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The Formation of Western Europe

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Presentation on theme: "The Formation of Western Europe"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Formation of Western Europe
Chapter 14: AD

2 Vocabulary Gothic: Style of architecture, Vaulted ceilings, stained glass windows, flying buttresses Urban II: The Pope who called for the 1st Crusade Crusade: Christian Europeans attempt to regain the holy land from the Muslims Saladin: Great Muslim military leader during the Crusades Richard the Lion Hearted: English king/military leader during the 3rd Crusade. Reconquista: Effort to remove the Muslims from Spain. 500 years (1492) Inquisition: Roman Catholic group that investigates and prosecutes people from heresy (Spain 1400s)

3 Vocabulary II Three-Field System: Farm fields; spring, summer, winter (More Crops) Guild: Association of the people in the same field of work (regulate) Commercial Revolution: Increase in trade that brought Europe out of the Dark Ages (More trade/More Money) William the Conqueror: Duke of Normandy (France) Claimed England Henry II: English King who married a French women for French land Common Law: Unified body of laws. Basis of many English- Speaking countries (Bill of Rights) Magna Carta: “Great Charter” that guaranteed the basic political rights in England. (King John/Limited Government)

4 Vocabulary III Parliament: English Representatives who make laws (House of Reps) Estates-General: French Representatives from all three social classes (House of Reps) Great Schism: Division of Popes (2). Rome/Avignon Bubonic Plague: Deadly disease in Asia/Europe. Spread by rats. Hundred Years War: British vs. French (Bloods/Cripts) off and on Joan of Arc: French girl who rescued the French from English rule. Heard voices of Saints.

5 Church Reform and the Crusade
Monastic Revival and Church Reform Problems in the Church Married Priests and Bishops Simony: Church positions were sold by bishops Lay Investiture: Kings Controlled bishops Reforms Pope Leo IX and Gregory VII ended marrying of priests and simony By 1200, the Pope was the most powerful figure in Europe

6 Cathedrals – Cities of God
A New Style of Church Architecture Gothic style included high church buildings with huge stained glass windows



9 The Crusades Causes of the Crusading Spirit
Started with a call for help from Byzantine Emperor Kings and Church wanted to get rid of knights that constantly fought Younger sons were not going to inherit father’s property – wanted land/riches Everyone had religious zeal-wanted to re-conquer holy land from Muslims Merchants profited by leasing ships and making loans

10 The Crusades The First and Second Crusades
Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099 Muslims counterattacked, recapturing Jerusalem in 1187 Third/Fourth and later Crusades Goal was to recapture Jerusalem Richard I vs. Saladin Truce was made in 1192, allowing unarmed Christians to access Holy Land

11 The Children’s Crusades
1212 Two groups of children: 30,000 Starvation, slavery, not prepared for journey Nine Crusades (4)

12 The Crusades The Crusading Spirit Dwindles A Spanish Crusade
From 1100 to 1492, Spanish involved in Reconquista- driving Muslims from Spain Ferdinand and Isabella strengthened hold on Spain using Inquisition All people that did not practice Catholicism were kicked out of Spain

13 The Effects of the Crusades
Lessened the power of the Pope!!! Weakened feudal nobility Stimulated trade between Europe & Middle East Weakened Byzantine Empire Deepened distrust between Muslims and Christians

14 Changes In Medieval Society

15 A Growing Food Supply Switch from Oxen to Horses
Switch to Horsepower Three-Field System Switch from Oxen to Horses More productive/faster More food equals more population Crop rotation Keeps fields full of nutrition Increase in population Live longer

16 More Changes in Europe Guilds Commercial Revolution Organization of individuals in the same business or occupation Control trade, prices, quality of work, wages, standardized businesses Apprentice: 2-7 years Journeymen: Masterpiece Master: Owner/Respected Expansion of Trade in Europe More trade = More $$$$ Fairs (Trade Fairs) Banks, Credit, Exchange Rates Italians Bankers

17 Changes in Life/Learning
Cities Grow The Revival of Learning Trade increased need to be in cities Narrow streets, animal/human waste, no bathing, unclean water, lack of air/light Moved to make money Big Business in USA (1880s-1920s Immigration) Learned from Muslims during the Crusades Muslim Libraries in Spain Building of Universities Vernacular: Books/ Writing in “native” language Not Latin

18 England and France Develop

19 England and France Develop
England Absorbs Waves of Invaders England’s Evolving Government The Norman Conquest William the Conqueror of Normandy invaded England in 1066 William declared all of England his personal property Monarchs, Nobles and the Common Law Henry II became King of England and Duke of Normandy Introduced the jury into the court system, became basis for US laws

20 English Government The Magna Carta The Model Parliament Henry II succeeded by Richard I, then John I Nobles became angry when John lost wars to France and raised taxes Forced him to sign Magna Carta Guaranteed no taxation without representation a jury trial protection under common law Starting in 1295, King summoned 2 citizens and 2 knights from every county Eventually evolved into Parliament – House of Commons and House of Lords House of Representatives and The Senate

21 Capetian Dynasty Rules France
France Develops Capetian Dynasty Rules France Philip II expands his power Became first king to rule over all of France Louis IX ( ) made France even stronger, eventually French Kings became more powerful than nobles Estates-General First Estate: Church Officials Second Estate: Lords Third Estate: Commoners/landowners

22 The Hundred Year’s War and the Plague

23 A Church Divided Pope Boniface VIII tries to control kings
King Philip IV doesn’t listen Arrested the Pope Pope Clement V moves to Avignon, France Move weakened the Church Urban VI vs. Clement VII Great Schism John Wycliffe: Jesus is the head of the Church!!! A Church Divided

24 The Bubonic Plague 1300s hit Asia, North Africa and Europe
Outline Fact Facts/Effects 1300s hit Asia, North Africa and Europe Followed trade routes Ships (Rats) 4 years to reach everywhere 2/3 or ¾ died!!! Town populations fell Trade decline/prices up Serfs left (wages) Revolts in Manors Jews were blamed for the plague Church lost power b/c prayers didn’t work!!!!

25 A Century of Turmoil Avignon and the Great Schism
A Church Divided The Bubonic Plague Strikes Avignon and the Great Schism Pope’s office was split between France and Rome (1305) – known as Great Schism Ended in 1417 – Pope back to Rome Origins of the plague Came from Asia along trade routes, spread by fleas on rats Effects of the Plague Town populations fell, serf labor came into high demand People no longer trusted the Church when prayers failed to end plague Helped to end medieval society in Europe

26 Plague Doctors

27 The Hundred Years War Early Battles Joan of Arc
English used longbow to crush French knights (Crecy, Poiters, & Agincourt) Chivalry no longer feasible on battlefield Joan of Arc Believed God wanted her to defeat English Helped to defeat English at Orleans, turned the tide of war Impact of Hundred Years War France defeated England, strengthened nationalism in both countries Considered end of Middle Ages (1453) Rise in Nationalism

28 The English Long Bow Long Range Rifles Battle of Crecy

29 Review Questions What was the Great Schism?
What were the three effects of the Bubonic Plague What impact did Joan of Arc have on the Hundred Years War?

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