Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Memory and Programmable Logic

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Memory and Programmable Logic"— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory and Programmable Logic
Chapter 7

2 7-1 Introduction Memory RAM – Random-Access Memory
information storage a collection of cells store binary information RAM – Random-Access Memory read operation write operation ROM – Read-Only Memory read operation only a programmable logic device

3 Programmable Logic Device (PLD)
ROM PLA – programmable logic array PAL – programmable array logic FPGA – field-programmable gate array programmable logic blocks programmable interconnects Fig. 7.1 Conventional and array logic diagrams for OR gates

4 7-2 Random-Access Memory
A memory unit stores binary information in groups of bits (words) 8 bits (a byte), 2 bytes, 4 bytes Block diagram Fig. 7.2 Block diagrams of a memory unit

5 A 1024  16 Memory Fig. 7.3 Contents of a 1024  16 memory

6 Write and Read Operations
Write operation Apply the binary address to the address lines Apply the data bits to the data input lines Activate the write input Read operation Activate the read input

7 Memory Description in HDL

8 HDL Example 7.1

9 Timing Waveforms The operation of the memory unit is controlled by an external device The access time the time required to select a word and read it The cycle time the time required to complete a write operation Read and write operations must synchronized with an external clock

10 The access/cycle time < 50 ns A write cycle
CPU clock – 50 MHz The access/cycle time < 50 ns A write cycle Fig. 7.4 Memory cycle timing waveforms

11 A read cycle Fig. 7.4 Memory cycle timing waveforms (cont.)

12 Types of Memories Static Dynamic Information are stored in latches
remains valid as long as power is applied short read/write cycle Dynamic Information are stored in the form of charges on capacitors the stored charge tends to discharge with time need to be refreshed (read and write back) reduced power consumption Larger memory capacity

13 Volatile Non-volatile lose stored information when power is turned off
SRAM, DRAM Non-volatile Retains its stored information after the removal of power ROM EPROM, EEPROM Flash memory

14 7-3 Memory Decoding A memory unit A memory cell the storage components
the decoding circuits to select the memory word A memory cell Fig. 7.5 Memory cell

15 Internal Construction
A RAM of m words and n bits per word m*n binary storage cells Decoding circuits to select individual words k-to-2k decoder

16 A 4  4 RAM Fig. 7.6 Diagram of a 4  4 RAM

17 Coincident Decoding A two-dimensional selection scheme
reduce the complexity of the decoding circuits Fig. 7.7 Two-dimensional decoding structure for a 1K-word memory

18 Reduce the circuit complexity and the cycle time
A 10-to-1024 decoder 1024 AND gates with 10 inputs per gates Two 5-to-32 decoders 2 * (32 AND gates with 5 inputs per gates) Reduce the circuit complexity and the cycle time

19 Address Multiplexing To reduce the number of pins in the IC package
consider a 64M1 DRAM 26-bit address lines Multiplex the address lines in one set of address input pins

20 An examples RAS – row address strobe CAS – column address strobe
Fig. 7.8 Address multiplexing for a 64K DRAM

21 Random Access Memory 第三版內容,參考用! RAS, CAS Addressing
Separate addressing into two cycles: Row Address, Column Address Saves on package pins, speeds RAM access for sequential bits! Read Cycle Read Row Row Address Latched Read Bit Within Row Column Address Latched Tri-state Outputs

22 Random Access Memory 第三版內容,參考用! Write Cycle Timing
(1) Latch Row Address Read Row (2) WE low (3) CAS low: replace data bit (4) RAS high: write back the modified row (5) CAS high to complete the memory cycle

23 7-4 Error Detection And Correction
Improve the reliability of a memory unit A simple error detection scheme a parity bit (Sec. 3-9) a single bit error can be detected, but cannot be corrected An error-correction code generates multiple parity check bits the check bits generate a unique pattern, called a syndrome the specific bit in error can be identified

24 Hamming Code k parity bits are added to an n-bit data word
(2k –1  n + k) The bit positions are numbered in sequence from 1 to n + k Those positions numbered as a power of 2 are reserved for the parity bits The remaining bits are the data bits

