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2 KABC-II: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition
Authors: Alan S. Kaufman & Nadeen L. Kaufman

3 Authors of the KABC-II Alan S. Kaufman Nadeen L. Kaufman NOTE:
Dynamic duo….a blend of science and clinician. Since 1997: at Yale University’s Child Study Center in the School of Medicine Alan: student of Robert Thorndike at Columbia University : Psych Corp, and worked with David Wechsler and Dorothea McCarthy. Helped develop McCarthy Scales and WISC-R. Nadeen: graduate degrees in psychology, reading and learning disabilities, and special education (neuroscience) from Columbia University. Numerous publications (tests and books) Alan S. Kaufman Nadeen L. Kaufman

4 KABC-II : What’s New? Covers an extended age range: 3-18
Provides measurement of 5 Scales Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Conormed with KTEA-II NOTE: Original age range: 2.6 to 12.6 Original content: simultaneous/ sequential Included some ACH as a separate area to assess Was not co-normed with KTEA (correlations were provided)

5 KABC-II : What’s New? Includes a measure of verbal ability
Provides two theoretical models for interpretation (Luria & CHC) Places new emphasis on learning ability and reasoning ability Helps identify processing disorders for the assessment of specific learning disabilities (SLD) NOTE: Provide alternatives for interpretation of complex skills that are measured. Not just one view of the world….2 models each yielding a global score. Choose based on referral and background information. Learning: provide specific information to help Teacher & parent Reasoning: Higher levels of problem-solving, executive functions (frontal lobe) With 5 scales, helps define integrities and weaknesses. IDEA definition is not changed, just a change in methods. (RTI may be used. IQ/ach is not needed)

6 Advantages of the KABC-II
Reduces ethnic score differences K-ABC led the field in this area Test designed to reduce score differences Captures the child’s interest Game-like tasks that engage the child Accessible to all children Blends science and clinical expertise Based on theory Provides rich assessment of processing Collects important qualitative information NOTE: Racial and ethnic differences are published in the manual. What other current test does this? (Binet 4 did) Tryout edition tested on minorities Tryout items reviewed by various cultural and linguistic experts Tryout items reviewed by specialists working with individuals with hearing impairment KABC II designed from ground up to reduce ethnic score differences. Other tests try to prove no bias after the fact through item-bias studies. In KABC, goal of reducing ethnic differences drove design of test. Capture the child – presentation of the tasks makes the difference in engaging the child. Child-friendly tasks

7 Small Ethnic Score Differences
Global Composite African American Hispanic White Fluid Crystallized Index (FCI) 98 97 102 Mental Processing Index (MPI) 99 101 Nonverbal Index (NVI) 100 Sample Size 150 162 505 NOTE: Exact numbers will be shown for both age groups in technical section This is just to help illustrate, early-on, the advantage of KABC in reducing ethnic score differences. All differences are essentially 100 +/- 5 Most other tests have greater differences and do not report them. Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Global Scores by Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) (rounded)

8 Capture the Child’s Interest
Rover is a new novel Simultaneous/Gv task Rover wants his bone. Watch how he can move one space at a time.

9 Blends Science & Clinical Expertise
Dual Theoretical Model Luria Model Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Planning Ability Learning Ability Mental Processing Index (MPI) CHC Model (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) Short-term Memory (Gsm) Visual Processing (Gv) Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Long-term Retrieval (Glr) Crystallized Ability (Gc) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) NOTE: Luria: focus on problem-solving (processing) CHC: focus on multiple factors (Scales in KABC II – called Broad abilities in CHC theory) Provide alternatives for interpretation of complex skills that are measured. Not just one view of the world….2 models each yielding a global score. Choose based on referral and background information. With 5 scales, helps define integrities and weaknesses. Learning: provide specific information to help Teacher & parent Reasoning: Higher levels of problem-solving, executive functions (frontal lobe) IDEA definition is not changed, just a change in methods. (RTI may be used. IQ/ach is not needed)

