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EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS A. ASTAPKOVITCH State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, 2011 Lecture 0 INTRODUCTION.

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Presentation on theme: "EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS A. ASTAPKOVITCH State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, 2011 Lecture 0 INTRODUCTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS A. ASTAPKOVITCH State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Saint-Petersburg, 2011 Lecture 0 INTRODUCTION

2 GOALS OF THE COURSE Understanding of the theory and the engineering concepts and principles behind embedded systems (multichannel real time control systems); Knowledge of the present level : of embedded control solutions for space and car industry; modern hardware ( microproccessors, microcontrollers, signal processors; single board computers, modular systems, system on chip, distributed control systems); software developing technology chain (OS Neutrino, OSEK/VDX, modern IDE);


4 PART 1. SYSTEM ENGINEERING LECTURE 1. EMBEDDED CONTROL - PAST AND PRESENT § 1. History of the embedded control systems § 2. Modern car control system § 3. Mars rover SPIRIT-OPPORTUNITY mission § 4. Control system concept § 5. Mechanical design LECTURE 2. MARS ROVER CONTROL SYSTEM § 1. Control system functions § 2. Digit video system § 3. Hardware component of the control system § 4. Software component of the control system § 5. Principles of the autonomous operation LECTURE 3. SPACE CONTROL ENGINEERING STANDARTS § 1. International cooperation in space projects § 2. ECSS structure § 3. Review of the engineering branch ECSS-E § 4. Standard control system model § 5. Basic definitions

5 COURSE REVIEW System Engineering SPUTNIK-3 first satellite with digit control system 101 g of moon sample were received on Earth ; History of the control systems for space research 12/09/1970 - 21/09/1970 Moon automatic research station LUNA-16

6 COURSE REVIEW System Engineering Control system of the modern car is distributed Modern car control system is the more than just one net

7 JPL mars rover Spirit-Opportunity control system COURSE REVIEW System Engineering Autonomous operation is only possible solution Mars rover Opportunity still working on MARS Rover Spirit was discovered that water existed on Mars in past

8 COURSE REVIEW System Engineering Review of European Standards for Space- ECSS Standard ECSS-E-60A model of control system Controlled system Controlled Plant Interaction with environment) Control performance Control objectives Control System Actuators Sensors Controller Control commands Control feedback

9 PART 2. CONTROL SYSTEM HARDWARE BASICS-I LECTURE 4. COMPUTING SYSTEM STRUCTURE § 1. Architecture basic principles § 2. Microprocessor, signal processor, microcontroller § 3. Moor and Amdahl laws § 4. Control system structure § 5. Basic definitions LECTURE 5. MODULE CONTROL SYSTEM § 1. COTS and OEM solutions § 2. Standard PC-104 § 3. CompactPCI § 4. Standard VMEbus § 5. System on module LECTURE 6. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM § 1. Controller and ECU § 2. Control system topology basic definitions § 3. Microcontroller architecture § 4. Interrupt function basics § 5. Timer modules

10 PART 2. CONTROL SYSTEM HARDWARE BASICS-II LECTURE 7. MICROCONTROLLERS PIC18F (Microchip) § 1. Review of nanoWatt Technology family § 2. Peripherals § 3. Interrupt system realization § 4. Fault tolerant features § 5. Application example LECTURE 8. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM § 1. Car control system structure § 2. Platform approach § 3. Control net topology § 4. CAN bus § 5. LINbus and MOST

11 COURSE REVIEW HARDWARE COMPONENT Moor law Number of transistor is doubled every 18 month (after 96 ) 24 month ( 70- 95 ) Amdahl law The speedup S of a program using N multiple processors in parallel computing is limited by the sequential fraction of the program f. S 1/ (f+(1-f)/N) < 1/f

12 COURSE REVIEW HARDWARE BASIC Microprocessor - Signal processor - Microcontroller Architecture OMAP-L138(Texas Instruments)

13 COURSE REVIEW VMEbus MODULAR SYSTEM Form factor PC-104 90*96 mm ISA bus 8 Mbit One board computer Tiger (VersaLogic) in form factor PC-104+ PCI bus 133 Mbit Atom Z5xx (1.11 ГГц.)

14 COURSE REVIEW VMEbus MODULAR SYSTEM VMEbus family VersionProtocol Мbyte/s VMEbusBLT40 VME64MBLT80 VME64x2eVME160 VME3202eSST320-500

15 COURSE REVIEW Microcontroller PIC18 - control system on chip

16 CAR CONTROL SYSTEMS CLASS RATE Application А(small) < 10 Kb/sConfiguration control: door, mirrors, climate, belts … B (medium)10 – 125 Kb/sSensor, actor information exchange C(high)0.125- 1 Мb/sReal time времени control D> 1 Мb/sMultimedia SAE CLASS D NETMax. rateCompany D2D Domestic Digital Bus 12 Мbit/ s fiber Optical Chip Consortium Мерседесах S-класса MOST Media Oriented Systems Transport 25 Мbit/ s fiber Delphi Automotive Systems MML Mobile Media Link 110 Мbit/s fiber AMIC (Automotive Multimedia Interface Collaboration: GM,FORD,TOYOTA, DAIMLER,CRYSLER, RENAULT) COURSE REVIEW CAR CONTROL NETS CLEAR THAT CLASS D WILL BE FIBER NET CAN net AND LIN net IS THE MOST POPULAR FOR CLASSES A,B,C DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS ON THE BASE OF THE DIFFERENT NETS

