1 Standard 2.1 Learning Objectives Quality Matters Donna J. Wilde, MPA, RHIA Shoreline Community College, SeattleWinter 2010
2 Begin with the end in sight "Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?”"That's depends a good deal on where you want to get to."...(Alice in Wonderland, Chapter VI, P 64; Carroll, 1960)
3 Objectives of this Session At the end of this session, you will be able to:Identify the Quality MattersTM standards for course and modular objectives. (knowledge)Discuss purposes of instructional objectives with colleagues. (comprehension)Describe the relationship between course objectives and the outcomes on Shoreline’s Master Course Outlines with colleagues. (comprehension)Write measurable course and modular objectives in Bloom’s three learning domains at six levels of cognitive behavior. (application)Assess when instructional alignment is present between objectives, learning activities, and evaluation in a case study. (analysis)Create a student document for your own class that integrates appropriate measurable course and modular objectives, learning activities, and evaluation methods for each unit/module. (synthesis)Critique your own courses to determine if they meet Standard 2 of Quality Matters. (evaluation)
4 What are learning objectives? Statements which describe what the learner is expected to achieve as a result of instruction.Learning goals, performance objectives, terminal/enabling objectives, behavioral objectives, educational objectives, instructional objectives, outcomes, competencies, etc.
5 QM General Standard 2 Learning Objectives (Competencies) Learning objectives are clearly stated and explained. They assist students in focusing their effort in the course.2.1 The course learning objectives describe outcomes that are measurable.Overall broader general outcomes (same as or similar to outcomes on Shoreline’s MCOs). Institution approval.2.2 The module/unit learning objectives describe outcomes that are measurable and consistent with the course-level objectives.More specific objectives or competencies to help student meet course learning objectives. Instructor writes for own class.
6 Standard 2 continued2.3 All learning objectives are stated clearly and written from the students’ perspective.2.4 Instructions to students on how to meet the learning objectives are adequate and stated clearly.2.5 The learning objectives are appropriately designed for the level of the course.
7 Example: Course Level Objectives (on MCOs) Statistics in Health Care At the end of this course the student will be able to:Calculate and interpret general statistical measurements used in health care; describe uses of health care data by health care facilities and public health agencies.Calculate and interpret measures of central tendency, percentile ranks/scores, and frequency distributions; select the appropriate measures when given a health care case scenario.Collect, calculate, interpret, and report health inpatient facility census data.Collect, calculate, interpret and report data on discharged patients; define and calculate public health statistics and other miscellaneous rates used in health care. continued
8 Example of Course Level Objectives continued Prepare and interpret frequency distributions/tables manually or on computer, using health care data.Create and interpret statistical charts and graphs manually or by computer from health care case data; select the correct type of graph or chart to illustrate important information when given a case scenario.Collect, calculate, interpret and prepare outpatient statistical reports from hospital case studies.Calculate and interpret measures of dispersion/variability from data in health care scenarios.Apply existing processes to assure reliability and validity of health care statistical data, analyze results, report findings and recommend changes.Apply Institutional Review Board processes for human subjects research.
9 Examples: Modular objectives Course objective #3: The student will be able to collect, calculate, interpret, and report health inpatient facility census data.(There are 7 modular objectives, three are listed here)On an exam, the student will define the following terms with 95% accuracy: Hospital inpatient, pediatric patient, boarder, newborn admission/hospital live birth, inpatient admission, inpatient discharge, observation patient, short stay patient, inpatient care unit, inpatient census, daily inpatient census, inpatient days/census days, bed count, bassinet count, bed count days, intra-hospital transfer, Admission/Discharge/Transfer (A-D- T) lists, leave of absence days continued
10 Examples of Modular Objectives continued In a virtual laboratory computer program and using information in a hospital case scenario, the student will select appropriate data and enter Admission/ Discharge/Transfer (A-D-T) information into a manual or computerized census application with 100% accuracy.In an exam essay, the student will accurately explain how the daily health facility census is collected, computed and distributed using manual and computerized methods to include the type of data collected, department staff assigned this activity, time of day collected, sources of data, methods of computation, and the facility staff who will receive the data.
