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A review of school-based relationship violence prevention programmes Natasha McInninie Family Support Worker Circle

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1 A review of school-based relationship violence prevention programmes Natasha McInninie Family Support Worker Circle

2 ChildLine Scotland (2006): 932 calls about partner relationships Requests for sex/sexual acts, pressure to have sex & partners threats to end relationship, threatened violence (physical and sexual), unwanted sex, partner abuse EVAW (2006): online study of 524 young people 42% knew girls whose boyfriends had hit them 40% knew girls whose boyfriends had coerced them to have sex NSPCC Study (2009): 1353 pupils surveyed, 91 interviewed 75% of girls/50% of boys in a relationship experienced emotional violence 33% of girls/16% of boys in a relationship reported sexual violence 25% of girls/18% of boys in a relationship experienced physical violence 1 in 10 girls defined physical violence as severe Greater proportion of young people with same sex partners used emotional and sexual violence compared to those with opposite-sex partners

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4 Research aims To conduct a review of the evidence on teenage dating violence prevention (TDV) programmes in order to: 1. Discuss the selected programmes effectiveness in reducing teenage dating violence 2. Explore which components of the selected programmes were most effective 3. Make some recommendations about which programme components (if any) might be considered for their transferability to a Scottish context

5 Titles and abstracts identified from electronic databases: 490 Total number of titles and abstracts excluded: 341 Articles that fully met selection criteria: 9 Process of screening and reviewing








13 Programme components Skills-based components - role play, assertiveness training The promotion of healthy relationships and respect Informing young people about the law Promoting bystander behaviour Getting young people involved – youth action committees Peer educators

14 Individual levelSchool levelCommunity level Practice new skillsWhole school approachInvolve community organisations Learn negotiation & conflict management skills, assertiveness & how to regulate emotions Practice through role play Prevention programmes embedded within school curriculum Training for service providers Invite outside speakers into school Involve local arts organisations Change attitudesYoung people involvementCreative arts Challenge gender stereotypes, masculinity scripts and violence norms Student led action committees Theatre productions in school Increase knowledgeHealthy relationships focusAwareness raising Learning about prevalence, the law, age of consent, definitions of rape Healthy relationships promoted throughout school curriculum Poster campaigns in school and wider community Newsletters to parents

15 Recommendations Pilot a dating violence programme in Scotland Include a component that addresses electronic violence Gender strategic approach Same sex relationships Additional evaluation methods Evaluate each programme component separately

16 References Adler-Baeder, F., Kerpelman, J.L., Schramm, D.G., Higginbotham, B., Paulk, A. 2007. The impact of relationship education on adolescents of diverse backgrounds. Family Relations. 56 (3) July, pp.291-303. Backett-Milburn, K., Ogilvie,-Whyte, S., Newall, E., Popham, F., Houston, A. and Wales, A. 2006. Children and young peoples concerns about their sexual health and wellbeing. Final report, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Burton, S. and Kitzinger, J. with Kelly, L. and Regan, L. (1998) Young peoples attitudes towards violence, sex and relationships: A survey and focus group study. Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit, University of North London, and the Media Research Unit, Sociology Department, University of Glasgow: Zero Tolerance Trust. End Violence Against Women (EVAW). 2006. UK Poll of 16-20 year olds. End Violence Against Women. November. ICM. [online] Available from [Accessed 15 June 2012]. Foshee, V. 1996. The Safe Dates Project: Theoretical basis, evaluation design, and selected baseline findings. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 12 (5 SUPPL) pp. 39-47. Foshee, V.A., Bauman, K.E., Arriaga, X.B., Helms, R.W., Koch, G.G. and Linder, G.F. 1998. An evaluation of Safe Dates, an adolescent dating violence prevention program. American Journal of Public Health 88 (1) pp. 45- 50. Foshee, V.A., Bauman, K.E., Ennett, S., Linder, G.F., Benefield, T., & Suchindran, C. 2004. Assessing the long- term effects of the Safe Dates program and a booster in preventing and reducing adolescent dating violence victimization and perpetration. American Journal of Public Health, 94, pp. 10-624.

17 Foshee, V.A., Bauman, K.E. Ennett, S.T. Suchindran, C. Benefield, T and Linder, G.G. 2005. Assessing the effects of the dating violence prevention program Safe Dates using random coefficient regression modelling. Prevention Science 6 (3) pp. 245 -258. Hamby, S., Nix, K., De Puy, J., & Monnier, S. 2012. Adapting dating violence prevention to Francophone Switzerland: A story of intra-Western cultural differences. Violence and Victims 27 (4) pp. 33 – 47. Hester, M., Pearson, C. and Harwin, N. with Abrahams, H. 2007. Making an Impact – Children and Domestic Violence. London: Jessica Kingsley. Jaffe, P.G., Baker, L.L. and Cunningham, A.J. 2004. Group intervention with abusive male adolescents. In Jaffe, P.G., Baker, L.L., and Cunningham, A.J. eds., Protecting children from domestic violence: Strategies for community intervention, New York: Guilford, pp. 49-67. Jaycox, L.H., McCaffery, D., Eiseman, B. Aronoff, J. Shelley, G.A., Collins, R.L. and Marshall. G.N. 2006. Impact of a school-based dating violence prevention program among Latino teens: Randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Journal of Adolescent Health 39 (5) pp. 694-704. Lombard, N., 2011. Young peoples attitudes about violence, Briefing 54, February 2011, Edinburgh: Centre for Research on Families and Relationships. Miller, E., Tancredi, D.J., McCauley, H.L., Decker, M.R., Virata, M.C.D, Anderson, H.A., Stetkevich, N., Brown, E.W., Moideen, F., Silverman, J.G. 2012. Coaching boys into men: A cluster-randomized controlled trial of a dating violence prevention program, Journal of Adolescent Health,. Article in press. Mullender, A., Hague, G. M., Imam, I., Kelly, L., Malos, E. M. and Regan, L. 2002. Children's Perspectives on Domestic Violence. London: Sage.

18 NSPCC. 2009. Partner exploitation and violence in teenage intimate relationships. Executive summary [online] Available from [Accessed on March 16 2012]. Radford, L. and Hester, M. 2007. Mothering Through Domestic Violence. London: Jessica Kingsley. SAMHSA. 2012. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Safe Dates. SAMHSAs National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. [online]. Available at [Accessed on 15 July 2012]. Schewe, P.A. 2002. Preventing violence in relationships: Interventions across the life span. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association. Taylor, B, Stein, N & Burden, F. 2010. The effects of gender violence/harassment prevention programming in middle schools: A randomized experimental evaluation. Violence and Victims, 25 (2) pp. 202 – 223. Weisz, A.N., and Black, B.M. 2009. Programs to reduce teen dating violence and sexual assault: Perspectives on what works. New York: Columbia University Press. Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C., Jaffe, P., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., Ellis, W., Stitt, L., Donner, A. 2009. A school-based program to prevent adolescent dating violence: A cluster randomized trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 163 (8), Aug 2009. Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C.V., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., Ellis, W. 2012. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: A post-intervention comparison, Prevention Science, 13 (2), pp. 196-205. World Health Organisation. 2005. WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and womens responses. Summary report. Geneva: World Health Organisation.


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