Building Envelope Composed of the outer parts of a building: F oundation, walls, roof, windows, doors and floors Functions to provide: Security S olar and thermal control Moisture control Indoor air quality control Fire resistance Access to daylight and views
Group Task To assess the following: A. Exterior walls B. Insulation Attic Walls C. Interior Leaks
A. Exterior Wall Materials On the outside of the building, inspect all areas where building materials meet and note any concerns/problems Areas inspected: Exterior corners Where siding materials meets Areas where foundation and the bottom of exterior brick or siding meet Inspect holes or penetrations for faucets, pipes, electric outlets, and wiring Look for cracks and holes in the mortar, foundation, and siding
Exterior Wall Materials - Lakeview Exterior wall facing Moore Hall Problem: There is dirt where the foundation and the bottom of the exterior brick or siding meet Top right corner of entrance facing Moore Hall Problem: There is a crack between the ceiling and exterior brick wall; not a good seal
Exterior Wall Materials - Thomas Sprinkler system on side wall Problem: Penetrations Pipes on side wall Problem: Hole Front wall Problem: Cracks in mortar Also observed cracks in mortar on side walls
Problem with holes and penetrations: Air leakage (infiltration) Can cause buildings to use excessive amounts of energy for heating and cooling Can contribute to an air moisture problem which may lead to the formation of molt and health problems Solution: Plug and Caulk holes or penetrations
B. Insulation Heat loss through the ceiling and walls in a building can be significant if the insulation levels are less than the recommended minimum When looking at an older building, its important to note that the builder likely installed the amount of insulation recommended at that time Insulation in older buildings may be inadequate relative to current standards
How do you evaluate Insulation? R-value = a number that represents the ability of a material to resist heat flow Higher the R-value of a specific insulation, the greater its effectiveness Calculated by adding up the R-values for each layer of insulation Minimum required but no maximum Changes every other year and is usually always increased Example: -In 2004, minimum R-value was 5.7 -In 2007, R-value was up to 9.5 Lakeview was completed in 2007 and had to meet these standards whereas Thomas Hall was build early 20 th century and did not
B. Insulation – Walls Look at cross-sectional views of the buildings Type(s) Thickness R-value existing vs. R-Value recommended
Insulation- Walls: Thomas Film (0.25), 4 layers of Brick (each has an R- Value of 0.65), Plaster wall (0.39), Film (0.68) Total R-value = 4.17 Recommended R-value today = 9.5 Does it meet todays standards? - No! However, it likely met the standards when it was built Structure: [listed exterior to interior with R-values in parenthesis]
Insulation - Walls: Lakeview Structure: [listed exterior to interior with R-values in parenthesis] Film (0.25), 4 Brick (0.65), 2 air gap (0.87), 2 Rigid Insulation (10), 8 CMU-Block (2.33), 4 Air Gap (0.87), 5/8 Sheetrock (0.56), film (0.68) R-Value Analysis: Total R-Value = 16.21 Recommended R-Value: 9.5 Does it meet recommended R-value standards? -Yes
Comparison of Insulation of Walls Lakeview has a much higher R-value than Thomas Result: Lakeview is more tightly sealed; less air infiltration Represents how technology and engineering have come a long way over the last century Another good example of this is the holes that are found in the exterior layers of brick: ThomasLakeview
Insulation: Attic-Thomas No insulation in attic 2 concrete slab on top layer of ceiling (R = 1) Although it may seem weird that concrete was used, this was a common method of insulation when Thomas was built
C. Interior Leaks The potential energy savings from reducing drafts may range from 5% to 30% per year. Look for obvious air leaks (drafts) in the following areas: Gaps along the baseboard or edge of the flooring Junctures of the walls and ceilings Electrical outlets Switch plates Window frames Baseboards Weather stripping around doors Fireplace dampers Attic hatch – is it weather stripped, and does it close tightly? In the attic, determine whether openings for items such as pipes, ductwork, and chimneys are sealed Check seals around all electrical boxes in ceiling Look for gaps around pipes and wires, electrical outlets, and foundation seals. Check to see if the caulking and weather-stripping are applied properly, leaving no gaps or cracks, and are in good condition.
Interior Leaks: Thomas Window frames were in good condition, No leaks found However, we found one door with a huge air gap letting in air from the exterior Residents complained of how cold the side of the wall next to their bed got during the winter
Interior Leaks: Lakeview vs. Baseboards looked okay; no gaps Found 1-2 electrical outlets that were loose from the wall but most were intact and in good condition Water leak
Recommendations Biggest problem = structure of insulation for Thomas Hall but unless you are going to tear down Thomas, you cant really change this Temporary solutions: Plug and Caulk holes and penetrations Fix the framing of the door to Thomas Shouldnt be too costly or too difficult to do Investigate origin of the water leak found in Lakeview Is there a threat for the same type of water leakage to occur elsewhere?
Significance of Windows and Doors Efficiency can lower heating bills in the winter and cooling bills in the summer An energy efficient window… needs to be two panes thick have a low-E (emitting) glass coating an airtight frame be rated as energy-efficient by the Energy Star Program. Opting for a vinyl or fiberglass frame to reduce heat transfer and maximize insulation ensures maximum efficiency. Dual or multiple pane windows: the space between is filled with gases like argon or krypton for insulation.