25 Example: 8-bit data word 11000100
Include 4 parity bits and the 8-bit word  12 bits 2k –1  n + k, n = 8  k = 4 Bit position: P1 P2 1 P P Calculate the parity bits: even parity  assumption P1 = XOR of bits (3, 5, 7, 9, 11) = 1  1  0  0  0 = 0 P2 = XOR of bits (3, 6, 7, 10, 11) = 1  0  0  1  0 = 0 P4 = XOR of bits (5, 6, 7, 12) = 1  0  0  0 = 1 P8 = XOR of bits (9, 10, 11, 12) = 0  1  0  0 = 1 Store the 12-bit composite word in memory.

26 When the 12 bits are read from the memory
Check bits are calculated C1 = XOR of bits (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11) C2 = XOR of bits (2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11) C4 = XOR of bits (4, 5, 6, 7, 12) C8 = XOR of bits (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) If no error has occurred Bit position:  C = C8C4C2C1 = 0000

27 One-bit error Two-bit error error in bit 1 error in bit 5
C1 = XOR of bits (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11) = 1 C2 = XOR of bits (2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11) = 0 C4 = XOR of bits (4, 5, 6, 7, 12) = 0 C8 = XOR of bits (8, 9, 10, 11, 12) = 0 C8C4C2C1 = 0001 error in bit 5 C8C4C2C1 = 0101 Two-bit error errors in bits 1 and 5 C8C4C2C1 = 0100

28 The Hamming code can be used for data of nay length
k check bits 2k –1  n + k

29 Single-Error Correction, Double-Error Detection
Hamming code Can detect and correct only a single error Multiple errors may not be detected. Hamming code + a parity bit Can detect double errors and correct a single error. The additional parity bit is the XOR of all the other bits. E.g.: the previous 12-bit coded word P13  (even parity).

30 When the word is read from memory
If P = 0 (XOR of all bits includes parity bits), the parity is correct; P = 1, incorrect Four cases If C = 0, P = 0, no error If C  0, P = 1, a single error that can be corrected If C  0, P = 0, a double error that is detected but cannot be corrected If C = 0, P = 1, an error occurred in the P13 bit

31 7-5 Read-Only Memory Store permanent binary information 2k x n ROM
k address input lines enable input(s) three-state outputs Fig. 7.9 ROM block diagram

32 32 x 8 ROM 5-to-32 decoder 8 OR gates
each has 32 inputs 32x8 internal programmable connections Fig. 7.10 Internal logic of a 32  8 ROM

33 programmable interconnections
close (two lines are connected) or open A fuse that can be blown by applying a high voltage pulse Fig. 7.11 Programming the ROM according to Table 7.3

34 ROM truth table (partial)
an example

35 Combinational Circuit Implementation
ROM: a decoder + OR gates sum of minterms a Boolean function = sum of minterms For an n-input, m-output combinational ckt  2n  m ROM Design procedure: Determine the size of ROM Obtain the programming truth table of the ROM The truth table = the fuse pattern

36 Example 7-1 3 inputs, 6 outputs B1=0 B0=A0 8x4 ROM

37 ROM implementation Truth table Fig. 7.12
ROM implementation of Example 7.1

38 Types of ROM Types of ROM mask programming ROM PROM: Programmable ROM
IC manufacturers is economical only if large quantities PROM: Programmable ROM fuses universal programmer EPROM: erasable PROM floating gate ultraviolet light erasable EEPROM: electrically erasable PROM longer time is needed to write flash ROM limited times of write operations

39 Combinational PLDs Programmable two-level logic
an AND array and an OR array Fig. 7.13 Basic configuration of three PLDs

40 7.6 Programmable Logic Array
PLA an array of programmable AND gates can generate any product terms of the inputs an array of programmable OR gates can generate the sums of the products more flexible than ROM use less circuits than ROM only the needed product terms are generated

41 An example F1 = AB + AC + ABC F2 = (AC + BC) XOR gates can invert the outputs Fig. 7.14 PLA with three inputs, four product terms, and two outputs

42 PLA programming table specify the fuse map

43 When implementing with a PLA
The size of a PLA The number of inputs The number of product terms (AND gates) The number of outputs (OR gates) When implementing with a PLA reduce the number of distinct product terms the number of terms in a product is not important