11 Purposes of objectives Guides the instructor in the planning and development of instruction – become more organized.Assists the instructor in choosing the best methods for measuring student achievement.Assists the instructor in writing test items.Helps students to focus their learning (study guide).Allows students to do own self assessment.Allows college or accrediting body to evaluate program.
12 Instructional Congruency ObjectivesMAGIC TRIANGLERepresents the relationship between the threeObjectives: what do we want the students to learn or doLearning activities: lecture, lab, group discussion, reading assignment, etc.Evaluation: test, assignment, instructor observation of studentsShould be congruentIf not, then objectives cannot be trusted and are ignored by students and facultyLearningActivitiesEvaluation
13 Example: Not Congruent Instructional Unit: Locating patient recordsin manual and electronic health record systemsObjective: List the content and purpose of a Master Patient Index (MPI). [Several module objectives were listed for this unit, but only one MPI objective]Lecture and assignment reading: Discussed the content and purpose of an MPI and how it is used to locate a patient’s data.Test question: “The clerk reviewed the MPI and found two entries with the name Mary S. Smith, each with two different medical record numbers, but with the same birth date. What should the clerk do at this point?”Objective: Given duplicate entries, identify steps to remedy the situation.
14 Example: Congruent Objectives Chart deficiencies and physician incomplete record systemCourse Objectives:Given existing policies and procedures and sample patient records, perform quantitative analysis of incomplete health records.Implement procedures to ensure completion of health records.Modular Objectives:Identify the required reports and signatures in a hospital medical record.List the steps in analysis of discharged patient records to determine the presence of all required reports and signatures.Given ten records, complete discharge analysis forms on each showing deficiencies in documentation.Compare and contrast methods to obtain identified missing record documentation .Differentiate between incomplete and delinquent medical records.List types of physician sanctions due to delinquent charts.Prepare report of the number of physicians' incomplete records for designated medical and administrative staff.[there would be a series of terminal and enabling objectives – several are listed here]
15 Example continued: Congruent Learning Activities Online written lecture/reading: Requirements for completion, methodology for record completion, discussion on setup of physician incomplete charts, discussion regarding what happens if the doctors don’t complete their charts.Lesson demonstration via Elluminate on how to do quantitative analysis.Lab: Students are given 5 charts online to practice quantitative analysis (corrected but ungraded).Lab: Students are then given 10 charts for quantitative analysis review which are graded.
16 Example continued: Congruent exam questions 1. Which one of the following records requires a discharge summary according to the Joint Commission?A. Patient admitted for appendicitis on January 5 and discharged January 6.B. Normal baby born on January 3 and discharged January 6. Stayed until mother was dischargedafter recovering from obstetrical complications.C. Patient admitted January 2 and died January 6 from a myocardial infarction.D. Patient admitted January 6 and went home January 6 after planned surgery was cancelled due to illness of surgeon.continued….
17 Example continued: Congruent exam questions The hospital has a policy that records must be completed within 30 days of discharge. A patient was discharged April 9. At the time of record review on April 10 it was noted that his chart did not have the required history and physical report present. According to the terminology used by the Joint Commission, this chart is consideredA. a delinquent record.B. an incomplete record.C. a deficient record.D. an unfinished record.
19 Bloom’s TaxonomyDr. Benjamin S. Bloom and academic associates at the University of Chicago: Taxonomy of Learning Domains – sometimes referred to as Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives1956 and modified and expanded ever sinceEmphasized levels of learning objectives and focused on the actual verbs usedFirst book focused on cognitive domainSecond book, coauthored, on affective domain – Dave is main author“New Blooms” – similar, more refined
22 Example of levelsRemember, not all levels need to be covered in the program, and not all need to be covered in one class.
