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Standard 2.1 Learning Objectives Quality Matters

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1 Standard 2.1 Learning Objectives Quality Matters
Donna J. Wilde, MPA, RHIA Shoreline Community College, Seattle Winter 2010

2 Begin with the end in sight
"Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” "That's depends a good deal on where you want to get to."... (Alice in Wonderland, Chapter VI, P 64; Carroll, 1960)

3 Objectives of this Session
At the end of this session, you will be able to: Identify the Quality MattersTM standards for course and modular objectives. (knowledge) Discuss purposes of instructional objectives with colleagues. (comprehension) Describe the relationship between course objectives and the outcomes on Shoreline’s Master Course Outlines with colleagues. (comprehension) Write measurable course and modular objectives in Bloom’s three learning domains at six levels of cognitive behavior. (application) Assess when instructional alignment is present between objectives, learning activities, and evaluation in a case study. (analysis) Create a student document for your own class that integrates appropriate measurable course and modular objectives, learning activities, and evaluation methods for each unit/module. (synthesis) Critique your own courses to determine if they meet Standard 2 of Quality Matters. (evaluation)

4 What are learning objectives?
Statements which describe what the learner is expected to achieve as a result of instruction. Learning goals, performance objectives, terminal/enabling objectives, behavioral objectives, educational objectives, instructional objectives, outcomes, competencies, etc.

5 QM General Standard 2 Learning Objectives (Competencies)
Learning objectives are clearly stated and explained. They assist students in focusing their effort in the course. 2.1  The course learning objectives describe outcomes that are measurable. Overall broader general outcomes (same as or similar to outcomes on Shoreline’s MCOs). Institution approval. 2.2  The module/unit learning objectives describe outcomes that are measurable and consistent with the course-level objectives. More specific objectives or competencies to help student meet course learning objectives. Instructor writes for own class.

6 Standard 2 continued 2.3 All learning objectives are stated clearly and written from the students’ perspective. 2.4   Instructions to students on how to meet the learning objectives are adequate and stated clearly. 2.5  The learning objectives are appropriately designed for the level of the course.

7 Example: Course Level Objectives (on MCOs) Statistics in Health Care
At the end of this course the student will be able to: Calculate and interpret general statistical measurements used in health care; describe uses of health care data by health care facilities and public health agencies. Calculate and interpret measures of central tendency, percentile ranks/scores, and frequency distributions; select the appropriate measures when given a health care case scenario. Collect, calculate, interpret, and report health inpatient facility census data. Collect, calculate, interpret and report data on discharged patients; define and calculate public health statistics and other miscellaneous rates used in health care. continued

8 Example of Course Level Objectives continued
Prepare and interpret frequency distributions/tables manually or on computer, using health care data. Create and interpret statistical charts and graphs manually or by computer from health care case data; select the correct type of graph or chart to illustrate important information when given a case scenario. Collect, calculate, interpret and prepare outpatient statistical reports from hospital case studies. Calculate and interpret measures of dispersion/variability from data in health care scenarios. Apply existing processes to assure reliability and validity of health care statistical data, analyze results, report findings and recommend changes. Apply Institutional Review Board processes for human subjects research.

9 Examples: Modular objectives
Course objective #3: The student will be able to collect, calculate, interpret, and report health inpatient facility census data. (There are 7 modular objectives, three are listed here) On an exam, the student will define the following terms with 95% accuracy: Hospital inpatient, pediatric patient, boarder, newborn admission/hospital live birth, inpatient admission, inpatient discharge, observation patient, short stay patient, inpatient care unit, inpatient census, daily inpatient census, inpatient days/census days, bed count, bassinet count, bed count days, intra-hospital transfer, Admission/Discharge/Transfer (A-D- T) lists, leave of absence days continued

10 Examples of Modular Objectives continued
In a virtual laboratory computer program and using information in a hospital case scenario, the student will select appropriate data and enter Admission/ Discharge/Transfer (A-D-T) information into a manual or computerized census application with 100% accuracy. In an exam essay, the student will accurately explain how the daily health facility census is collected, computed and distributed using manual and computerized methods to include the type of data collected, department staff assigned this activity, time of day collected, sources of data, methods of computation, and the facility staff who will receive the data.

