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Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course

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1 Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course
Chapter 6, Section 3

2 Objectives To identify some of the significant changes brought about during the early years of Jefferson’s presidency To provide examples of the Federalists’ declining power To summarize the importance of the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark expedition

3 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson Virginia Dem.-Rep. 73 52.9%
Aaron Burr New York Dem.-Rep % John Adams Massachusetts Federalist %

4 “Revolution of 1800” Jefferson defeats Adams, 73 to 65 electoral votes
Aaron Burr delivers New York, Federalist stronghold, to Jefferson South and West are Jeffersonian, growing in power and population Jefferson and Burr tie. Federalists attempt to give Pres. to Burr, delaying action in the House of Reps for months, taking 35 ballots in all. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Power had successfully changed hands in the new republic.

5 Federalists Lose Power
HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Federalists provide period of conservatism that allows for consolidation of revolutionary gains. However, Federalists are unable to adapt aristocratic ideals into appeal to the “common” majority of voters.

6 Jefferson Administration
Virtues practiced are Frugality, Simplicity, Equality – avoid monarchical appearances Political Moderation and Restraint -employed to ease Federalist fears Reduced the size of govt. and pursued “free trade” Increases Southern influence on govt., esp. Virginia’s Did not employ excessive patronage, many Federalist appointees retain positions

7 The Struggle for the Court
Judiciary Act of 1801 = Adams tries to pack the court with Federalist judges Midnight judges= the Federalist appointees, including John Marshall as Chief Justice KEY FACT: Appointments were signed but not delivered. DEBATE: Are the appointments of Adams now binding on Jefferson?

8 Marbury v. Madison HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Establishes the principal of JUDICIAL REVIEW = the ability of the Court to declare an act of Congress or the President unconstitutional. “ The critical importance of Marbury is the assumption of several powers by the Supreme Court. One was the authority to declare acts of Congress, and by implication acts of the president, unconstitutional if they exceeded the powers granted by the Constitution. But even more important, the Court became the arbiter of the Constitution, the final authority on what the document meant. As such, the Supreme Court became in fact as well as in theory an equal partner in government, and it has played that role ever since.”

9 Jefferson Administration
Was the incident of the “midnight justices”and Marbury vs. Madison a Failure or Success? WHY? For Jefferson? WHY? For the Federalists? WHY? For the Supreme Court? WHY?

10 Federalists Continue to Lose Power
Hamilton attacks Adams, splitting Federalist Party Adams/Federalists lose election of 1804 Hamilton seeks to prevent Burr from becoming Gov. of New York in 1804 7/11/1804 Hamilton fights Aaron Burr in a duel, and is killed. Burr kills Federalist leadership, and his own career Federalists fade

11 Jefferson and Louisiana
: Population in the Ohio Valley grows. Daniel Boone clears the Wilderness Road. 1800: Spain cedes trans-Mississippi/LA to France 1802: US loses right to deposit in New Orleans 1803: Jefferson sends envoys to Napoleon 4/30/1803: Frances sells LA for $15 million Why did Napoleon sell? What was the constitutional issue at hand for Jefferson?

12 Louisiana Purchase From Marshall Sprague, So Vast and Beautiful a Land: Louisiana and the Purchase. Boston, Little, Brown and Co., P (Courtesy Special Collections Division, University of Washington Libraries.)

13 New Orleans Under My Wings
The French and Spanish developed this port city during the eighteenth century. By century's end many in the United States saw New Orleans as a key to the new nation's future expansion and prosperity. (Chicago Historical Society) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

14 Louisiana Purchase of 1803 Avoided war with France and Spain
Vast tracts open for farming for growing population Western expansion favors Jefferson & Republicans, gains loyalty of Western US Federalists decline further, esp. after Burr’s plot of secession fails Establishes practice of “acquisition by purchase” Establishes power of the President to make treaties

15 Meriwether Lewis & William Clark
Seeking a Northwest Passage and boundaries of new LA territory : 2 and ½ year journey, 50 men in Corps of Discovery Navigated the Missouri, crossed the Rockies, went down the Columbia River to the Pacific and back Received help from many Native Americans during their journey, esp. Sacajawea, a Shoshone woman who served as interpreter and guide First Americans to cross the North American continent. Demonstrated the viability of an overland passage to Pacific Opened the West to settlement


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