsui, Cheung, & Leung, 2010) Disabled crime victims More vulnerable due to dependency on others Cognitive disabilities may prevent communication Fear of being sent to a nursing facility Lack specialized programs and services (Chang et al., 2003; Petersilia, 2001; Saxton et al., 2001) Older crime victims (55+ years) Cultural and generational differences about the gender roles of marriage Fear of being sent to a nursing facility Inadequate programs that do not take special needs of older victims into consideration (Beaulaurier, Seff, Newman, & Dunlop, 2007; Zink & Fisher, 2007)

8 Underserved Victim Populations Minorities/immigrant crime victims Reliance on family and importance of privacy Fear of deportation Lack of specialized services that take cultural considerations into account (Fierros & Smith, 2006; Murdaugh, Hunt, Sowell, & Santana, 2004; Cho, 2012; Sue & Sue, 1999) LGBTQ crime victims Needing to disclose sexual orientation hinders help-seeking Most services are oriented toward heterosexuals Lack of knowledge about same-sex abuse (Girshick, 2002; Merrill & Wolfe, 2000; Bornstein et al., 2006) Younger crime victims (teens/young adults) May prefer to seek help from peers instead of formal services Confidentiality and other legal barriers may prove to be issues (Ashley & Foshee, 2005; Martin et al., 2012; Sousa, 1999; Whitman, 2007)

9 Service Provision Organizational Barriers: Offender focus of the criminal justice system Improving access for victims Training victims' services staff and volunteers Coordinating services between organizations Increasing awareness of services available Overcoming stigma

10 Usefulness of Services Crucial services for sexual assault and domestic violence survivors include: hotlines, shelter services, counseling, support groups, and advocacy services. Coordination between organizations dealing with similar issues (i.e. VSOs, social service, community agencies, etc.) can greatly improve the quality of assistance and expand services available to victims. The Domestic Violence Evidence Project ( has identified several innovative, evidence-based programs to assist victims of domestic violence and their

11 Conclusions Groups that may benefit from further targeted outreach include: Males Younger individuals Those living in urban settings Victims of rape VSOs must work toward inclusion throughout service delivery in order to provide services to all victim groups. Barriers for VSOs to overcome: Associations with criminal justice system Funding Coordination of services Training needs Victim engagement Overcoming these shortcomings and barriers starts at the organizational level, within VSOs themselves.

12 References Ashley, O. S., & Foshee, V. A. (2005). Adolescent help-seeking for dating violence: Prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and sources of help. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36, 25- 31. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.12.014 Beaulaurier, R. L., Seff, L. R., Newman, F. L., & Dunlop, B. (2007). External barriers to help seeking for older women who experience intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 747-755. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-9122-y Bornstein, D. R., Fawcett, J., Sullivan, M., Senturia, K. D., & Shiu-Thornton, S. (2006). Understanding the experiences of lesbian, bisexual and trans survivors of domestic violence : A qualitative study. Journal of Homosexuality, 51, 159-181. doi: 10.1300/J082v51n01 Douglas, E. M., & Hines, D. A. (2011). The helpseeking experiences of men who sustain intimate partner violence: An overlooked population and implications for practice. Journal of Family Violence, 26, 473-485. doi: 10.1007/s10896-011-9382-4 Chang, J. C., Martin, S. L., Moracco, K. E., Dulli, L., Scandlin, D., Loucks-Sorrel, M. B.,... Bou-Saada, I. (2003). Helping women with disabilities and domestic violence: Strategies, limitations, and challenges of domestic violence programs and services. Journal of Women's Health, 12, 699-708. doi: 10.1089/154099903322404348 Cho, H. (2012). Use of mental health services among Asian and Latino victims of intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 18, 404-419. doi: 10.1177/1077801212448896 Fierros, M., & Smith, C. (2006). The relevance of Hispanic culture to the treatment of a patient with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry, 3, 49-56. Fugate, M., Landis, L., Riordan, K., Naureckas, S., & Engel, B. (2005). Barriers to domestic violence help seeking: Implications for intervention. Violence Against Women, 11, 290- 310. doi: 10.1177/1077801204271959 Girshick, L. B. (2002). Woman-to-woman sexual violence: Does she call it rape? Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Harrell, E. (2012b). Violent victimization committed by strangers 1993-2010 (NCJ 239424). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