10 Overview

11 Goals of the KABC-II Keep the positives of the original K-ABC and eliminate its negatives Measure multiple ability constructs Expand age range to 3-18 years Provide an assessment that is fair and flexible Offer effective preschool assessment Facilitate neuropsychological assessment Offer effective clinical assessment NOTE: The value of the KABC-II extends beyond just scale content. It is theory based; Wechsler's scales are not. Ethnic differences on the KABC-II are substantially reduced relative to traditional IQ differences. Subtests tend to be game-like. The KABC-II has more manipulatives. KABC-II offers separate Gv and Gf scales for ages The WISC-IV merges these Broad Abilities in a single scale (perceptual reasoning)

12 Original K-ABC: The Positives
Smaller ethnic differences for African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans Theory-based Easy to administer and score Novel tasks Teaching Items Interpretive Manual and numerous validity studies Special education children in standardization sample Nonverbal Scale All in KABC-II NOTE: Original was lauded for smaller ethnic differences. Much media attention back in 1983. African-Americans: typically 7 points lower Hispanic: points lower In 1983, a number of things were innovative…theory-based, teaching items, novel tasks, etc. Now most tests include these. (WJ had novel tasks in late 70’s but wasn’t used by psychologists)

13 Original K-ABC: The Negatives
Excluded verbal ability Measured too few abilities (Sequential-Simultaneous Processing) Included too much memory, not enough reasoning ability Had inadequate floors and ceilings for some subtests KABC-II includes verbal ability KABC-II measures 5 abilities KABC-II includes more reasoning KABC-II improves floors & ceilings NOTE: By 2004 standards, the original KABC included too few abilities. In past, a global score was all people needed or wanted. Change has occurred, perhaps due to LD movement. Required more than a score. Notion of fairness to those with handicaps Need for profile of strengths/weaknesses Interest in multiple abilities, and reliable processing measures. Be able to measure how the student “thinks and learns.” Floors/Ceilings: At 3:0-3:2, lowest scaled score on core subtests averages 3.1 (range 2 to 5) 2 1/3 SD below mean (original KABC: 7.2 (1 SD below) Ages 18:6-18:11, highest scaled on core subtests averages 16.9 (range 14 to 19) 2 1/3 SDs above mean Original KABC 15.6 (2 SDs above)

14 Administration Options
Flexible Assessment Core Battery Core + Supplementary Nonverbal Scale Administration Options Interpretive Options NOTE: Interpretive Options: Luria & CHC Global Scores: MPI, FCI, and NVI Mental Processing Index (comparable to original MPC but includes Learning/Glr) Nonverbal Index (comparable to original NVC) 5 scales (Gv, Gsm, Gf, Glr, Gc) (simultaneous, sequential, planning, learning, knowledge) Two Theories Three Global Scores Five Scales

15 Structure of the KABC-II
Age 3 Global Age 4-6 Global Age 7-18 Global Luria Mental Processing Index (MPI) Mental Processing Index (MPI) Mental Processing Index (MPI) CHC Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) Nonverbal Nonverbal Index (NVI) Nonverbal Index (NVI) Nonverbal Index (NVI) Scale Profile Scale Profile Scale Profile None Learning/Glr Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Sequential/Gsm NOTE: This represents the interpretive scheme. Simultaneous/Gv Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Knowledge/Gc

16 Administration Times for Core Battery
MPI FCI Ages Luria Model CHC Model 3-4 5 6 7-18 30 Minutes 40 Minutes 50 Minutes 55 Minutes 40 Minutes 50 Minutes 60 Minutes 70 Minutes

17 Theoretical Foundations

18 Theory of Original K-ABC
Based on: Sperry’s cerebral lateralization theory Luria’s neuropsychological theory Definition of intelligence: The integration of sequential and simultaneous processing, distinct from language ability and factual knowledge

19 Original K-ABC Structure
Sequential Processing Mental Processing Composite Simultaneous Processing Achievement NOTE: MPC is similar to new MPI with the addition of Learning. Sequential Processing has not really changed. Simultaneous has some changes in the scale content. Achievement was always separate. Now it is in KTEA-II, not in KABC II.

20 Theoretical Foundations of the KABC-II
Hybrid of the new and the old: Roots in Luria’s theory Simultaneously rests on the CHC model Provides alternative frameworks for interpreting the 4 or 5 scales that compose the battery NOTE: We based the KABC-II on both the Luria and CHC theories. DECISION OF WHAT TO INCLUDE: Our philosophy that was the basis for deciding what to include in our comprehensive measure of cognitive ability; Like my mentor David Wechsler believed, and like Alfred Binet before him, mental tasks need to be complex to measure human capacities. That is our opinion as well. We excluded measures of Luria's Block 1 arousal, and likewise excluded measures of the Ga and Gs Broad Abilities, to be true to our conception of intellectual and cognitive functioning.

