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Lauren Kastner, Matthew Sullivan, Kristen Hackman

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1 Lauren Kastner, Matthew Sullivan, Kristen Hackman
Oxides of NItrogen Lauren Kastner, Matthew Sullivan, Kristen Hackman

2 NOx!!! NOx= NO and NO2 Main Sources: Combustion of fossil fuels
Natural sources

3 Health Effects High concentration Nox
Lung irritation Increased susceptibility to respiratory diseases Harmful to asthmatics Young children and elderly Secondary Pollutants- ozone and particulate matter

4 Environmental Effects
NOx- Acidification and eutrophication Ozone Damage to crops and vegetation Decreased crop yield So what is the market failure?

5 Catalytic Converter Two-Way Three-Way
1. Oxidation of carbon monoxides  carbon dioxides 2. Oxidation of hydrocarbons  CO2 and water Used on diesel engines Three-Way Nitrogen oxides  nitrogen and oxygen Oxidation of carbon monoxide  CO2 Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons  CO2 and water Device used to reduce the toxicity of exhaust emissions from internal combustion engine automobiles, trucks, forklifts, trains, airplanes, industrial equipment, generator sets First widely used in 1975 automobiles to comply with tightening U.S. EPA regulations 2-way superseded by 3-way

6 Coal- Compliance Technology
Low-NOx Burner Technology Combustion prevents NOx from being formed Used in over 370 coal-fired units Scrubbers (Add-On) Removes NOx before emitted

7 Nitrogen Dioxide in the United States
EPA, 2010

8 Clean Air Act 1963 Clean Air Act Subsequent CAA amendments:
1967, 1970, 1977 1970 CAA made NAAQS enforceable by EPA Focused mostly on automobile emissions 1990: NOx targets 1990 focus on stationary sources because of acid rain legislation

9 State Implementation Plan
1990 goal: reduce 2 million tons of NOx emissions below 1980 levels by 2000 All states submit plan for implementation, maintenance, and enforcement of NAAQS 18-36 months Primary standard Secondary standard Attainment, nonattainment, unclassifiable Reviewed by EPA Federal implementation plan (FIP) if SIP fails review

10 Acid Rain Program Directed at coal-fired electric utility boilers
SO2 main focus of ARP Triggered NOx programs Phase 1: : 400,000 tons/year Phase 2: 2000: 1.17 million tons/year Market based allowances Utilities choose their compliance method 2000 goal: below 8.1 million tons All 960 units achieved compliance

11 Acid Rain Program Figure 4: NOx Emission Trends for All Acid Rain Program Units, 1990–2009 EPA, 2010

12 Regional Trading Programs
1994 Regional Clean Air Incentive Market (RECLAIM) Southern California cap and trade program Across sectors (power generation, cement, etc.) Critique: Price volatility and power shortage NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP) 19 east coast states Intended to reduce ground level ozone in summer 2008 budget: ~528,000 tons Success: 75 percent lower than in 1990

13 Clean Air Interstate Rule 2009
State specific emissions trading program 28 states and D.C. Midwest and East Replaced NBP Two choices at a state’s discretion: Interstate cap and trade in two phases Meet individual state budget (assigned by EPA) through method of state’s choosing Controlling power plant emissions is cost-effective

14 Clean Air Interstate Rule

15 Reduction Results All areas in the U.S. meet the current (1971) NO2 standards 53 ppb standard Current average: ppb 2010 NAAQS rule 1-hour NO2 standard at level of 100ppb Short-term exposure to NO2 County, urban monitoring 2011 proposed NAAQS rule Review of secondary NAAQS Protection of lakes and streams

16 Canada International Regime:
1979 UN Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution= UNECE LRTAP Signed & Ratified! NOx Protocol (1988) Protocol to Abate Acidificaiton, Euthrophication and Ground-Level Ozone (1999)

17 National CEPA=Canadian Environmental Protection Act
"An Act respecting pollution prevention and the protection of the environment and human health in order to contribute to sustainable development.” Under CEPA 1999, On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emissions Regulations (2004) “National Emissions Mark” CEPA -- CEPA Regulated emission performance standards for vehicles, engines and equipment manufactured in Canada and imported into Canada On Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (2004) --- Added more stringent emission control standards for various classes of on-road vehicles; including fleet average NOx emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles for 2006 and later model year. One of Purposes: “establish emission standards and test procedures for on-road vehicles and engines that are aligned with those of the (US) EPA” Harmonized products in North America “National Emissions Mark”-certification mechanism