11 Purposes of objectives
Guides the instructor in the planning and development of instruction – become more organized. Assists the instructor in choosing the best methods for measuring student achievement. Assists the instructor in writing test items. Helps students to focus their learning (study guide). Allows students to do own self assessment. Allows college or accrediting body to evaluate program.

12 Instructional Congruency
Objectives MAGIC TRIANGLE Represents the relationship between the three Objectives: what do we want the students to learn or do Learning activities: lecture, lab, group discussion, reading assignment, etc. Evaluation: test, assignment, instructor observation of students Should be congruent If not, then objectives cannot be trusted and are ignored by students and faculty Learning Activities Evaluation

13 Example: Not Congruent
Instructional Unit: Locating patient records in manual and electronic health record systems Objective: List the content and purpose of a Master Patient Index (MPI). [Several module objectives were listed for this unit, but only one MPI objective] Lecture and assignment reading: Discussed the content and purpose of an MPI and how it is used to locate a patient’s data. Test question: “The clerk reviewed the MPI and found two entries with the name Mary S. Smith, each with two different medical record numbers, but with the same birth date. What should the clerk do at this point?” Objective: Given duplicate entries, identify steps to remedy the situation.

14 Example: Congruent Objectives
Chart deficiencies and physician incomplete record system Course Objectives: Given existing policies and procedures and sample patient records, perform quantitative analysis of incomplete health records. Implement procedures to ensure completion of health records. Modular Objectives: Identify the required reports and signatures in a hospital medical record. List the steps in analysis of discharged patient records to determine the presence of all required reports and signatures. Given ten records, complete discharge analysis forms on each showing deficiencies in documentation. Compare and contrast methods to obtain identified missing record documentation . Differentiate between incomplete and delinquent medical records. List types of physician sanctions due to delinquent charts. Prepare report of the number of physicians' incomplete records for designated medical and administrative staff. [there would be a series of terminal and enabling objectives – several are listed here]

15 Example continued: Congruent Learning Activities
Online written lecture/reading: Requirements for completion, methodology for record completion, discussion on setup of physician incomplete charts, discussion regarding what happens if the doctors don’t complete their charts. Lesson demonstration via Elluminate on how to do quantitative analysis. Lab: Students are given 5 charts online to practice quantitative analysis (corrected but ungraded). Lab: Students are then given 10 charts for quantitative analysis review which are graded.

16 Example continued: Congruent exam questions
1. Which one of the following records requires a discharge summary according to the Joint Commission? A. Patient admitted for appendicitis on January 5 and discharged January 6. B. Normal baby born on January 3 and discharged January 6. Stayed until mother was discharged after recovering from obstetrical complications. C. Patient admitted January 2 and died January 6 from a myocardial infarction. D. Patient admitted January 6 and went home January 6 after planned surgery was cancelled due to illness of surgeon. continued….

17 Example continued: Congruent exam questions
The hospital has a policy that records must be completed within 30 days of discharge. A patient was discharged April 9. At the time of record review on April 10 it was noted that his chart did not have the required history and physical report present. According to the terminology used by the Joint Commission, this chart is considered A. a delinquent record. B. an incomplete record. C. a deficient record. D. an unfinished record.

18 Learning Domains Cognitive (knowledge, think)
Psychomotor (physical skills, do) Affective (attitude, feel)

19 Bloom’s Taxonomy Dr. Benjamin S. Bloom and academic associates at the University of Chicago: Taxonomy of Learning Domains – sometimes referred to as Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives 1956 and modified and expanded ever since Emphasized levels of learning objectives and focused on the actual verbs used First book focused on cognitive domain Second book, coauthored, on affective domain – Dave is main author “New Blooms” – similar, more refined


21 Cognitive Domain

22 Example of levels Remember, not all levels need to be covered in the program, and not all need to be covered in one class.