21 Theoretical Foundations of the KABC-II
The CHC theory emphasizes specific cognitive abilities (broad and narrow abilities). The Luria neuropsychological theory focuses on “processes” and does not include measures of acquired knowledge. Both theories are equally important as foundations of the KABC-II. Both approaches are valid for understanding how children learn and solve new problems. NOTE:

22 Dual Theoretical Foundation
Name of Luria Term CHC Term KABC-II Scale Long-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr) Short-Term Memory (Gsm) Learning Ability Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Planning Ability Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Visual Processing (Gv) Planning/Gf NOTE: Provide alternatives for interpretation of complex skills that are measured. Not just one view of the world….2 models each yielding a global score. Choose based on referral and background information. Learning: provide specific information to help Teacher & parent Reasoning: Higher levels of problem-solving, executive functions (frontal lobe) With 5 scales, helps define integrities and weaknesses. IDEA definition is not changed, just a change in methods. (RTI may be used. IQ/ach is not needed) Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Knowledge/Gc Crystallized Ability (Gc) Mental Processing Index (MPI) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI)

23 Introduction to the Five Scales

24 Number Recall Sequential/Gsm
Short-Term Memory Taking in and holding information, and then using it within a few seconds. Say these numbers just as I do. 6 – 3 2 – 5 – 9 – 4 8 – 9 – 3 – 5 – 2 – 10 NOTE: Same as KABC Sequential Scale Word Order & Number Recall (Hand Movements is Supplementary Test) Russell Barkley: Hand Movements & Word Order display ADD more than other tasks Number Recall Sequential/Gsm

25 Block Counting Simultaneous/Gv
Visual Processing Perceiving, storing, manipulating, and thinking with visual patterns. Block Counting Simultaneous/Gv NOTE: Luria: Measuring integration of Blocks 2/3 CHC: some tasks would be considered mixed measures (e.g., Gv and Gf) Simultaneous/Gv: Conceptual Thinking Face Recognition Rover Triangles Pattern Reasoning (at ages 5 & 6: at age 7 and above this test is in Planning/Gf scale) Block Counting (added to get more problem-solving) Supplemental tests: Gestalt Closure Story Completion (this is in Planning/Gf scale at age 7 and above)

26 Atlantis Learning/Glr
Long-Term Retrieval Storing and efficiently retrieving newly-learned or previously learned information. Atlantis Learning/Glr NOTE: Learning/Glr Scale: Atlantis and Rebus Supplemental tests: Atlantis-Delayed and Rebus-Delayed Task will introduce a fish, plant, or shell by name. The child will have to find the named items on a response page. For example, “This is Neef.”

27 Point to Neef. If an error is made, the examiner points to the correct item and says, “This is Neef.”

28 Planning/Gf Pattern Reasoning Planning/Gf Fluid Reasoning
Solving novel problems by using reasoning abilities such as induction and deduction. Pattern Reasoning Planning/Gf NOTE: “Which one of these, goes here?” Planning/Gf Scale: Pattern Reasoning Story Completion Both are core tests at ages 7-18 for this scale. However, at ages 5-6, Pattern Reasoning is a core test for Simultaneous/Gv Story Completion is a supplementary Simultaneous/Gv test for age 6.

29 Knowledge/Gc Verbal Knowledge Knowledge/Gc Not in Luria Model
Demonstrating the breadth and depth of knowledge acquired from one’s culture. Verbal Knowledge Knowledge/Gc NOTE: Not school-oriented knowledge, rather environmental knowledge. Tests in Knowledge Scale: Expressive Vocabulary (verbal response required) Riddles (pointing at earlier items, verbal response at higher level items) Verbal Knowledge (all pointing responses) Example above: Point to bush.