18 Provincial Level-Ontario
Anti-Smog Action Plan Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy Clean energy projects to offset coal-powered electricity generation Industry Emissions Reduction Plan (IERP) Set cap on industrial sector Anti-Smog Action Plan, Ontario is committed to reduce provincial NOx and VOCs emissions by 45% of the 1990 levels by 2015 Significan progress in achieving goal: Over a nine-year time frame, provincial emissions of NOx, VOCs and SO2 decreased by 17 per cent, 20 per cent, and 50 per cent, respectively Based on 2000 emissions, 62% of Ontario’s Nox emissions are from transportation (including off-road sources); Industry accounts for 17% of the Nox emissions Some of IERP provisions: incentive based: reward firms for voluntarily reduced emissions (baselines of 1990 and 1994)

19 Canada-US NOx Relations

20 Canada-US Air Quality Agreement, 1991
Under International Joint Commission (IJC) Addressed transboundary air pollution that leads to acid rain Acid Rain Annex Prevention of air quality deterioration Visibility protection Emission monitoring Ozone Annex Ground-level ozone PEMA (Pollutant Emission Management Area) Signed in Ottawa Ozone Annex: “The objective of the annex is to control and reduce, in accordance with the provisions herein, the anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone and that contribute to transboundary air pollution, thereby helping both countries attain their respective air quality goals over time to protect human health and the environment” By 2007, cap the annual total emissions of Nox from fossil fuel-fired power plants with a capacity greater than 25 megawatts within the PEMA at 39 kilotonnes for the Ontario portion of the PEMA and 5 kilotonnes for the Quebec portion of the PEMA. Proposed national Guideline under s.54 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, respecting Renewable Low-Impact Electricity.

21 Progress Both Canada and US continue to meet goal provided by the agreement Canada: Transportation continue to be main source 53% of emissions US: Clean Air Act Canada has met its commitment to reduce Nox emissions from power plants, major combustion sources and metal smelting operations by 100,000 tonnes below the forecasted level of 970,000 tonnes. This commitment is based on a 1985 forecast of 2005 Nox emissions; in 2008, industrial emissions of Nox totaled 664,755 tonnes. The United States has achieved and exceeded its goal under the Acid Rain Annex to reduce total annual Nox emissions by 2 million tons below projected annual emission levels for 2000 without the ARP (8.1 million tons), with ARP another 5 million tonnes (or more than double its target)

22 NOx in the UK ~50% decrease in emissions since 1990
33%-transportation (49% with off-road vehicles) 20%-power generation


24 European Union NOx Policy
1988 Sofia Protocol Required countries to reduce NOx emissions below1987 levels by 1995 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone Multi-pollutant, multi-effect (SO2, NOx, VOC, NH3) Critical loads

25 EU Supranational Policy
National Emission Ceilings Directive (2001/81/EC) Sets upper limits for each member state with regard to 4 pollutants UK codified into law with National Emission Ceiling Regulations 2002 No teeth

26 EU Supranational Policy
Air Quality Framework Directive (Council Directive 96/62/EC) Described methods of monitoring and determined target pollutants First Daughter Directive (Council Directive 1999/30/EC) Described limits and thresholds for managing air quality with regard to several pollutants (coordinated with Gothenburg Protocol) Third Daughter Directive (Directive 2002/3/EC) Set standards for monitoring of ozone and NOx

27 EU Supranational Policy
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (2008/1/EC) Permit allocation system Integrated approach-addresses several environmental concerns Best Available Techniques Widespread information exchange Flexibility for licensing authorities E-PRTR (public information provision)

28 EU Supranational Policy
Large Combustion Plants Directive (Directive 2001/80/EC) Oldest plants can join National Emissions Reduction Program Newer must be built/made to comply

29 Euro emissions standards (auto)
Begun in 1993 Initially, design standards requiring catalytic converters Now performance standards Road transportation accounted for 53% of NOx emissions in 1993

30 UK Domestic NOx Policy National Air Quality Strategy
Reported by Environment Agency Sets objectives and identifies measures to be used by local authorities Never less stringent than EU requirements

31 UK Domestic Policy Local Air Quality Management (LAQM)
Local authorities are required to review and assess quality of air in region with respect to several pollutants. If objectives are not met, region is designated as Air Quality Management Area (AQMA), and authorities must provide action plan.

32 Measures for AQMA: Corporate commitment to putting air quality at the heart of the decision making process Commitment to working closely with authorities responsible for highways and/or environmental regulation where trunk roads and/or industrial sources are major local sources of pollution Local traffic management measures to limit access to, or re- route traffic away from, problem areas. Low emission zones are a possible solution Commitment to developing or promoting green travel plans and/or to using cleaner-fuelled vehicles in the authority’s own fleet

33 LAQM (cont.) Strategy for informing members of the public about air quality issues, perhaps via local newsletters or other media Quality partnerships with bus or fleet operators to deliver cleaner, quieter vehicles In the longer term, perhaps, congestion charging schemes and/or workplace parking levies Hot spots were expected, non-compliance has been the norm In 93% of AQMA’s, NO2 is the culprit (along with transportation Action planning has had a limited impact Other possibilities: transport, land planning, climate change

34 Thank you Questions?

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