Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Module 17, 18, 19 Introduction to Learning

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Module 17, 18, 19 Introduction to Learning"— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 17, 18, 19 Introduction to Learning

2 Learning …the relatively permanent change in a subject’s behavior to a given situation brought about by his (or her) repeated experiences in that situation, provided that the behavior change cannot be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturation, or temporary states of the subject (e.g., fatigue, drugs, etc.).

3 Learning “A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience”

4 Are These Examples of Learning? Why or Why Not?
1. The cessation of thumb sucking by an infant. 2. The acquisition of language in children. 3. A computer program generates random opening moves for its first 100 chess games and tabulates the outcomes of those games. Starting with the 101st game, the computer uses those tabulations to influence its choice of opening moves. 4. A worm is placed in a T maze. The left arm of the maze is brightly lit and dry; the right arm is dim and moist. On the first 10 trials, the worm turns right 7 times. On the next 10 trials, the worm turns right all 10 times.

5 Examples of Learning? 5. Ethel stays up late the night before the October GRE administration and consumes large quantities of licit and illicit pharmacological agents. Her combined (verbal plus quantitative) score is 410. The night before the December GRE administration, she goes to bed early after a wholesome dinner and a glass of milk. Her score increases to Is the change in scores due to learning? Is the change in pretest regimen due to learning? 6. A previously psychotic patient is given Dr. K’s patented phrenological surgery and no longer exhibits any psychotic behaviors. 7. A lanky zinnia plant is pinched back and begins to grow denser foliage and flowers.

6 Examples of Learning? 8. MYCIN is a computer program that does a rather good job of diagnosing human infections by consulting a large database of rules it has been given. If we add another rule to the database, has MYCIN learned something? 9. After pondering over a difficult puzzle for hours, Jane finally figures it out. From that point on, she can solve all similar puzzles in the time it takes her to read them. 10. After 30 years of smoking two packs a day, Zeb throws away his cigarettes and never smokes again.

7 Watson’s Extreme Environmentalism
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” John Broadus Watson, 1928

8 Types of Learning Observational Learning Associative Learning
watch & learn Associative Learning link two events Classical Conditioning associate two stimuli and anticipate events Operant Conditioning associate our behavior and its consequence and act according to our best interest Chapter outline

9 Observational Learning
We can learn from other’s experiences and examples.

10 Associative Learning Linking two events that occur close together
Someone is shot. First you hear the sound of the shot, then see the blood. You associate guns with danger – the linking of events..

11 Associative Learning

12 Associative Learning

13 Associative Learning If you’ve seen the movie, Jaws, you probably
had a feeling that danger was just around the corner. This is “associative learning.”

14 Conditioning – the process of learning associations
Classical – associating two stimuli and thus anticipating events.

15 Classical Conditioning
We learn to associate two stimuli

16 Classical and Operant Conditioning
We learn to associate two stimuli and thus anticipate events. Operant: We learn to associate a response and its consequence and thus repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts followed by punishment.

17 Classical Conditioning
Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories. However, it was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson. Preview Question 2: How does classical conditioning demonstrate learning by association? Sovfoto Ivan Pavlov ( )

18 Ivan Pavlov Father of Classical Conditioning…
…noticed that when he put food (UCS) in a dog’s mouth, the dog would salivate (UCR).

19 So…he added a neutral stimulus, which became the (CS) and produced a (CR)

20 Classical Conditioning Explained

21 Condition your Friends!!!

22 Classical Conditioning Terms
UCS – unconditioned stimulus UCR – unconditioned response CS - conditioned stimulus CR – conditioned response Extinction – diminishing a conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced Generalization – once a response has been conditioned, similar stimuli elicit similar responses

23 Pavlov’s Apparatus Figure 5.3 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Harness and mouth tube help keep dog in a consistent position to gather uncontaminated saliva samples

24 Before Conditioning Before Stimuli Are Paired
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) elicits Unconditioned Response (UCR) Meat elicits salivation Neutral stimulus (NS) elicits no particular response The bell does not lead to a particular response

25 During Conditioning Conditioning: Neutral Stimulus (NS) is paired with the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Bell rings, then meat powder is delivered This pairing happens a number of times (trials)

26 After Conditioning After several trials, when the bell rings, the dog salivates (NO FOOD NEEDED!) The Bell is now a Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Salivation is now a Conditioned Response (CR)

27 Pavlov’s Classic Experiment

28 Classical Conditioning Terms
Acquisition Formation of a learned response to a stimulus through presentation of an unconditioned stimulus Extinction Elimination of a learned response by removal of the unconditioned stimulus Generalization When the classically conditioned reaction occurs to other (similar) stimuli

29 Acquisition Acquisition is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus. The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second.

30 Acquisition The CS needs to come half a second before the US for acquisition to occur.

31 Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction.

32 Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again.