30 Abilities Not Measured in KABC-II
Auditory Processing (Ga) Processing Speed (Gs) Reaction Time/Decision Speed (Gt) Reading & Writing (Grw) Quantitative Ability (Gq) Not Sufficiently Complex Achievement (Measured by KTEA-II)

31 Selecting the Model: Guidelines

32 Selecting the Model: Guidelines
Selection must be made before administering the KABC-II and should consider reasons for referral. The CHC model is given priority because Knowledge/Gc is an important aspect of cognitive functioning. The Luria model is preferred when the validity of the global composite would be compromised by including acquired knowledge. Models are selected primarily with “fairness” in mind. Note Selection is up to the examiner. Should be a considered decision and made prior to testing. Focus on MPI or FCI? Focus on scales vs. global? CHC focus is on abilities Luria focus is on processing Gc/Knowledge can be given as a supplemental measure. Irrespective of model administered, interpret from perspective you prefer.

33 Selecting the CHC Model
The CHC model is recommended when evaluating children with: known or suspected disabilities in reading, written expression, or mathematics mental retardation behavior disorders attention disorders NOTE: Also recommended for determining gifted and talented eligibility.

34 Selecting the Luria Model
The Luria model would be preferred, for example, when testing a child: from a bilingual background whose non-mainstream cultural background may have affected knowledge acquisition and verbal development with known or suspected language disorder with known or suspected autism

35 KABC-II Nonverbal Scale
Use to enhance “fairness” of assessment for individuals with: hearing loss (deaf or hard-of-hearing) very limited English proficiency moderate to severe speech impairments or language disorders NOTE: Do not use as a shortcut, or for arbitrary reasons, or for excessively shy children How to decide between NVI and MPI? Can you give Atlantis and Rebus? Can you give Word Order and Number Recall? If you cannot give these, then use NVI. Yields only the Nonverbal Index. No Scale composites available.

36 Interpretation Based on Either Theory
Interpretation may be based on either theory, irrespective of which model was administered. Administration Interpretation Luria Model Luria or CHC CHC Model CHC or Luria

37 Technical Qualities

38 KABC-II Norm Sample N = 3,025, ages 3:0-18:11
Conormed with KTEA-II Comprehensive Form at ages 4:6-18:11 Tested from September 2001 through January 2003 Matches March 2001 Current Population Survey (Census Bureau) by: Sex Ethnicity SES (mother’s education) Region SES within ethnicity NOTE:

39 Includes representative proportions of:
KABC-II Norm Sample Includes representative proportions of: Specific learning disability Speech/language impairment Mental retardation Emotional/behavioral disturbance ADHD Gifted/talented NOTE: Myth: inclusion in norm sample of “my” testing population = fairness. The content insures fairness for all groups. The norms must include representative samples of the abilities.

40 KABC-II Norm Sample Age 18 sample matches population on educational status: Dropout In high school High school grad, no post-secondary schooling Entered 2-year post-secondary program Entered 4-year post-secondary program NOTE: One-half of 18 year old sample NOT in school

41 Reduce Ethnic Score Differences
Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African American Hispanic White MPI 98.7 98.2 100.9 FCI 98.0 96.6 101.6 NVI 96.7 99.7 100.8 Sample Size 150 162 505 NOTE: Differences are small between MPI and FCI because the Knowledge measured in the FCI is more environmental than school-based. SES is based on Mother’s Education, not really SES….found to be a good indicator, though. Point for further exploration: Why is NVI lower for African Americans than the other composites? (Note: Means on WISC IV for African Americans were in 87/88 range.)

42 Reduce Ethnic Score Differences
Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African American Hispanic White Learning/Glr 99.3 98.9 99.7 Sequential/ Gsm 101.4 96.7 101.0 Simultaneous/Gv 96.4 100.1 100.7 Knowledge/ Gc 95.9 93.7 102.8 Sample Size 150 162 505

43 Reduce Ethnic Score Differences
Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) 1,356 62 51 383 315 Sample Size 102.0 103.4 97.0 98.3 93.1 NVI 102.4 103.9 95.6 95.8 94.5 FCI 101.9 104.6 96.5 95.2 MPI White Asian American Indian Hispanic African American NOTE: Use columns vertically – within ethnic group All scores are pretty close to 100 +/- 5. Needing further exploration? Why NVI is lowest composite for African Americans? (interest, motivation, use of language issues?) Gc load on KABC II is not so complex as other measures of verbal ability. More broad-based, environmental knowledge rather than school-based acquired knowledge.