23 PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN Physical movement, coordination, and use of motor-skill areas. Requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. Several models/theories (will discuss Dave’s) – specific discipline may have special model

24 Example - Psychomotor Psychomotor Level
Example psychomotor – Medical Transcription 1. Imitation (copy) Using word processing, copy an existing properly formatted medical report. 2. Manipulation (follow instructions while doing) Operate computer transcription software and peripheral devices report while following teacher’s instructions. Transcribe 3 medical reports with no more than 3 errors per report. 3. Develop Precision (do without assistance; give demo to others) Transcribe dictated medical reports at 120 lines per hour with no more than 2 errors per100 lines. 4. Articulation (combine, integrate related skills) Perform quality improvement reviews on transcribed reports completed by others. 5. Naturalization (unconscious mastery, become expert, manage area) Transcribed dictated medical reports at 170 lines per hour with no more than 1 error per 500 lines.

25 AUTOT 161 Engine Repair Did some revision of Bob Biesiedzinski’s MCO (Course-level obj)
The student will be able to: Explain the operation and theory of the internal combustion engine including: crankshaft, cylinder head(s), combustion chamber designs, valve train, lubrication, cooling systems, and exhaust systems. Remove and reinstall an engine Perform accurate diagnostics for engine related concerns. Use precision measuring devices (tools) for correct clearance measurement and machining practices. Identify engine types, designs, and describe the construction and materials used in automotive engines. Diagnose the cause of noises, leaks, oil consumption, fluid contamination, and engine related poor performance. Perform diagnosis for poor compression (compression tests, leakage tests, and contamination into combustion chambers). Disassemble, inspect, and repair all internal components to manufacturer specifications.

26 Affective Domain Addresses interests, attitudes, opinions, appreciations, values, and emotional sets. 5 levels: Receiving. The student is passively aware that a thing exists. Is focused during instruction or project. Sample objectives: listens attentively, shows sensitivity to social issues. Responding. The student actively participates. Sample objectives: completes homework, participates in class discussion, shows interest in subject, enjoys helping others, follows safety policies, etc. Valuing. The worth a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. Ranges from acceptance to commitment. Attitudes and appreciation. Objectives: demonstrates belief in democratic processes, appreciates the role of science in daily life, shows concern for others' welfare, demonstrates a problem-solving approach, etc. continued

27 Affective Domain Organization. Bringing together different values, resolving conflicts among them, and starting to build an internally consistent value system and developing a philosophy of life. Objectives: recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsibility in a democracy, understands the role of systematic planning in solving problems, accepts responsibility for own behavior, etc. Characterization by a Value Set. The person has held a value system that has controlled his behavior for a sufficiently long time that a characteristic "life style" has been developed. Behavior is pervasive, consistent and predictable. Objectives are concerned with personal, social, and emotional adjustment: displays self reliance in working independently, cooperates in group activities, maintains good health habits, etc.

28 IASTU 105 Intro to Multicultural Studies
Outcomes #1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7are cognitive domain (e.g. identify, describe, and examine… The following could be affective domain objectives: #5 Identify, describe, and analyze individual personal development on scales measuring racial and ethnic identity models. Affective – valuing #8 Develop, describe, and apply communication strategies and problem- solving skills for effective social action within your personal spheres of influence. Affective – valuing, organizing #9 Create, define, and discuss questions about multicultural issues and their impacts on American history and American society; apply multicultural studies methodology to analyze and formulate answers to these questions. Affective – valuing, organizing, internalizing

29 Affective Domain – other examples
Accept ambiguity and uncertainty Participate effectively within team process Complete fair share of work Lead team effectively Participate effectively in online discussions

30 Affective Domain Objectives
Although difficult to measure, they can still be objectives or goals Often not included at SCC in MCOs because difficult to measure Often the most important area for employers Could as a program, decide as a group what these might be and post them in each syllabus or program handbook

31 Robert F. Mager Additional information re how to structure objectives were based on the book Preparing Instructional Objectives by Robert F. Mager in Emphasized the activity (verb), as well as the learning environment (given 10 records and written procedure, …..) and amount of mastery (e.g. do something correctly 8 out of 10 times, etc.) Modified by theorists over time, but elements are still used.