33 Stimulus Generalization
Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped.

34 Stimulus Discrimination
Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.

35 Extending Pavlov’s Understanding
Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness, or mind, unfit for the scientific study of psychology. However, they underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints. Preview Question 4: Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical conditioning?

36 Cognitive Processes Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of various animals could be reduced to mindless mechanisms. However, later behaviorists suggested that animals learn the predictability of a stimulus, meaning they learn expectancy or awareness of a stimulus (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972).

37 Biological Predispositions
Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals. Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ in their learning. However, behaviorists later suggested that learning is constrained by an animal’s biology.

38 Biological Predispositions
Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning but other stimuli (sight or sound) did not. Courtesy of John Garcia John Garcia

39 Biological Predispositions
Even humans can develop classically to conditioned nausea.

40 Pavlov’s Legacy Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective scientific procedures. Preview Question 5: Why is Pavlov’s work important? Ivan Pavlov ( )

41 Applications of Classical Conditioning
Former crack cocaine users should avoid cues (people, places) associated with previous drug use. Through classical conditioning, a drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response may cause the taste of the drug to invoke the immune response.

42 Applications of Classical Conditioning
Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations, including Maxwell House, making the “coffee break” an American custom. Brown Brothers John B. Watson

43 What Can a Hippo learn?

44 Classical conditioning links horror movie music to fear
Scary Music Fear Gore UCR NS UCS

45 Classical conditioning links horror movie music to fear
Scary Music Fear Gore UCR NS UCS Scary Music Fear CR CS

46 Learning Factors Number of pairings
Reliability of CS in predicting UCS Occurrence of CS just before UCS

47 Classical Conditioning
UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CR Kiss)

48 Classical Conditioning
Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR

49 Timing of CS before UCS

50 Prepared Classical Conditioning
Organisms seem predisposed to make certain associations e. g., nausea creates taste aversions Exp: drinking Exp: Garcia

51 Garcia’s rats Bright light  Shocks Bright Light  Nausea
Funny Water  Shocks Funny Water  Nausea Conditions 1 and 4 easiest for conditioning to occur. Why?

52 Classical conditioning and Ads
Are you conditioned to Respond to the following?

53 Men: What do you see? What do you think?
Women: What do you see? What do you think?

54 Men? Women? Have we been conditioned or is it a natural reaction?


56 Men? Women? What are you thinking? Are you conditioned?


58 Men? Women? What do you see? Why is this offensive to women?
Why is this exciting to men?

59 Classical conditioning and Ads

60 Classical conditioning and Ads

61 Classical conditioning and Ads

62 Classical conditioning and Ads

63 Classical conditioning and Ads

64 What is this?

65 Classical conditioning and Ads

66 Classical conditioning and Ads

67 Classical conditioning and Ads

68 Operant & Classical Conditioning
1. Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli (CS and US). Operant conditioning, on the other hand, forms an association between behaviors and the resulting events. Preview Question 6: What is operant conditioning, and how does it differ from classical conditioning?

69 Operant & Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning involves respondent behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a certain stimulus. Operant conditioning involves operant behavior, a behavior that operates on the environment, producing rewarding or punishing stimuli. Classical = automatic response Operant = deliberate behavior


71 Operant Conditioning Learning associations between actions and

72 Operant Conditioning We learn to associate a response and its con-

73 Operant Conditioning Behavior Increases chances of followed by

74 Types of Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement adds good things Examples: Money, Praise, Food Negative Reinforcement takes bad things away Examples: removing pain, toothache, hunger

75 Types of Reinforcement
Increases Behavior Add Stimulus Positive Reinforcement (+ good things) Remove Stimulus Negative Reinforcement (-bad things) Similar to Table 5.1 in Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

76 Types of Reinforcement
Increases Behavior Decreases Behavior Add Stimulus Positive Reinforcement Positive Punishment Remove stimulus Negative reinforcement Negative Punishment Similar to Table 5.1 in Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

77 Negative Reinforcement
Some examples of negative reinforcers – reducing or removing the unpleasant stimulus Taking an aspirin to relieve a headache

78 Negative Reinforcement
Smoking in order to relieve anxiety

79 Negative Reinforcement
Feigning a stomach ache to avoid something you don’t want to face.

80 Negative Reinforcement
Hurrying home in winter to escape the cold

81 Negative Reinforcement
Putting on your safety belt to stop the buzzing

82 Positive Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement has occurred when three conditions have been met: A consequence is presented dependent on a behavior. 2. The behavior becomes more likely to occur. 3. The behavior becomes more likely to occur because and only because the consequence is presented dependent on the behavior.

83 Positive Reinforcement
Study for a test, earn an A on the exam.

84 Positive Reinforcement
Go to work, get paid.

85 Positive Reinforcement
New hairstyle, positive attention and compliments.

86 EXAMPLE of Operant Learning
Every night after dinner, Pat sits down to watch TV, but before long Pat’s dog Juno is barking and whining. Pats gives him a toy to chew on, and he quiets down. Now he whines every night until Pat gives him a toy. How is Juno’s behavior being learned?