U-Factor U-Factor: Measures how well a product prevents heat from escaping a home or building Measuring U-Factor: Ratings generally fall between.20 and 1.20, the lower the better the windows is at keeping heat in
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Solar Heat Gain coefficient (SHGC): Measures how well a window blocks heat radiating from the sun. Measure between 0 and 1. The lower the SGHC the better the window is at blocking unwanted heat.
Low-Emittance (Low-E) Low-emittance (Low-E): Blocks significant amounts of heat transfer and reduces total heat flow through a window.
Rating a Doors Energy Efficiency Unlike windows doors insulation capabilities are measured through and R-value, which indicates the materials resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value the better the material is at insulating. Both Thomas and Lakeview have Algoma Hardwood doors. R-value = 3-3.7
Lakeview U-Value of windows is 0.48 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient is 0.38 R-Value of doors is from 3-3.7 Based on desired values for the region these energy efficiency statistics are good. 6700 Series 2¼" Frame Depth Casement- Projected-Fixed
Recommendations Improve sealants on windows Replace single paned windows in Thomas Hall with the windows that are installed in Lakeview Replace weather-stripping on doors and windows in Thomas Place weather-stripping between double doors in Lakeview
Background Review Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) U.S Department of Energy Proper Maintenance of HVAC Better well-being Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) Reduce microbial growth Study of Industrial Workplace Adequate lighting = safer HVAC
Thomas Hall Few windows– rooms and common room: not hallways Ceiling lights: square fluorescent Skinny fluorescent– bathroom and stairwells Unplugged lamps in basement Central unit on each floor Individual unit in each bedroom Too hot or too cold Fan Control in study lounges
Lakeview Hall CFL and fluorescent– ceiling: circular Lamps, fixtures and chandeliers Motion sensors Several windowsalcove Share thermostat in suites Fight to control Preset thermostats in hallways
Average energy consumption in Thomas and Lakeview ThomasLakeview Total daily consumption (kWh) 261 – as much energy as driving from Richmond to New York City 511 – as much energy as driving from Richmond to Detroit, MI Total consumption per student (kWh) 2.40 – enough energy to drive 3.0 miles 3.62 – enough energy to drive 4.5 miles
Vampire energy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNcHUrg9EQY &feature=player_embedded http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNcHUrg9EQY &feature=player_embedded
How much energy are we talking about? Estimations show that vampire energy represents 20% of US energy consumption. The actual quantities vary from brand to brand. Generally older equipment consumes more standby energy. By using a TV for 4 hours daily and leaving it on standby for the rest of the day, it consumes 50% additional energy.
Thomas hall: Public Space 2 Lounges 1 Laundry Room : 6 Washers, 6 Dryers 3 Vending Machines 1 Ice Machine
Lakeview hall: Public Space 1 Lounge per Floor 1 Computer Room 1 Multipurpose Room 1 Kitchen 2 Vending Machines 1 Ice Machine 1 Laundry Room Per Floor: 2 Washers, 2 Dryers
Case Study- Lakeview Suite-style (Double/Single) Double- Two girls Desk/room lights (4 ea.) Computer and phone charger** (1 ea.) iHome* TV Fridge and Microwave Coffee maker* Printer 4 power strips
Case Study- Lakeview Leave entrance area lights on Lamps/overhead used 50/50 Dont unplug over breaks Dont know what Vampire Energy is Use natural light during day Usually leave coffee/iHome/computer chargers out
Case Study- Thomas Single, 1 male Phone and computer charger Microwave Refrigerator TV 1 power strip Doesnt unplug, doesnt use natural light Doesnt know what Vampire Energy is Doesnt unplug over break
Role of Students Air Conditioning (heating + cooling) Lighting (if you're not already using compact fluorescents) Computers Refrigerator (if it is not Energy Star) Other appliances
Air Conditioning Turn thermostats up a few degrees in summer, and down a few degrees in winter – it also prevents the body temperature shock when going to and fro between your room and outside. Turn it off when you leave the room and do not think you will come back immediately.
Lighting Take full advantage of natural light. It is the healthiest and most energy-friendly lightning option. Turn off the lights when you leave a room. See a light on in an empty room? Turn it off. Use task lighting (desk lamps) instead of overhead lights. If placed correctly, it is also more beneficial for your eyes.
Computers Turn off your monitor if you will not use it during the next 20 minutes. Fully turn off your computer if you do not plan to use it in the next 2 hours. Configure your monitor to turn off after a few minutes of non-use, and your central processing unit after additional minutes of non-use.
Refrigerators and other appliances Follow the University Policy and only buy Energy Star appliances. Unplug whatever is not in use at the moment, like cell phone charger, laptop fully charged, TV not in use. Unplug over break
Power strips For any power strip, it would be best to switch it off when no appliance is needed. A worthy investment: new, smart power strips stop peripherals automatically when you unplug the command unit (usually for computers).