44 Reduce Ethnic Score Differences
Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African American Hispanic American Indian Asian White Learning/Glr 98.3 97.0 96.7 102.8 101.6 Sequential/ Gsm 99.8 95.1 96.9 102.6 101.3 Simultaneous/ Gv 92.9 98.7 100.1 105.0 101.7 Planning/Gf 94.7 98.8 101.8 Knowledge/ Gc 93.9 94.9 94.4 100.4 103.1 Sample Size 315 383 51 62 1,356 Note: Use columns vertically rather than across. Look within the ethnic group. Knowledge/Gc Scale not that much lower due to less complex language demands of tasks. (compare to language load on WISC-IV subtests)

45 Global Score Differences for Whites & African Americans—Adjusted for SES
NOTE: What other company reports these differences in their manuals? Hard to obtain the information on WJ III or WISC 4? Or SB 5? Estimate of a 10 pt. difference between White and African Americans on WISC IV. Mean differences are adjusted for SES and other variables, depending on the study. WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998). WJ-R and Binet-4 data are from Wasserman & Becker (2000). CAS data are from Naglieri, Rojahn, Aquilino, & Matto (in press).

46 Taos sample: KABC-II & WISC-IV
Native American Sample, N=30 +7.4 FCI: 94.1 +8.4 MPI: 95.1 86.7 Difference KABC-II WISC-IV FS-IQ NOTE: KABC II sample (n=46) WISC IV sample (n=30) tested about 18 months later Sample size for Planning is 21 Correlations were substantial between FSIQ and MPI (.86) and FCI (.84) However, the mean scores differed by about ½ of a SD with KABC scores higher. Differences on scales were greatest on Gc and memory scales (+7) and smallest on Gf/nonverbal (+1-4) with KABC scores being higher. Note—Children were tested first on KABC-II (ages 5-14, mean = 7.8) and second (18 months later) on WISC-IV (ages 6-15, mean = 9.3). Data from Fletcher-Janzen (2003).

47 Note: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients
Reliability of Global Composites Ages FCI MPI NVI Note: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients

48 Note: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients
Reliability of Scale Composites AGE GROUP Scale Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Note: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients

49 Retest Reliability for the Global Scales
AGE GROUP Scale FCI MPI NVI N Note: Interval days

50 Retest Reliability for the Five Scales
AGE GROUP Scale Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc N

51 Scale Intercorrelations
Seq Sim Lrn Pln Kno Sequential --- Simult Learning Planning Knowledge NOTE: Correlations are as expected for a test with multiple scales Note: Ages 7-12 (N = 1200)

52 Global Scale Intercorrelations
Ages FCI with MPI NOTE: Q: Correlation so high, why have 2 scales? A: First, there is overlapping content (identical except for Gc tasks). Also, there is a difference between group and individual data…there is a clinical impact on the individual. The .02 portion is what matters, not the .98. So high due to contaminated content…overlap within indexes. 4/5 abilities overlap. Only Gc is different in the FCI. Gc tasks are not complex language tasks. (Single word expression or pointing responses) This also could help explain why there is not a great difference.

53 Correlations with K-ABC
Age range Scales MPI vs. MPC Nonverbal Sequential Simultaneous Knowl vs. Ach N NOTE: Table 8.16 in manual, page 110 Mean scores of the younger age group (3-5) were about 7 points lower on the MPI than on the MPC. Mean scores of the older age group (8-12) were about 6 points lower on the MPI than on the MPC. (expected differences due to Flynn Effect, Flynn, 1987) Correlation of the MPC with the FCI was higher for the 3-5 age group (.72) Correlation of the MPC with the FCI (.84) for the older age group was similar to MPI/MPC (.85) Interesting point…inclusion of the Knowledge does not diminish the correlation with KABC MPC. Sequential Scale virtually unchanged, thus higher correlation. Simultaneous Scale has been modified considerably, hence lower correlations.

