2 VocabularyGothic: Style of architecture, Vaulted ceilings, stained glass windows, flying buttressesUrban II: The Pope who called for the 1st CrusadeCrusade: Christian Europeans attempt to regain the holy land from the MuslimsSaladin: Great Muslim military leader during the CrusadesRichard the Lion Hearted: English king/military leader during the 3rd Crusade.Reconquista: Effort to remove the Muslims from Spain. 500 years (1492)Inquisition: Roman Catholic group that investigates and prosecutes people from heresy (Spain 1400s)
3 Vocabulary IIThree-Field System: Farm fields; spring, summer, winter (More Crops)Guild: Association of the people in the same field of work (regulate)Commercial Revolution: Increase in trade that brought Europe out of the Dark Ages (More trade/More Money)William the Conqueror: Duke of Normandy (France) Claimed EnglandHenry II: English King who married a French women for French landCommon Law: Unified body of laws. Basis of many English- Speaking countries (Bill of Rights)Magna Carta: “Great Charter” that guaranteed the basic political rights in England. (King John/Limited Government)
4 Vocabulary IIIParliament: English Representatives who make laws (House of Reps)Estates-General: French Representatives from all three social classes (House of Reps)Great Schism: Division of Popes (2). Rome/AvignonBubonic Plague: Deadly disease in Asia/Europe. Spread by rats.Hundred Years War: British vs. French (Bloods/Cripts) off and onJoan of Arc: French girl who rescued the French from English rule. Heard voices of Saints.
5 Church Reform and the Crusade Monastic Revival and Church ReformProblems in the ChurchMarried Priests and BishopsSimony: Church positions were sold by bishopsLay Investiture: Kings Controlled bishopsReformsPope Leo IX and Gregory VII ended marrying of priests and simonyBy 1200, the Pope was the most powerful figure in Europe
6 Cathedrals – Cities of God A New Style of Church ArchitectureGothic style included high church buildings with huge stained glass windows
9 The Crusades Causes of the Crusading Spirit Started with a call for help from Byzantine EmperorKings and Church wanted to get rid of knights that constantly foughtYounger sons were not going to inherit father’s property – wanted land/richesEveryone had religious zeal-wanted to re-conquer holy land from MuslimsMerchants profited by leasing ships and making loans
10 The Crusades The First and Second Crusades Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099Muslims counterattacked, recapturing Jerusalem in 1187Third/Fourth and later CrusadesGoal was to recapture JerusalemRichard I vs. SaladinTruce was made in 1192, allowing unarmed Christians to access Holy Land
11 The Children’s Crusades 1212Two groups of children: 30,000Starvation, slavery, not prepared for journeyNine Crusades (4)
12 The Crusades The Crusading Spirit Dwindles A Spanish Crusade From 1100 to 1492, Spanish involved in Reconquista- driving Muslims from SpainFerdinand and Isabella strengthened hold on Spain using InquisitionAll people that did not practice Catholicism were kicked out of Spain
13 The Effects of the Crusades Lessened the power of the Pope!!!Weakened feudal nobilityStimulated trade between Europe & Middle EastWeakened Byzantine EmpireDeepened distrust between Muslims and Christians
15 A Growing Food Supply Switch from Oxen to Horses Switch to HorsepowerThree-Field SystemSwitch from Oxen to HorsesMore productive/fasterMore food equals more populationCrop rotationKeeps fields full of nutritionIncrease in populationLive longer
16 More Changes in EuropeGuildsCommercial RevolutionOrganization of individuals in the same business or occupationControl trade, prices, quality of work, wages, standardized businessesApprentice: 2-7 yearsJourneymen: MasterpieceMaster: Owner/RespectedExpansion of Trade in EuropeMore trade = More $$$$Fairs (Trade Fairs)Banks, Credit, Exchange RatesItalians Bankers
17 Changes in Life/Learning Cities GrowThe Revival of LearningTrade increased need to be in citiesNarrow streets, animal/human waste, no bathing, unclean water, lack of air/lightMoved to make moneyBig Business in USA (1880s-1920s Immigration)Learned from Muslims during the CrusadesMuslim Libraries in SpainBuilding of UniversitiesVernacular: Books/ Writing in “native” languageNot Latin
19 England and France Develop England Absorbs Waves of InvadersEngland’s Evolving GovernmentThe Norman ConquestWilliam the Conqueror of Normandy invaded England in 1066William declared all of England his personal propertyMonarchs, Nobles and the Common LawHenry II became King of England and Duke of NormandyIntroduced the jury into the court system, became basis for US laws
20 English GovernmentThe Magna CartaThe Model ParliamentHenry II succeeded by Richard I, then John INobles became angry when John lost wars to France and raised taxesForced him to sign Magna CartaGuaranteed no taxation without representationa jury trialprotection under common lawStarting in 1295, King summoned 2 citizens and 2 knights from every countyEventually evolved into Parliament – House of Commons and House of LordsHouse of Representatives and The Senate
21 Capetian Dynasty Rules France France DevelopsCapetian Dynasty Rules FrancePhilip II expands his powerBecame first king to rule over all of FranceLouis IX ( ) made France even stronger, eventually French Kings became more powerful than noblesEstates-GeneralFirst Estate: Church OfficialsSecond Estate: LordsThird Estate: Commoners/landowners
23 A Church Divided Pope Boniface VIII tries to control kings King Philip IV doesn’t listenArrested the PopePope Clement V moves to Avignon, FranceMove weakened the ChurchUrban VI vs. Clement VIIGreat SchismJohn Wycliffe: Jesus is the head of the Church!!!A Church Divided
24 The Bubonic Plague 1300s hit Asia, North Africa and Europe OutlineFact Facts/Effects1300s hit Asia, North Africa and EuropeFollowed trade routesShips (Rats)4 years to reach everywhere2/3 or ¾ died!!!Town populations fellTrade decline/prices upSerfs left (wages)Revolts in ManorsJews were blamed for the plagueChurch lost power b/c prayers didn’t work!!!!
25 A Century of Turmoil Avignon and the Great Schism A Church DividedThe Bubonic Plague StrikesAvignon and the Great SchismPope’s office was split between France and Rome (1305) – known as Great SchismEnded in 1417 – Pope back to RomeOrigins of the plagueCame from Asia along trade routes, spread by fleas on ratsEffects of the PlagueTown populations fell, serf labor came into high demandPeople no longer trusted the Church when prayers failed to end plagueHelped to end medieval society in Europe
27 The Hundred Years War Early Battles Joan of Arc English used longbow to crush French knights (Crecy, Poiters, & Agincourt)Chivalry no longer feasible on battlefieldJoan of ArcBelieved God wanted her to defeat EnglishHelped to defeat English at Orleans, turned the tide of warImpact of Hundred Years WarFrance defeated England, strengthened nationalism in both countriesConsidered end of Middle Ages (1453)Rise in Nationalism
28 The English Long BowLong Range RiflesBattle of Crecy
29 Review Questions What was the Great Schism? What were the three effects of the Bubonic PlagueWhat impact did Joan of Arc have on the Hundred Years War?