23 PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINPhysical movement, coordination, and use of motor-skill areas.Requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution.Several models/theories (will discuss Dave’s) – specific discipline may havespecial model
24 Example - Psychomotor Psychomotor Level Example psychomotor – Medical Transcription1. Imitation (copy)Using word processing, copy an existing properly formatted medical report.2. Manipulation (follow instructions while doing)Operate computer transcription software and peripheral devices report while following teacher’s instructions. Transcribe 3 medical reports with no more than 3 errors per report.3. Develop Precision (do without assistance; give demo to others)Transcribe dictated medical reports at 120 lines per hour with no more than 2 errors per100 lines.4. Articulation (combine, integrate related skills)Perform quality improvement reviews on transcribed reports completed by others.5. Naturalization (unconscious mastery, become expert, manage area)Transcribed dictated medical reports at 170 lines per hour with no more than 1 error per 500 lines.
25 AUTOT 161 Engine Repair Did some revision of Bob Biesiedzinski’s MCO (Course-level obj) The student will be able to:Explain the operation and theory of the internal combustion engine including: crankshaft, cylinder head(s), combustion chamber designs, valve train, lubrication, cooling systems, and exhaust systems.Remove and reinstall an enginePerform accurate diagnostics for engine related concerns.Use precision measuring devices (tools) for correct clearance measurement and machining practices.Identify engine types, designs, and describe the construction and materials used in automotive engines.Diagnose the cause of noises, leaks, oil consumption, fluid contamination, and engine related poor performance.Perform diagnosis for poor compression (compression tests, leakage tests, and contamination into combustion chambers).Disassemble, inspect, and repair all internal components to manufacturer specifications.
26 Affective DomainAddresses interests, attitudes, opinions, appreciations, values, and emotional sets. 5 levels:Receiving. The student is passively aware that a thing exists. Is focused during instruction or project. Sample objectives: listens attentively, shows sensitivity to social issues.Responding. The student actively participates. Sample objectives: completes homework, participates in class discussion, shows interest in subject, enjoys helping others, follows safety policies, etc.Valuing. The worth a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. Ranges from acceptance to commitment. Attitudes and appreciation. Objectives: demonstrates belief in democratic processes, appreciates the role of science in daily life, shows concern for others' welfare, demonstrates a problem-solving approach, etc.continued
27 Affective DomainOrganization. Bringing together different values, resolving conflicts among them, and starting to build an internally consistent value system and developing a philosophy of life. Objectives: recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsibility in a democracy, understands the role of systematic planning in solving problems, accepts responsibility for own behavior, etc.Characterization by a Value Set. The person has held a value system that has controlled his behavior for a sufficiently long time that a characteristic "life style" has been developed. Behavior is pervasive, consistent and predictable. Objectives are concerned with personal, social, and emotional adjustment: displays self reliance in working independently, cooperates in group activities, maintains good health habits, etc.
28 IASTU 105 Intro to Multicultural Studies Outcomes #1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7are cognitive domain (e.g. identify, describe, and examine…The following could be affective domain objectives:#5 Identify, describe, and analyze individual personal development on scales measuring racial and ethnic identity models. Affective – valuing#8 Develop, describe, and apply communication strategies and problem- solving skills for effective social action within your personal spheres of influence. Affective – valuing, organizing#9 Create, define, and discuss questions about multicultural issues and their impacts on American history and American society; apply multicultural studies methodology to analyze and formulate answers to these questions. Affective – valuing, organizing, internalizing
29 Affective Domain – other examples Accept ambiguity and uncertaintyParticipate effectively within team processComplete fair share of workLead team effectivelyParticipate effectively in online discussions
30 Affective Domain Objectives Although difficult to measure, they can still be objectives or goalsOften not included at SCC in MCOs because difficult to measureOften the most important area for employersCould as a program, decide as a group what these might be and post them in each syllabus or program handbook
31 Robert F. MagerAdditional information re how to structure objectives were based on the book Preparing Instructional Objectives by Robert F. Mager inEmphasized the activity (verb), as well as the learning environment (given 10 records and written procedure, …..) and amount of mastery (e.g. do something correctly 8 out of 10 times, etc.)Modified by theorists over time, but elements are still used.
