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Chapter 11: Forming Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood

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1 Chapter 11: Forming Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood
Being With Others Chapter 11: Forming Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood Human Development: A Life-Span View Kail & Cavanaugh

2 Friendship Defined as: a mutual relationship in which those involved influence one another’s behaviors and beliefs Levinger’s Stages of Friendship ABCDE model Acquaintanceship Buildup Continuation Deterioration Ending—contingent on alternatives

3 Friendship Three dimensions of friendships in adulthood 1. Affective
Emotional basis 2. Communal Mutual interest 3. Sociability & Compatibility Entertainment/fun component

4 Siblings as Friends Special type of friendship Often longest
Strongest during adolescence and late life and weakest during middle age Women generally place greater importance on the relationship Family reunions/gatherings Holidays Caretaking and support

5 Online Friendship How does it develop?
1. Reputation—online or offline identity 2. Performance—what users do online is how others judge them 3. Precommitment—”leap of faith” through self-disclosure 4. Situational Factors—the importance of the relationship when compared to other competing factors

6 Gender Variations in Friendships
Gender variations in young adult friendships tend to show continuity in gender variations in children’s friendships Men Tend to have fewer close friends Emphasis on shared activities Confiding is in conflict with competing Face social pressure to be brave and strong which is in conflict with emotional sharing Women Tend to have more close friends Emphasis on emotional sharing and intimacy

7 Cross-Gender Friendships
Both men and women have difficulties forming cross-gender friendships Cross-gender friendships tend to help men have lower levels of dating anxiety and a higher capacity for intimacy Maintaining cross-sex friendships once individuals enter into exclusive dating relationships, marriage or committed relationships is difficult and often problematic Women tend to underperceive Men tend to overperceive

8 Romantic Relationships
Early Often marked by high amounts of passion and infatuation High risk of misunderstanding and jealousy Exciting in the beginning, but not typically enough to maintain the relationship As the relationship develops, passion decreases but commitment increases through shared experiences, support, and caring Neurological and Life Cycle Bases of Love High levels of dopamine during early stages of love Switches to substances related to morphine (a narcotic) later on

9 The Theory of Assortative Mating
People select mates based on their similarity to each other Religious beliefs Physical traits Age SES Intelligence Political views Couples higher in marital satisfaction tend to be similar in terms of openness to experience but not necessarily in other dimensions of personality Healthy people tend to be with healthy people; unhealthy with other unhealthy people

10 Murstein’s Theory Stimulus Values Role
Physical appearance, social class, etc. match my own? Values Values regarding sex, religion, politics, etc. match my own? Role Ideas about the relationship, communication style, gender roles, etc. match my own?

11 Other Important Variables
Physical attractiveness is more important than once thought Cultural variations exist Attachment style, which is influenced by earlier relationships during infancy and childhood

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