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Chapter 18 Applied Psychology

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1 Chapter 18 Applied Psychology

2 Industrial-Organizational Psychology (I-O)
Applied psychology: Use of psychological principles and research methods to solve practical problems Industrial-organizational psychology (I-O): Focuses on psychology of people at work and in organizations Typically work in: Testing and placement Human relations at work

3 Table 18-1, p. 585

4 Management Theories Scientific management (Theory X): Approach to managing employees that emphasizes work efficiency Psychological efficiency: Maintaining good morale, labor relations, employee satisfaction, and similar aspects of work behavior Happy workers are productive workers

5 Theory Y Emphasizes human relations at work; sees people as industrious, responsible, and interested in challenging work

6 Figure 18.1 Analyzing complex skills has also been valuable to the U.S. Air Force. When million-dollar aircraft and the lives of pilots are at stake, it makes good sense to do as much training and research as possible on the ground. Air Force psychologists use flight simulators like the one pictured here to analyze the complex skills needed to fly jet fighters. Skills can then be taught without risk on the ground. The General Electric simulator shown here uses a computer to generate full-color images that respond realistically to a pilot’s use of the controls. Fig. 18-1, p. 590

7 Psychological Testing
Vocational interest tests: Paper-and-pencil test that assesses a person’s interests and matches them to interests found in successful workers in various occupations Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory is one such example Aptitude tests: Rate a person’s potential to learn skills or tasks used in various occupations

8 Psychological Testing (cont)
Multimedia computerized tests: Use computers to present realistic work situations Police officers will run through various “situations” where they have to decide whether or not to use force, for example Assessment centers: Do in-depth evaluations of potential employees; often set up within organizations

9 Situational Judgment Tests
Present difficult but realistic work situations to potential employees in order to observe their skills and reactions

10 In-Basket Test Simulates decision making challenges that executives face Basket full of memos is given to applicant, and applicant must act appropriately as quickly as possible

11 Leaderless Group Discussion
Test of leadership that simulates group decision making and problem solving

12 Shared leadership techniques encourage employees at all levels to become involved in decision making. Quite often this arrangement leads to greater job satisfaction. p. 587

13 Management Strategies
Participative management (shared leadership): Employees at all levels are directly involved in decision making Management by objectives: Workers are given specific goals to meet so they can know if they are doing a good job Self-managed team: Group of employees who work together toward shared goals Quality circles: Voluntary employee discussion groups that look to improve quality and look for ways to solve business problems

14 Job Satisfaction Degree to which a person is comfortable and satisfied with his or her work

15 Job Enrichment Making a job more personally rewarding, interesting, or intrinsically motivating

16 Personnel Psychology Concerned with testing, selection, placement, and promotion of employees

17 Aptitude Tests Rate an individual’s potential to learn skills required by various occupations

18 Table 18-2, p. 592

19 Figure 18.2 Sample questions like those found on tests of mechanical aptitude. (The answers are A and the Driver.) Fig. 18-2, p. 592

20 Environmental Psychology
Concerned with the relationship between environments and human behavior Interested in:

21 Physical Environments
Natural or constructed

22 Social Environments Groups of people, such as at a dance, party, or business meeting

23 Behavioral Settings Smaller areas within an environment whose use is well defined (e.g., office, casino, classroom, or locker room)

24 Table 18-3, p. 594

25 Territoriality Territorial behavior: Any behavior that tends to define a space as one’s own or that protects it from intruders Territorial markers: Objects and other signals that indicate ownership or control of a particular area Gates, pictures, plants, posters, decorations Check your psychology professor’s office to find some examples of territorial markers

26 Crowding and Noise Crowding: Subjective feelings of being overstimulated by social inputs or loss of privacy When crowding causes a loss of control over one’s immediate social environment, stress can result John Calhoun’s “Horrible Mousery” (1962) is a good example of how overcrowding can affect mice

27 Attentional Overload Stressful condition that occurs when sensory stimulation, information, and social contacts make excessive demands on attention