54 Correlations with WISC-IV
KABC-II WISC-IV r FCI FSIQ .89 MPI FSIQ .88 Seq/Gsm WMI .71 Sim/Gv PRI .66 Plan/Gf PRI .69 Know/Gc VCI .85 NOTE: Table 8.17 in Manual, page 111 Mean FCI was about 2 points higher than the WISC IV FSIQ. (97.3 vs 95) NVI to FSIQ: .79 Correlations between Simultaneous and PRI and Planning and PRI indicate that PRI is both Gv and Gf (addition of Matrix Reasoning on WISCIV) WISC IV Processing Speed Index (PSI) is reported in manual. Lower correlations in general. (PSI: High of .64 with NVI and a low of .16 with Sequential) Note: Ages 7-16 (N = 56)

55 Correlations with WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities
KABC-II WJ III COG r FCI GIA (Std) .78 MPI GIA (Std) .77 Seq/Gsm Working Memory .55 Sim/Gv Vis-Spatial/Gv .51 Plan/Gf Fluid Reas/Gf .64 Know/Gc Comp.Know/Gc .84 NOTE: Table 8.22 in Manual, page 116 Why no Glr reported? Is sequential compared to Gsm on WJ III or to the WM cluster on WJ III? The Simultaneous/Gv Scale actually correlates better with the WJ III Gf composite than with the WJ III Gv composite. This illustrates the KABC II goal of including problem-solving throughout the scales, not just in the Planning Scale. Note: Ages 7-16 (N = 85)

56 Correlations with KAIT
KABC-II KAIT r FCI Composite .91 MPI Composite .85 Sim/Gv Fluid .53 Plan/Gf Fluid .71 Know/Gc Crystallized .93 NOTE: Table 8.21 in Manual, page 115 KAIT core Fluid Scale includes both learning ability (Rebus Learning) and reasoning ability (Mystery Codes & Logical Steps) so correlations with Planning and Learning are sensible (.79 Learning, .71 Planning) Note: Ages (N = 29)

57 KABC-II Global Scale Correlations with KTEA-II Comprehensive Form
KTEA-II KABC-II Scale Composite FCI MPI NVI Comprehensive Reading Mathematics Written Language Oral Language NOTE: Correlations between cognitive/IQ measures and Achievement measures seem to be rising. Why? Better predictors? Continuum of abilities and where we divide them is somewhat arbitrary? Blurring of constructs? “All tests are tests of achievement” Note: Values are rounded to nearest .05. N = 2,325, ages 4 1/2 to 18

58 Correlations with WIAT-II
Grades Grades KABC-II WIAT-II FCI Reading MPI FCI Math MPI FCI Written Language MPI N

59 Correlations with WJ-III Tests of Achievement
Grades Grades KABC-II WJ-III FCI Broad Reading MPI FCI Broad Math MPI FCI Broad Written Lang MPI N

60 KABC-II Factor Structure
Confirmatory factor analyses, core battery Age 3 No separate scales (only Sequential/Gsm subtests (Word Order & Number Recall) separated from others) Age 4 Most factors are distinct (Simultaneous/Gv and Knowledge/Gc not significantly distinct, but separated on content) NOTE: Age 5-6 4 factors are distinct (No Planning/Gf) Age 7-18 5 factors are distinct

61 KABC-II Factor Structure
Extremely good fit at all ages Benchmarks: Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI) >.95 Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RMSEA) <.05 Age 4 and ages 5-6: no statistically significant difference between data and model Across age groups: CFI: .997 to 1.000 RMSEA: .014 to .055 At ages 5-18, all factors are statistically distinct (p < .001). NOTE: Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI) .95 or higher is considered good fit Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RSMEA) .05 or lower is considered good fit P values indicate if there is a statistically significant difference between model and data KABC II: values at all ages meet benchmarks: fit to theoretical model is very good

62 Administration

63 Preparing for Administration
Select CHC or Luria Model (or Nonverbal Index) Identify tests that will be administered. Depending on AGE and MODEL selected: Luria Model requires 5-8 tests CHC Model requires 7-10 tests Nonverbal Index requires 4-5 tests Arrange testing materials. Supplementary tests can be chosen later (except for Delayed)

64 Tests 9, 10, & 18 are omitted if using Luria Model.
Tests in 4 Easels Core Tests in bold Easel 3: 10. Verbal Knowledge (7-18) 11. Rebus (4-18) 12. Triangles (3-12) Easel 1: 1. Atlantis (3-18) 2. Conceptual Thinking (3-6) 3. Face Recognition (3-4) 4. Story Completion (7-18) Easel 4: 13. Block Counting (13-18) 14. Word Order (3-18) 15. Pattern Reasoning (5-18) 16. Hand Movements 17. Rebus Delayed 18. Riddles (3-18) Easel 2: 5. Number Recall (4-18) 6. Gestalt Closure 7. Rover (6-18) 8. Atlantis Delayed 9. Expressive Vocabulary (3-6) NOTE: Tests 9, 10, & 18 are omitted if using Luria Model.

