1 Problem Solving & Decision Making Achieving Desired Results Edge Training Systems Inc.
2 Course Outline Definition Of Terminology Six Stage Problem Solving Process Techniques Of Problem Solving Gap Analysis, Brainstorming Tools Used In Evaluating Ideas Knowledge Ranking Ideas, Pro-Con, Check Sheets, Impact / Implementation Analysis, Low Hanging Fruit Matrix
3 Course Objectives After This Session, You Will Be Able To… Understand how to define problems and the objectives for solving them Learn how to creatively solve problems through the use of various techniques Demonstrate how to choose the best idea that will yield measurable results Take away a number of ideas that will become actionable items
4 Farmers Land Bequest Subdivide a farmers property upon his death into four pieces of equal size and shape for distribution to his four offspring. All land given to each offspring must be adjoining itself, and it can not be distributed piecemeal.
6 Definition Of Terms Problem A question or situation that presents doubt, perplexity or difficulty - something that needs to be corrected Symptom A phenomenon or circumstance considered as an indication or characteristic of a condition or event Cause Something that produces an effect, result, or consequence Solution The method or process of solving a problem
7 Problem Solving Video As You Watch The Video, Please Take Note Of The Six Steps In The Problem Solving Process Record Your Ideas On Page #5 Of Your Workbook
8 Problem Solving Process 1.Define The Problem Identify Root Cause, What Needs To Be Fixed? 2.Analyze The Problem Define Current State & Future Desired State 3.Develop Solutions Brainstorm Ideas 4.Evaluate Solutions Systematically Identify Drivers & Barriers 5.Choose & Implement The Best Solution Create Action Plans, Timelines, Measurable Results 6.Follow Up & Evaluate Progress Evaluate & Adjust Solutions
9 Problem Solving Process 1.Define The Problem Get the facts, who, what, when, where, why, and how Make sure that what looks like a problem is not just a symptom Drill down to the cause of the problem by asking why a number of times Look for something that changed at the same time the problem arose
10 Root Cause - Ask Why? My car doesnt start. Is that the problem? No, that is a symptom. Why didnt the car start? The battery is dead. Is that a problem or a symptom? Probably a symptom. Why did the battery go dead? This forces you to think of all the things that would kill a battery, like a bad alternator, a loose belt, lack of fluid in the battery, bad connection, left the lights on, etc, etc. You check out all of these possibilities and you fix the true problem. If you had a bad alternator and had only replaced the battery, did you solve the problem?
11 Other Tips / Summary Asking why numerous times is the backbone of problem solving This helps you in determining root cause, to treat the true problems, not symptoms Break complex problems into smaller parts and solve the small parts When having difficulty, step away, let it sink in and go back to it when you are fresh Involve other people with different points of view
12 Problem Solving Process 2.Analyze The Problem Conduct a gap analysis What are we trying to accomplish Define the current & the desired state This shows you where you are and where you want to be Prioritize if more than one objective is identified to solve the problem
13 Gap Analysis Activity Complete A Gap Analysis Increase In Profitability Current State Where You Are Desired State Where You Want To Be Inefficiencies in productivity Wasted resources, supplies Too much overtime Efficient productivity Tighten belts on expenses Additional staffing
14 Drivers & Barriers Think Of The Forces That Will Support Or Block The Implementation Of Your Plan. List These Drivers & Barriers Below Drivers Forces That Will Support Your Plan Barriers Forces That Will Block Your Plan Increase In Productivity Accounting Support More Efficient Equipment Vendors Reducing Costs Higher Repairs & Maintenance New Training On Equipment
15 Problem Solving Process 3.Develop Solutions Brainstorm all possible solutions Requires group commitment Groups made up of people with different points of view are more productive Encourage participation and think the impossible is possible
16 Brainstorming Ideas Allow time to think about the topic Break the group up into smaller groups Realign groups to expose people to new ideas Encourage people to speak their mind freely Incorporate activities that encourage movement Introduce a new train of thought or activity Actively engage people through questioning Sidestep to another thought on the same topic Take a break, add energy, humor or stimulation
17 Brainstorming Rules No judgment – Do not criticize anyones ideas Everyone must understand the objective Everyone must participate Quantity - Go for as many ideas as possible Wild ideas accepted - get playful, far-out Hitchhiking on other ideas is desired Switch your point of view. What if... ? Record all ideas
18 Brainstorming Activity Generate As Many Ideas As Possible How Do We Increase Profitability? Record Your Ideas On Page #13 Be Prepared To Report Out To The Group
19 Idea Stimulators In a perfect world, what would this look like? What if... ? What if a famous or historical person were solving this problem? Asking Why? Why? Why? How else could this be done? What does this look like to the customer ?... to another department ?... to a newcomer?.. to a child ?
