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# Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV1 Dating Events: Solving The Jigsaw Puzzle Steve M. J. Janssen, Antonio G. Chessa, and Jaap M. J. Murre University of Amsterdam.

## Presentation on theme: "Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV1 Dating Events: Solving The Jigsaw Puzzle Steve M. J. Janssen, Antonio G. Chessa, and Jaap M. J. Murre University of Amsterdam."— Presentation transcript:

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV1 Dating Events: Solving The Jigsaw Puzzle Steve M. J. Janssen, Antonio G. Chessa, and Jaap M. J. Murre University of Amsterdam

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV2 Jigsaw puzzle

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV3 Pieces of a puzzle Pieces with a lot of detailsExact datePieces with a lot of details Filler pieces Exact date Context Pieces with a lot of details Filler pieces Connected pieces Exact date Context Related events Pieces with a lot of details Filler pieces Connected pieces Corner and edge pieces Exact date Context Related events Finer time scales

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV4 Memory for time theories Distance is the elapsed time (i.e., relative time) Location is the placement of an event in time (i.e., absolute time) Distance is the elapsed time (i.e., relative time) Location is the placement of an event in time (i.e., absolute time) Serial order is the reference to fact that an event occurred before of after another event

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV5 Integrated Model Of Memory For Time (Janssen et al., in press, Mem & Cog) Primary temporal information, such as day of month. When there is direct temporal information of an event available, then people can determine the exact date that the event occurred. However, this direct information is forgotten easily. Secondary temporal information, such as context. When there is indirect temporal information available, then people prefer to date the event in the absolute time format. This indirect information is forgotten less easily. When there is neither primary or secondary temporal information available, then people prefer to date the event in the relative time format.

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV6 Integrated Model Of Memory For Time

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV7 Experiment and Hypothesis Do people use different temporal information to date different events? In this experiment, we will not look at format preference, but at different time scales Do people use different temporal information to date different events? Do people recall for some events the year that event occurred better, while for other events the day of the week? Do people use different temporal information to date different events? Do people recall for some events the year that event occurred better, while for other events the day of the week? Are the time scales independent for each event?

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV8 Participants http://memory.uva.nl/ April 2004 – March 2005 http://memory.uva.nl/ April 2004 – March 2005 N = 3974 http://memory.uva.nl/ April 2004 – March 2005 N = 3974 M age = 42.23 yrs Majority female (57.2%) http://memory.uva.nl/ April 2004 – March 2005 N = 3974 M age = 42.23 yrs Majority female (57.2%) Majority equivalent of university or college degree (58.9%) http://memory.uva.nl/ April 2004 – March 2005 N = 3974 M age = 42.23 yrs

9 Materials TsunamiSunday - December 26, 2004 - 02:59 BernhardWednesday - December 1, 2004 - 18:50 Van GoghTuesday - November 2, 2004 - 9:00 JulianaSaturday - March 20, 2004 - 5:50 MadridThursday - March 11, 2004 - 07:39 AmaliaSunday - December 7, 2003 - 17:01 ClausSunday - October 6, 2002 - 19:00 FortuynMonday - May 6, 2002 - 18:06 WA&MSaturday - February 2, 2002 - 10:30 WTCTuesday - September 11, 2001 - 14:46 BroodWednesday - July 11, 2001 - 13:30 EnschedeSaturday - May 13, 2000 - 15:34 BijlmerSunday - October 4, 1992 - 18:35

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV10 Procedure Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985) Semi-random selection of five events Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985) Semi-random selection of five events For each event, participants had to date the event on only one scale Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985) Semi-random selection of five events For each event, participants had to date the event on only one scale Five scales: Year (1989-2004/2005), Month (Jan – Dec), Day Of Month (1-31), Day Of Week (Mon – Sun), and Hour (0:00 – 24:00) Design from Friedman & Wilkins (1985) Semi-random selection of five events For each event, participants had to date the event on only one scale Five scales: Year (1989-2004/2005), Month (Jan – Dec), Day Of Month (1-31), Day Of Week (Mon – Sun), and Hour (0:00 – 24:00) For example: In which month was Princess Amalia born?

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV11 Proportion correct P(C=1) is the proportion correct P(R=1) is the adjusted proportion correct n is the number of options per scale

12 Proportion correct YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV13 Proportion correct Friedmans Q(4)=17.60, p=.01, Kendalls W=.440 -> Dependent Without year and DOM scale: Friedmans Q(2)=5.60, p>.05, Kendalls W=.280 -> Independent Friedmans Q(4)=17.60, p=.01, Kendalls W=.440 -> Dependent Without year and DOM scale: Friedmans Q(2)=5.60, p>.05, Kendalls W=.280 -> Independent Only remote events: Friedmans Q(4)=6.53, p>.05, Kendalls W=.272 -> Independent

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV14 Distance d(C,A) is the adjusted distance d(C,A i ) is the absolute distance per answer N is the number of answers n is the number of options per scale

15 Distance YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer YearMonthDOMDOWHour Tsunami Bernhard Van Gogh Juliana Madrid Amalia Claus Fortuyn WA&M WTC Brood Enschede Bijlmer

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV16 Distance Friedmans Q(4)=17.60, p=.01, Kendalls W=.440 -> Dependent Without month scale: Friedmans Q(3)=5.40, p>.05, Kendalls W=.180 -> Independent

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV17 Discussion We found that the time scales were independent, when we only looked at events that occurred more than two years ago Or when we omitted one of the time scales

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV18 Incomplete puzzle For some events, people recall the exact date, while for other events only the period in which they occurred. For other events, people remember that they happened just after another event, but most events are forgotten. In contrast to a real jigsaw puzzle, the puzzle of event dating can never be completely solved

Janssen et al. - ESCoP XIV19 Thank you for your attention Steve Janssen http://memory.uva.nl/ s.m.j.janssen@uva.nl

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