65 KABC Subtests Eliminated Retained Spatial Memory Word Order
Magic Window Photo Series Matrix Analogies Arithmetic Faces & Places Reading: Decoding Reading: Understanding Word Order Number Recall Triangles Face Recognition Riddles Expressive Vocabulary (extended to age 18) Hand Movements (S) Gestalt Closure (S) NOTE: Issues of reliability, validity, interpretability, and ease of administration drove decision of tests to eliminate. Original Simultaneous Processing Scale: eliminate 4 tests (Magic Window, Spatial Memory ,Photo Series, and Matrix Analogies) Eliminate the 3 school achievement subtests: Arithmetic, Reading/decoding, reading/understanding). Tried to move away from so much memory and needed to add new abilities. (eliminate Spatial Memory) Photo Series is revamped into new Story Completion (less perceptual and more reasoning) Matrix Analogies is analogous to new Pattern Reasoning. (Matrix Analogies was a mixed measure – Gf/Gc) Faces and Places revamped into new Verbal Knowledge Expressive Vocabulary extended ceiling. Face Recognition: focus on face, eliminated background details Triangles: improved floor (plastic manipulatives) Word Order: improved explanation of interference task & added a sample Riddles: new pictorial stimuli added to improve floor Expressive Vocabulary & Riddles are adapted from KABC Achievement scale. Neuro interest in Hand Movements and Gestalt Closure. (S) Supplementary

66 New KABC-II Subtests Atlantis (Immediate & Delayed)
Rebus (Immediate & Delayed) Conceptual Thinking (ages 3-6) Rover (ages 6-18) Block Counting (ages 5-18) Pattern Reasoning (ages 5-18) Story Completion (ages 6-18) Verbal Knowledge (ages 3-18) NOTE: Learning: Atlantis & Rebus (Glr) Knowledge: Verbal Knowledge (plus Expressive Vocabulary or Riddles depending on age) Simultaneous: Conceptual Thinking, Rover, Block Counting (Gv/Gf) (with Face Recognition, Triangles & Pattern Reasoning – depending on age) Planning: Pattern Reasoning & Story Completion (Gf) (at ages 7-18) Both can be administered at ages 4-6 but would be in the Simultaneous Scale Sequential: Same as in KABC – Word Order & Number Recall (no new tests, just improvements)

67 Sequence of Administration
Tests are numbered 1-18 in Easels and Record Form. Administer required core tests in numeric sequence. Age 3 - CHC Model 1. Atlantis (Easel 1) 2. Conceptual Thinking (Easel 1) 3. Face Recognition (Easel 1) 9. Expressive Vocabulary (Easel 2) 12. Triangles (Easel 3) 14. Word Order (Easel 4) 18. Riddles (Easel 4) Age 3 - Luria Model 1. Atlantis (Easel 1) 2. Conceptual Thinking (Easel 1) 3. Face Recognition (Easel 1) 12. Triangles (Easel 3) 14. Word Order (Easel 4)

68 Sequence of Administration
Age CHC Model 1. Atlantis (Easel 1) 4. Story Completion (Easel 1) 5. Number Recall (Easel 2) 7. Rover (Easel 2) 10. Verbal Knowledge (Easel 3) 11. Rebus (Easel 3) 12. Triangles (Easel 3) 14. Word Order (Easel 4) 15. Pattern Reasoning (Easel 4) 18. Riddles (Easel 4) Age Luria Model 1. Atlantis (Easel 1) 4. Story Completion (Easel 1) 5. Number Recall (Easel 2) 7. Rover (Easel 2) 11. Rebus (Easel 3) 12. Triangles (Easel 3) 14. Word Order (Easel 4) 15. Pattern Reasoning (Easel 4) Sequence shown by age on page 20 of Manual and back of Rover Booklet.