13 References Langton, L., & Berzofsky, M. (2012). Victimization not reported to the police, 2006-2010 (NCJ 238536). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Martin, C. E., Houston, A. M., Mmari, K. N., & Decker, M. R. (2012). Urban teens and young adults describe drama, disrespect, dating violence and help-seeking preferences. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16, 957-966. doi: 10.1007/s10995-011-0819-4 McCart, M. R., Smith, D. W., & Sawyer, G. K. (2010). Help seeking among victims of crime: a review of the empirical literature. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 198-206. doi: 10.1002/jts.20509 Murdaugh, C., Hunt, S., Sowell, R., & Santana, I. (2004). Domestic violence in Hispanics in the southeastern United States: A survey and needs analysis. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 107-115. doi: 10.1023/B:JOFV.0000019841.58748.51 Patterson, D., Greeson, M., & Campbell, R. (2009). Understanding rape survivors' decisions not to seek help from formal social systems. Health & Social Work, 34, 127-136. Petersen, R., Moracco, K. E., Goldstein, K. M., & Clark, K. A. (2004). Moving beyond disclosure: Women's perspectives on barriers and motivators to seeking assistance for intimate partner violence. Women & Health, 40, 63-76. doi: 10.1300/J013v40n03_05 Petersilia, J. R. (2001). Crime victims with developmental disabilities: A review essay. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28, 655-694. doi: 10.1177/009385480102800601 Rennison, C. (2002). Criminal victimization 2001 (NCJ 194610). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Sable, M. R., Danis, F., Mauzy, D. L., & Gallagher, S. K. (2006). Barriers to reporting sexual assault for women and men: Perspectives of college students. Journal of American College Health, 55, 157-162. doi: 10.3200/JACH.55.3.157-162 Sabina, C., Cuevas, C. A., & Schally, J. L. (2012). Help-seeking in a national sample of victimized Latino women: The influence of victimization type. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 40-61. doi: 10.1177/0886260511416460 Saxton, M., Curry, M. a., Powers, L. E., Maley, S., Eckels, K., & Gross, J. (2001). "Bring my scooter so I can leave you": A study of disabled women handling abuse by personal assistance providers. Violence Against Women, 7, 393-417. doi: 10.1177/10778010122182523

14 References Sousa, C. A. (1999). Teen dating violence: The hidden epidemic. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 37, 356-374. Simmons, C. A., Farrar, M., Frazer, K., & Thompson, M. J. (2011). From the voices of women: Facilitating survivor access to IPV services. Violence Against Women, 17, 1226-1243. doi: 10.1177/1077801211424476 Starzynski, L. L., Ullman, S. E., Townsend, S. M., Long, S. M., & Long, L. M. (2007). What factors predict women's disclosure of sexual assault to mental health professionals? Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 619-638. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20168 Truman, J. L. (2011). Criminal victimization 2010 (NCJ 235508). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Truman, J. L., & Planty, M. (2012). Criminal victimization 2011 (NCJ 239437). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Truman, J. L., & Rand, M. (2010). Criminal victimization 2009 (NCJ 231327). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Tsui, V., Cheung, M., & Leung, P. (2010). Help-seeking among male victims of partner abuse: Men's hard times. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 769-780. doi: 10.1002/jcop Whitman, J. L. (2007). Understanding and responding to teen victims: A developmental framework. The Prevention Researcher, 14, 10-13. Wolf, M., Ly, U., Hobart, M., & Kernic, M. (2003). Barriers to seeking police help for intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 18, 121-129. doi: 10.1023/A:1022893231951 Ullman, S. E., & Filipas, H. H. (2001). Correlates of formal and informal support seeking in sexual assaults victims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 1028-1047. doi: 10.1177/088626001016010004

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