20 Questioning ? ? ? The key to generating a lot of ideas is to ask a lot of questions Questions provoke a search for knowledge and for understanding Ask who, what, where, when, why, and how about all aspects of the problem to be solved Questions lead to new thoughts, ideas and possibilities
21 Mind Mapping Helps you to see the big picture visually. Helps you to identify the relationships between processes and ideas. Helps you to organize your ideas into groups/topics. Can be used with the other problem solving techniques. Notes, Presentations, Planning Pondering Alternatives Starting A Project, Search Mode
22 Mind Mapping Tips Problem New Idea New Problem New Idea New Problem Idea
23 Mind Mapping How Can We Increase Profitability? Cut Expenses Inventory Supplies Products Advertising Cross Sell Up Sell Raise Prices New Accounts Cut Production
24 Mind Mapping Draw A Mind Map To Generate Ideas To Solve A Problem. How Can We Increase Profitability? Use Page # 17 To Draw Your Mind Map
25 Problem Solving Process 4.Evaluate Solutions Compare your ideas to your solution to determine which idea will most completely satisfy the objectives Be scientific by utilizing the methods of developing criteria Make your solutions actionable Rate the potential of each item
26 Todays Methods: Rank The Ideas Using Current Knowledge Identify Advantages And Disadvantages Impact/Implementation Difficulty Analysis Complete A Low Hanging Fruit Matrix Compare Our Findings Based On Results Evaluating Solutions The Obvious Choice Would Be The Idea That Ranks The Highest Using All The Methods
27 Evaluating Solutions How Do We Increase Profitability? Refer To Your Ideas On Page #13 Rank Your Ideas From 1 – 5 (Using Your Current Knowledge Base) Record Your Top 5 Ideas On Page #19
28 Evaluating Solutions How Do We Increase Profitability? Using Your Ideas On Page #19 Pick Your Top 3 Ideas List The Advantages & Disadvantages
29 Problem Solving Process 5.Choose & Implement Best Idea Choose the best idea based on evaluation Design an implementation strategy Create action plans, time lines, etc Assign tasks, goals & objectives Determine measurable results Create a contingency plan
30 Impact / Implementation Idea #Task or ActionBusiness ImpactImplementation Difficulty 1Cut ExpensesHL L = Low, M = Medium, H = High
31 Low Hanging Fruit Matrix High Medium Low 1 MediumHigh Level of Business Impact Level of Difficulty
32 Problem Solving Process 6.Follow Up & Evaluate Progress Follow through with solutions Establish accountability Monitor and track progress Evaluate results and adjust solutions Fall back on your contingency plan if needed
33 Problem Solving Process 1.Define The Problem Identify Root Cause, What Needs To Be Fixed? 2.Analyze The Problem Define Current State & Future Desired State 3.Develop Solutions Brainstorm Ideas 4.Evaluate Solutions Systematically Identify Drivers & Barriers 5.Choose & Implement The Best Solution Create Action Plans, Timelines, Measurable Results 6.Follow Up & Evaluate Progress Evaluate & Adjust Solutions
34 Decision Making Skills Your spaceship has just crash-landed on the dark side of the moon. You were scheduled to rendezvous with a mother ship 200 miles away on the lighted side of the moon, but the rough landing has ruined your ship and destroyed all the equipment on board except for 15 items. Your crews survival depends on reaching the mother ship, so you must choose the most critical items aboard for the 200 mile trip to the rendezvous point. Lost On The Moon
35 Lost On The Moon 1.Working independently, rank your choices and justify each choice (2 Minutes) 2.Break into teams and complete the exercise as a team 3.Compare individual rankings to group rankings 4.Do not assume that someone must win and someone must lose when discussion reaches a stalemate 5.Do not change your mind simply to avoid conflict 6.Avoid conflict-reducing techniques such as majority vote, averages, coin-flips and bargaining 7.Differences of opinion are natural and to be expected 8.Compare your rankings with those of NASA
36 Lost On The Moon Box Of Matches Food Concentrate Fifty Feet Of Nylon Rope Silk Parachute Solar-Powered Heating Unit Two.45 Caliber Pistols One Case Of Dehydrated Milk Two 100-lb. Tanks Of Oxygen Stellar Map (Moons Constellation) Self-Inflating Life Raft Magnetic Compass Five Gallons Of Water Signal Flares First-Aid Kit Containing Injection Needles Solar-Powered FM Transmitter/Receiver Rank The Fifteen Items In Terms Of Their Importance For Survival. 1 Being The Most Important
37 Lost On The Moon Two 100 Lb. Tanks Of OxygenNeed Oxygen To Live, Most Important1 Five Gallon Can Of WaterNeed To Survive, Replenish Fluids2 Stellar Map )Moons Constellation)Primary Navigation Aid3 Food ConcentrateMeans Of Supplying Energy Requirements4 Solar Powered Transmitter/ReceiverRescue Effort, Communications5 Fifty Feet Nylon RopeTie Together, Repel Cliffs, Pull Things6 First Aid Kit With Injection NeedlesSafety, Contents May Have A Use7 Silk ParachuteProtection And Use As A Signal8 Self Inflating Life RaftUsed For Shelter Or To Carry Things9 Signal FlaresDistress Signal For Rescue, Mark Locations10 Two.45 Caliber PistolsEmergency Self-Propulsion11 One Case Dehydrated MilkBulkier Duplicate Of Food Concentrate12 Solar Powered Heating UnitOf No Use Unless On The Dark Side13 Magnetic CompassNo Use, Different Magnetic Fields14 Box Of MatchesUseless, No Oxygen On The Moon15 NASA: Lost On The Moon Exercise
38 Did We Survive? 0-20 = Excellent: You Survived And Saved Your Team ! 21-32 = Good: You Made It Just In The Nick Of Time ! 33-45 = Fair: Whew, You Were So Close ! 46-70 = Oops: Dont Worry, Well Alert Your Family ! 71-112 = Oh Well: See You In This Same Class Next Week ?
39 Problem Solving Tips Six Step Process Brainstorming Tips Brainstorming Rules Idea Stimulators Evaluation Methods