32 Bloom, Mager, et al Education should focus on mastery of subjects and promotion of higher forms of thinking, not just simply transferring facts. Used in academic settings and often used for corporate training in industry Although other types are available, these are considered timeless and are classical reference models for educators

33 Mager - Performance A description of the behavior that learners are expected to perform. It must be measurable and observable. It describes what the learner will be doing when demonstrating mastery of an objective. It has an active verb. Start with “the student will be able to…” interview a business vendor code a medical record write research-based prose compare and contrast the nature and structure of tornadoes and hurricanes

34 Mager - Conditions Description of the circumstances under which the performance will be carried out. It also includes a description of what will be available to learners when they perform the desired behavior. Given a list of formulas, calculate traditional hospital statistical averages and rates from information in a case scenario. Given references, draw the wind directions and relative wind speed on an isobaric weather map from data collected at 1000 mb and 500 mb. Given a case study, write relevant business department policies. Without the aid of references or class notes, discuss appropriate action that should be taken in a hospital when a security breach occurs

35 In order to identify key conditions, ask yourself
What will the learners be expected to use when performing (e.g., forms, charts, computer, etc.)? What will the learner not be allowed to use while performing (e.g., checklists, notes, or other study aids)?

36 Mager - Criterion Description of the criteria for acceptance by the instructor that the performance of the student is sufficient, indicating mastery of the objective. How well must it be done?

37 Examples Given a computer with word-processing software, write a business letter with no spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors. Using appropriate references and computer software, code and abstract five inpatient cardiovascular medical records within two hours with 95% accuracy.

38 Do we need to write criteria?
Rarely seen on course level objectives May be part of all module level objectives May be on some and not others Disagreement in education – whether need for all competencies or just an overall acceptable grade for the course e.g. you must have an average of 80% or higher on all exams in order to pass the course. May be more appropriate in some fields to have this on all objectives - you really need a skills checklist to do this.

39 Specific verbs It is important not to use broad or vague terms when trying to convey a specific instructional intent, or you leave yourself open to misinterpretation. Avoid verbs like: Understand Appreciate Become familiar with Examine Learn

40 Use as few words as possible
Demonstrate the ability to process information by correctly doing data entry on ten charts in five minutes. Enter data on ten charts in five minutes Shoreline’s MCOs are often too wordy.

Do we create our lectures and other learning activities first and then write objectives for them, or vice versa?

42 Sequence of course development
Develop overall framework for course – discipline faculty team concurrence General topics Instructional levels Prerequisites Classes for which this course is a prerequisite Sequencing

43 Sequence of course development, continued
2. Develop course objectives Not too many: for the course May be same or similar to MCO objectives Must be important/useful Written at the highest cognitive level appropriate for this particular course Must be measurable Usually on syllabi Have at least one for each topic area in content outline

44 Sequence of course development, continued
Develop series of discrete module/unit objectives for each course objective Lower level plus higher levels Must be measurable Must be important/useful Under what conditions, action, level of performance or criterion for evaluation

45 Sequence of course development, continued
4. Develop instructional activities lecture reading written papers demonstration ungraded practice during lecture or lab graded lab or other assignments discussions face to face, discussion forum, Skype, Elluminate, etc. Assure that skills required in highest level in the course objective are taught or experienced

46 Sequence of course development, continued
5. Develop assessment tools Assignments, tests, observation, projects, etc. Written at various levels, but no higher than identified in steps 1 or 2 of course development. Assess at least at highest level for each course objective Assignments Write test questions at higher levels – application or evaluation if possible – not so many knowledge or comprehension questions, not just definitions, true/false, multiple choice without application.

47 Lesson Plan or Learning Guide
By module Overall course objective for this module Modular/unit objectives Resources, materials and technology needed for this module(optional) Computer, calculator, access to Skype, software, other equipment, etc. Learning activities for this module Chapters to read, which lessons in Blackboard, etc. Assessment/evaluation for this module Assignments, lab projects, written essays, exams, etc.

48 Go forth and populate your syllabi with well-written complete objectives

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