44 Examples 7-2 Fig. 7.15 Solution to Example 7.2
F1(A, B, C) =  (0, 1, 2, 4); F2(A, B, C) =  (0, 5, 6, 7) both the true value and the complement of the function should be simplified to check Fig. 7.15 Solution to Example 7.2

45 PLA with three inputs, four product terms, and two outputs
F1 = (AB + AC + BC) F2 = AB + AC + ABC Fig. 7.14 PLA with three inputs, four product terms, and two outputs

46 7-7 Programmable Array Logic
a programmable AND array and a fixed OR array The PAL is easier to program, but is not as flexible as the PLA 第三版圖片,參考用!

47 An example PAL product terms cannot be shared Fig. 7.16
PAL with four inputs, four outputs, and a three-wide AND-OR structure

48 An example implementation
w(A,B,C,D) = (2,12,13) x(A,B,C,D) = (7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14) y(A,B,C,D) = (0,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,15) z(A,B,C,D) = (1,2,8,12,13) Simplify the functions w = ABC + ABCD x = A + BCD y = AB + CD + BD z = ABC + ABCD + ACD + ABCD = w + ACD + ABCD

49 PAL programming table

50 Fuse map for PAL as specified in Table 7.6
w = ABC + ABCD x = A + BCD y = AB + CD + BD z = w + ACD + ABCD Fig. 7.17 Fuse map for PAL as specified in Table 7.6

51 7-8 Sequential Programmable Devices
Sequential programmable logic device SPLD PLD + filp-flops Fig. 7.18 Sequential programmable logic device

52 Macrocell A typical SPLD contains 8-10 macrocells Fig. 7.19 Basic macrocell logic

53 Programming features:
AND array use or bypass the flip-flop select clock edge polarity preset or clear for the register complement an output programmable input/output pins

54 Programmable feedback
Altera macrocell 第三版內容,參考用! 8 Product Term AND-OR Array + Programmable MUX's I/O Pin Seq. Logic Block Programmable polarity Programmable feedback

55 Complex PLD Put a lot of PLDS on a chip
Add wires between them whose connections can be programmed Use fuse/EEPROM technology Fig. 7.20 General CPLD configuration

56 Field-Programmable Gate Array
Emulate gate array technology Hence Field Programmable Gate Array You need: A way to implement logic gates A way to connect them together PALs, PLAs = Gate Equivalents Field Programmable Gate Arrays = FPGAs (s) of Gate Equivalents

57 Field-Programmable Gate Arrays
Logic blocks To implement combinational and sequential logic Interconnect Wires to connect inputs and outputs to logic blocks I/O blocks Special logic blocks at periphery of device for external connections Key questions: How to make logic blocks programmable? How to connect the wires? After the chip has been fabbed 第三版內容,參考用!

58 Basic Xilinx Architecture
Fig. 7.21 Basic architecture of Xilinx Spartan and predecessor devices

59 Configurable Logic Block (CLB)
CLB architecture

60 Interconnect Resources
Fig. 7.23 RAM cell controlling a PIP transition gate

61 Programmable Interconnect Point (PIP)
Fig. 7.24 Circuit for a programmable PIP

62 I/O Block (IOB) Fig. 7.25 XC4000 series IOB

63 Enhancements Fig. 7.26 Distributed RAM cell formed from a lookup table

64 Xilinx Spartan XL FPGAs
Fig. 7.27 Spartan dual-port RAM

65 Xilinx Spartan XL FPGAs

66 Xilinx Spartan II FPGAs

67 Xilinx Spartan II FPGAs

68 Xilinx Spartan II FPGAs
Fig. 7.28 Spartan II architecture

69 Xilinx Spartan II FPGAs
Fig. 7.29 Spartan II CLB slice

70 Xilinx Spartan II FPGAs
Fig. 7.30 Spartan II IOB

71 Xilinx Virtex FPGAs Fig. 7.31 Virtex II overall architecture

72 Xilinx Virtex FPGAs Fig. 7.32 Virtex IOB block

Download ppt "Memory and Programmable Logic"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google