28 Noise Pollution Stressful, annoying, and intrusive noise. Usually generated by machines (jackhammers, sirens, planes)

29 Ecological Footprint Amount of land and water required to replenish resources that a human population consumes

30 Shown here are the Skeen family of Pearland, Texas, and the Yadev family of Ahraura, India. Each was photographed by the Material World Project, which documented typical families and their possessions around the world. Developed countries presently have much larger ecological footprints. However, population growth is fastest in developing countries and their hunger for material possessions is rapidly expanding. Achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption are two of the greatest challenges of this century. (From Menzel et al., 1994.) p. 598

31 Carbon Footprint Volume of greenhouse gasses individual consumption adds to the atmosphere

32 Tragedy of the Commons Social dilemmas where individuals, each acting in his or her self-interest, overuse a scarce resource

33 Architectural Psychology
Study of the effects buildings have on behavior; buildings can be designed using psychological and behavioral principles Making rooms with more space and more light, having bathrooms in the middle of the hall; higher or lower ceilings Feng Shui

34 Figure 18.3 Population growth has exploded since 1850 (graph source: Population Institute, 2006). Overpopulation and rapid population growth are closely connected with environmental damage, international tensions, and rapid depletion of nonrenewable resources. Some demographers predict that if population growth is not limited voluntarily before it reaches 10 billion, it will be limited by widespread food shortages, disease, infant mortality, and early death (Erlich & Erlich, 1990). (Population Institute) Fig. 18-3, p. 596

35 Figure 18.4 An architectural solution for crowding. Psychologists divided a dorm hall like that shown in the left diagram (a) into two shorter halls separated by unlocked doors and a lounge area (b). This simple change minimized unwanted social contacts and greatly reduced feelings of crowding among dorm residents. (Adapted from Baum & Davis, 1980.) Fig. 18-4, p. 600

36 Teaching Styles Direction instruction: Factual information presented by lecture, demonstration, and rote practice Discovery learning: Teachers create conditions that encourage students to discover or construct knowledge for themselves

37 Psychology of Law Study of behavioral dimensions of legal system

38 Table 18-5, p. 603

39 Jury Behavior Jurors rarely can put aside biases, attitudes, and beliefs when making a decision Jurors are not very good at separating evidence from other information Final verdict is often influenced by inadmissible evidence Jurors cannot suspend judgment until all information is in; opinion often formed early in trial

40 Mock Jury Group that realistically simulates a courtroom jury

41 Scientific Jury Selection
Social science principles are applied to jury selection process Gather demographic information Perform community survey to get information about attitudes towards case Look for authoritarian personality traits in potential jurors Tend to believe that punishment is effective and more likely to vote to convict Look at nonverbal behavior

42 Death-Qualified Jury Jury composed of people who favor death penalty or are at least indifferent to it

43 Sports Psychology Study of behavioral dimensions of sports performance
Task analysis: Breaking sports skills into subparts so that key elements can be identified and taught Motor skills: Series of actions molded into a smooth and efficient performance

44 More on Sports Psychology
Mental practice: Imagining a skilled performance to help learning Peak performance: Physical, emotional, and mental states are harmonious and optimal

45 Table 18-6, p. 605

46 Figure 18.5 The target on the left shows what happens when a marksman fires during the heart’s contraction. Higher scores, as shown by the three shots on the right, are more likely when shots are made between heartbeats. (Adapted from Pelton, 1983.) Fig. 18-5, p. 605

47 Human Factors Psychology (Ergonomics)
Specialty concerned with making machines and work environments compatible with human perceptual and physical characteristics

48 Natural Design Human factors engineering that makes use of naturally understood perceptual signals

49 Figure 18.5 The target on the left shows what happens when a marksman fires during the heart’s contraction. Higher scores, as shown by the three shots on the right, are more likely when shots are made between heartbeats. (Adapted from Pelton, 1983.) Fig. 18-5, p. 605

50 Usability Testing Empirical investigation of the ease with which users can learn to use a machine

51 Human-computer Interaction (HCI)
Application of human factors to the design of computers and computer software

52 Satisficing Engaging in behavior that achieves a minimum result, rather than maximizing the outcome of that behavior

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