17 PART 3. SOFTWARE DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY LECTURE 9. DEVELOPING CYCLES § 1. Introduction § 2. Basic definitions § 3. V-model § 4. System integration § 5. Complete cycle design LECTURE 10. REVIEW OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY § 1. Developing method hierarchy § 2. Linear coding § 3. Component coding § 4. RTOS and mRTOS § 5. Application generator LECTURE 11. RTOS BASICS § 1. POSIX,ARINC-653 standards § 2. OSEK/VDX § 3. POSIX threads § 4. Time measurement in digital control systems § 5. Real time control basic definitions

18 COURSE REVIEW V-MODEL A framework to describe the software development life cycle activities

19 LINEAR CODING TECHNOLOGY BASIC ELEMENTS : Assembler, C, JAVA UP DOWN COMPONENT CODING TECHYNOLOGY BASIC ELEMENTS : functions, subroutine, macros object library, macros library RTOS and mRTOS technology BASIC ELEMENTS: RTOS model (threads, process, message ….) IDE created code structure APPLICATION GENERATOR DOWN UP COURSE REVIEW NESTED SW DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY

20 RR dispatcher processogramma TASK LOOP CYCLE T c KERNEL PROCESS SYSTEM PROCESS T sys = T isr +T disp 1st PROCESS 3rd PROCESS 2nd PROCESS TIME SLOT T k CYCLE KCYCLE K+1CYCLE K+2 COURSE REVIEW MULTI LEVEL DESCRIPTION RTOS and mRTOS are the core of the modern developing technology BASIC ELEMENTS: scheduling, interrupt servicing, inter process communications It is necessary to use multilevel algorithm description

21 COURSE REVIEW RTOS STANDARDS POSIX 1003.1a ( OS Definition ) 1003.1b ( Realtime Extensions ) 1003.1c ( Threads ) ARINC-653 (Avionics Application Software Standard Interface) OSEK/VDX OSEK OS operating system - OSEK Time time triggered operating system OSEK COM communication services OSEK FTCOM fault tolerant communication OSEK NM network management OSEK OIL Implementation Language OSEK ORTI kernel awareness for debuggers.

22 PART 4. MODERN SOFTWARE DEVELOPING PLATFORMS LECTURE 12. PLATFORM QNX6 § 1. Basic principles § 2. RTOS Neutrino § 3. Neutrino threads § 4. Messages, communications, interrupts § 5. IDE QNX Momentics LECTURE 13. PLATFORM MPLAB (Microchip) § 1. Basic principles § 2. Project manager § 3. Linker § 4. Assembler, macroassembler, C § 5. mRTOS technology LECTURE 14. PLATFORM OSEK/VDX § 1. Basic principles and OSEK standard structure § 2. OSEK RTOS § 3. OSEK COM § 4. OSEK NM § 5. OSEK OIL LECTURE 15. TT-PARADIGM § 1. mRTOS OSEKtime § 2. Tasks and tt- sheduler § 3. Interrupt servicing § 4. Time synchronization § 5. OSEK FTCom

23 COURSE REVIEW PLATFORM QNX6 QNX6 platform is based on RTOS Neutrino; Core of the RTOS Neutrino : microkernel structure, thread, message communications;


25 Motivation High, recurring expenses in the development and variant management of non-application related aspects of control unit software Incompatibility of control units made by different manufacturers due to different interfaces and protocols Goal Support of the portability and reusability of the application software by: Specification of interfaces which are abstract and as application-independent as possible, in the following areas: real-time operating system, communication and network management Specification of a user interface independent of hardware and network Efficient design of architecture: The functionality shall be configurable and scalable, to enable optimal adjustment of the architecture to the application in question Verification of functionality and implementation of prototypes in selected pilot projects COURSE REVIEW OSEK/VDX

26 COURSE REVIEW OSEK/VDX mRTOS Event Triggered and Time Triggered mRTOS TT sheduling changes a classical RTOS world

27 OSEK/VDX OSEKtime – Time Triggered mRTOS The OSEKtime operating system provides the necessary services to support distributed fault-tolerant highly dependable real-time applications (e.g., start-up of the system, message handling, state message interface, interrupt processing, synchronization and error handling). OSEK/VDX - Event Triggered mRTOS) The specification of the OSEK/VDX OS provides a pool of services and processing mechanisms. The operating system serves as a basis for the controlled real-time execution of concurrent application and provides their environment on a processor. The architecture of the OSEK/VDX OS distinguishes three processing levels: interrupt level, a logical level for operating systems activities and task level. The interrupt level is assigned higher priorities than the task level. In addition to the management of the processing levels, operating system services are provided for functionality like task management, event management, resource management, counter, alarm and error treatment. COURSE REVIEW OSEK/VDX

28 OSEK/VDX communication (COM) The communication specification provides interfaces for the transfer of data within vehicle networks systems. This communication takes place between and within network stations (ECUs). OSEK/VDX Fault-Tolerant Communication FTCom FTCom is divided into the layers: Application, Message Filtering, Fault Tolerant, and Interaction The Application layer provides the Application Programming Interface The Message Filtering layer provides mechanisms for message filtering The Fault Tolerant layer provides services required to support the fault- tolerant functionality, that includes mechanisms for message instance management and support of message status information COURSE REVIEW OSEK/VDX COMMUNICATION SUBSYSTEMS

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