87 1. What is the Behavior? Barking and whining after dinner

88 2. What is the consequence of the behavior?
i.e. What happens when Juno barks and whines? Juno gets a toy.

89 3. Is this consequence adding or removing something?
Adding something – the toy.

90 4. Is it positive or negative (a pleasant or unpleasant consequence)?

91 5. Does this consequence increase or decrease the likelihood of Juno barking and whining in the future. Increase So, is this punishment or reinforcement? Reinforcement

92 Juno is learning to bark and whine after dinner through POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

93 Law of Effect Underlies all of operant conditioning
“Behavior that is rewarded will be repeated”

94 Types of Punishment Positive Punishment Adds bad things
Example: The driver's speeding results in a ticket and a fine Negative Punishment Takes good things away Example: a child talks back, is not allowed to watch television

95 Reinforcement versus punishment
What works better, reinforcement or punishment?

96 Try this Test 1.Go to this site: 2. Take the test. 3. Score the test. 4. Hand it in. 5. Bring your questions to class.

97 Operant vs. Classical Conditioning

98 Thorndike and Puzzle Boxes
Cats are put into puzzle boxes Slightly hungry Food outside

99 How do you think this baby was conditioned?

100 Thorndike and Puzzle Boxes
Cats put into puzzle boxes Slightly hungry Food outside Time to escape decreased over attempts

101 Thorndike and Puzzle Boxes
Cats put into puzzle boxes Slightly Hungry Food outside Time to escape decreased over attempts Behaviors that worked to escape were repeated Other behaviors decreased

102 Shaping Rewarding successively closer approximations of a desired behavior Useful for teaching new behaviors Exp: puppy paper training

103 Shaping A Rat 1) The rat is trained to press a lever to get a reward:
2) The rat has to push a rod and then press the lever to get a reward: 3) The rat learns to lift a marble, push a rod and press the lever to get a reward: Now the rat performs all three behaviors

104 Rate of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement: reward after every response Intermittent reinforcement: only sometimes reward Intermittent works better kids and temper tantrums, icky boyfriends/girlfriends

105 Reinforcement Schedules
Fixed-Ratio Variable-Ratio Fixed-Interval Variable-Interval

106 Reinforcement Schedules
Fixed Ratio – reward after a set number of responses Variable Ratio - reward after a varying number of responses Fixed Interval -reward after a predictable time Variable Interval - reward after an unpredictable time interval

107 Schedules of Reinforcement
Ratio- every so many Interval – every so often Can be: After an unpredictable number After a random amount of time

108 Fixed-Ratio Schedule Reward after a set number of responses
Ex: Frequent shopper at Subway – get free sandwich after 8 purchases Ex: Paid per piece of work produced

109 Variable-Ratio Schedules
Reward after a varying number of responses Ex: “Good job” Ex: Boyfriend or girlfriend returns your phone call

110 Variable-Ratio Schedule

111 Fixed-Interval Schedule
Reward after a specific time interval Ex: Reward at the end of a half hour of studying Ex: Cake is ready in the oven Ex: Jell-O is set Ex. Your favorite t.v. show is on.

112 Fixed-Interval Schedule

113 Variable-Interval Schedule
Reward after an unpredictable time interval Slow, steady responding. Ex: Fishing, cast your hook and wait.

114 Variable-Interval Schedule

115 Schedules of Reinforcement
Steeper lines mean higher response rates Ratio schedules produce higher response rates than interval schedules Figure 5.12 from: Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source:

116 Extinction More rapid to fixed ratio than variable ratio reinforcement

117 Thus, best is variable ratio
An example of variable ratio…



120 Work Preference Inventory Handout 19-5
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation To assess your intrinsic motivation, reverse your scores (1 = 4, 2 = 3, 3 = 2, 4 = 1) for items 9 and 14 and then add the numbers in response to items 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 27, 28, and 30. To assess extrinsic motivation reverse your scores (1 = 4, 2 = 3, 3 = 2, 4 = 1) for items 1, 16, and 22 and then add the numbers in response to items 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, and 29.

121 Work Preference Inventory Handout
Scores on each subscale can range from 15 to 60, with higher scores reflecting greater intrinsic and greater extrinsic motivation, respectively. Mean scores for both male and female students are approximately 45 and 39 on the intrinsic and extrinsic scales, respectively. Research suggests little correlation between scores on the two scales.

122 Observational Learning
Learning without direct reinforcement

123 Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study
Children exposed to either aggressive, non-aggressive, or no adult model Children are made to feel frustrated Children then taken to room with Bobo doll and their behavior observed Children exposed to aggressive model much more aggressive than other children.

124 Whew!! Now you Are a “Learning” Genius

Download ppt "Module 17, 18, 19 Introduction to Learning"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google