32 Bloom, Mager, et alEducation should focus on mastery of subjects and promotion of higher forms of thinking, not just simply transferring facts.Used in academic settings and often used for corporate training in industryAlthough other types are available, these are considered timeless and are classical reference models for educators
33 Mager - PerformanceA description of the behavior that learners are expected to perform. It must be measurable and observable. It describes what the learner will be doing when demonstrating mastery of an objective. It has an active verb. Start with “the student will be able to…”interview a business vendorcode a medical recordwrite research-based prosecompare and contrast the nature and structure of tornadoes and hurricanes
34 Mager - ConditionsDescription of the circumstances under which the performance will be carried out. It also includes a description of what will be available to learners when they perform the desired behavior.Given a list of formulas, calculate traditional hospital statistical averages and rates from information in a case scenario.Given references, draw the wind directions and relative wind speed on an isobaric weather map from data collected at 1000 mb and 500 mb.Given a case study, write relevant business department policies.Without the aid of references or class notes, discuss appropriate action that should be taken in a hospital when a security breach occurs
35 In order to identify key conditions, ask yourself What will the learners be expected to use when performing (e.g., forms, charts, computer, etc.)?What will the learner not be allowed to use while performing (e.g., checklists, notes, or other study aids)?
36 Mager - CriterionDescription of the criteria for acceptance by the instructor that the performance of the student is sufficient, indicating mastery of the objective.How well must it be done?
37 ExamplesGiven a computer with word-processing software, write a business letter with no spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors.Using appropriate references and computer software, code and abstract five inpatient cardiovascular medical records within two hours with 95% accuracy.
38 Do we need to write criteria? Rarely seen on course level objectivesMay be part of all module level objectivesMay be on some and not othersDisagreement in education – whether need for all competencies or just an overall acceptable grade for the coursee.g. you must have an average of 80% or higher on all exams in order to pass the course.May be more appropriate in some fields to have this on all objectives - you really need a skills checklist to do this.
39 Specific verbsIt is important not to use broad or vague terms when trying to convey a specific instructional intent, or you leave yourself open to misinterpretation. Avoid verbs like:UnderstandAppreciateBecome familiar withExamineLearn
40 Use as few words as possible Demonstrate the ability to process information by correctly doing data entry on ten charts in five minutes.Enter data on ten charts in five minutesShoreline’s MCOs are often too wordy.
41 WHAT COMES FIRST? THE CHICKEN OR THE EGG? Do we create our lectures and other learning activities first and then write objectives for them, or vice versa?
42 Sequence of course development Develop overall framework for course – discipline faculty team concurrenceGeneral topicsInstructional levelsPrerequisitesClasses for which this course is a prerequisiteSequencing
43 Sequence of course development, continued 2. Develop course objectivesNot too many: for the courseMay be same or similar to MCO objectivesMust be important/usefulWritten at the highest cognitive level appropriate for this particular courseMust be measurableUsually on syllabiHave at least one for each topic area in content outline
44 Sequence of course development, continued Develop series of discrete module/unitobjectives for each course objectiveLower level plus higher levelsMust be measurableMust be important/usefulUnder what conditions, action, level of performance or criterion for evaluation
45 Sequence of course development, continued 4. Develop instructional activitieslecturereadingwritten papersdemonstrationungraded practice during lecture or labgraded lab or other assignmentsdiscussions face to face, discussion forum, Skype, Elluminate, etc.Assure that skills required in highest level in the course objective are taught or experienced
46 Sequence of course development, continued 5. Develop assessment toolsAssignments, tests, observation, projects, etc.Written at various levels, but no higher than identified in steps 1 or 2 of course development.Assess at least at highest level for each course objectiveAssignmentsWrite test questions at higher levels – application or evaluation if possible – not so many knowledge or comprehension questions, not just definitions, true/false, multiple choice without application.
47 Lesson Plan or Learning Guide By moduleOverall course objective for this moduleModular/unit objectivesResources, materials and technology needed for this module(optional)Computer, calculator, access to Skype, software, other equipment, etc.Learning activities for this moduleChapters to read, which lessons in Blackboard, etc.Assessment/evaluation for this moduleAssignments, lab projects, written essays, exams, etc.
48 Go forth and populate your syllabi with well-written complete objectives