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Sociology Exam Review Chapter 1-5, 7.

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1 Sociology Exam Review Chapter 1-5, 7

2 Name the Social Science
Studies human society and social behavior Studies people and events of the past Studies behavior and mental processes Comparatively studies past and present cultures Studies the organization and operation of government

3 Name the Perspective Focuses on how individuals interact with one another in society Focuses on forces in society that promote competition and change Focuses on gender inequality Believes society is held together by consensus Views society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system

4 Name the Scholar He was expelled from Paris for believing workers would eventually revolt and create a classless society She set up Hull House in Chicago to assist the poor He was the founder of Sociology He believed that ideas about observable phenomena can be tested using statistical analysis; first to use science to study society He helped found the NAACP and studied the significance of race in US society

5 Roles and Statuses Status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life Process through which people go through to detach from a role central to their identity; example divorce Assigned status based on qualities beyond a person’s control Socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role Term for different roles attached to a single status

6 Name the type of group This type of group has structure, goals and activities that are clearly defined A circle of friends is an example of this type of group Group where people interact regularly on the internet; facebook and myspace on examples A group a person belongs to and identifies with that has 3 characteristics: symbols, positive view of themselves, and competition with other groups A group a person identifies with

7 Socialization This agent of socialization is the most important in almost every society Term for the untamed children with few human characteristics, and no reasoning or manners due to their social isolation This theory of socialization refers to the interactive process in which we develop our image of ourselves based on how we imagine we appear to others Playing dress up and taking part in organized sports are important steps in this theory of socialization This theory of socialization suggests that each of us is born without a personality and it develops from social experience

8 Personality The sum total of the behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs that are characteristic to an individual; don’t think too hard This is a biologically unchanging inherited behavior pattern Capacity to learn a certain skill like being good at tennis Break with past experiences and learning new values and norms; happens in jail This sociology career focuses on how genetic makeup impacts your behavior

9 Dating and Adolescence
Main purpose of this type of dating is to find a spouse Main purpose of this type of dating is for entertainment and status On the dating continuum – what has the highest level of commitment? What percent of new HPV, Chlamydia, and genital herpes cases occur among 14 – 19 year olds? What characteristic of adolescence is missing? biological growth and development, undefined status, increased pressures, search for self

10 Sanctions Punishment or threat of punishment used to enforce conformity A reward or punishment given by a regulatory agency, a school, a business, or a government Spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or group Process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality Enforcing norms through either internal or external means

11 Type of Crime Homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault
Fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement, insider trading Prostitution, illegal gambling, illegal drug use Drug trafficking or illegal gambling as part of a large-scale crime syndicate Burglary, larceny, arson

12 Give me an ‘S’ Process in which you learn appropriate gender roles
Group of interdependent people who have organized to share a common culture; this word is NOT interchangeable with culture Rewards or punishments that are used to enforce conformity Group with status and roles that are organized to satisfy one or more needs of society Observable fact or event that involves human society

13 Interaction Deliberate attempt to control or oppose someone; has little or no rules of conduct Social interaction term for a balance between competition and cooperation; compromise is an example Action of doing something for someone after that person has done something for you Name for the smallest group possible; means two Goffman’s idea that individuals attempt to play roles well and we judge the performances of others

14 Culture Tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior; can lead to discrimination The development of economic and social relationships that stretch around the world Process in which cultures become more and more alike These ensure fulfillment of some need and are common in all cultures Education and technology are emphasized in this type of society

15 Intro to Behavior Shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations; US examples are financial responsibility and to shake hands when introduced Intended and recognized consequence of some element of society Unintended and unrecognized consequence of some element of society Most serious norms are formalized into these: folkways – mores - __________ Situation that arise when the norms of society are unclear or no longer applicable

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