69 KABC-II Core Battery - Age 3
Atlantis Word Order Triangles Conceptual Thinking Face Recognition Riddles Expressive Vocabulary MPI or FCI composites only Luria CHC NOTE: Only global scores available No scales (mix of tasks Simultaneous, Sequential, and Learning…plus Knowledge if using CHC) 5 tests using Luria (Glr, Gsm, and Gv) 7 tests using CHC (2 Knowledge tests below dashed line)

70 Tests for Nonverbal Index
Easel 1: 2. Conceptual Thinking (3-6) 3. Face Recognition (3-5) 4. Story Completion (7-18) Easel 2: None Easel 3: 12. Triangles (3-18) Easel 4: 13. Block Counting (13-18) 15. Pattern Reasoning (5-18) 16. Hand Movements (3-18) 4 tests at ages 3-4 5 tests at all other ages

71 Using KABC-II with Bilingual Children
Permits teaching in any language or mode of communication during sample and teaching items (not including specific item stimuli) Accept correct verbal responses in other languages on tests requiring a verbal response, except Number Recall and Rebus (responses must be in English) Lists correct and Incorrect Spanish responses for Expressive Vocabulary, Gestalt Closure, and Riddles Includes Spanish wording of instructions for all tests with sample or teaching items Use Nonverbal Scale if child is not proficient in English NOTE: Not intended that KABC II be administered in Spanish. Except for Nonverbal Scale, it is for those proficient in English. Goal of samples & teaching is to be sure child understands the task. Correct responses in any language are acceptable on Knowledge tests (Expressive Vocabulary and Riddles). Verbal Knowledge is a receptive task requiring pointing only. Also, correct responses in other languages are acceptable on Gestalt Closure (a supplementary test of Simultaneous/Gv).

72 Supplementary Subtests
Administer after core subtests Use to explore hypotheses (added measure of core scales) Use for planned comparisons Use as a substitute if a core subtest is spoiled No prescribed sequence with one exception - Delayed Recall. At ages 5 and 13-18, you must administer a supplementary subtest to get the right delay interval. Knowledge/Gc tests are never used to obtain delay interval

73 Supplementary Tests 3 4 5 6 7-12 13-18 Gestalt Closure Number Recall
Gestalt Closure Number Recall Verbal Knowledge Gestalt Closure Hand Movements Verbal Knowledge Story Completion Hand Movements Verbal Knowledge Block Counting Gestalt Closure Atlantis Delayed Rebus Delayed Face Recognition Hand Movements Verbal Knowledge Block Counting Gestalt Closure Atlantis Delayed Rebus Delayed Hand Movements Block Counting Gestalt Closure Expressive Vocabulary Atlantis Delayed Rebus Delayed Hand Movements Triangles Gestalt Closure Expressive Vocabulary Atlantis Delayed Rebus Delayed

74 Record Form Features Circle number for all tests to be administered
Core Test for Ages 4-18 Sample or Teaching Items Start Points (after Sample) Basal/Discontinue Rules

75 Both are identified with an “apple.”
Samples and Teaching Items Both are identified with an “apple.” Samples do not count in the raw score. Samples are highlighted in green. Teaching Items do count in the raw score.

76 Qualitative Indicators (QI)
Optional list of QIs is provided for each test to guide observations of child’s behavior during testing. Disruptive QIs (-) Enhancing QIs (+) QIs (optional) Atlantis – Fails to sustain attention – Impulsively responds incorrectly – Reluctant to respond when uncertain – Responds negatively to correction + Unusually focused + Verbalizes a strategy for remembering After testing, QIs may be summarized on page 2 of Record Form. QIs developed in collaboration with Dr. Elaine Fletcher-Janzen.

77 Subtest: Atlantis Scale: Learning/Glr
You will see pictures of fish, plants, and shells, Each one has a name. This is KOH. Point to KOH. This is KOH Let child point to the picture (repeat instruction if necessary), then immediately turn page.

78 Subtest: Atlantis Scale: Learning/Glr
Point to KOH. Point to Koh.

79 Item 6 Starting point after Sample for age 6.
Subtest: Conceptual Thinking Scale: Simultaneous/Gv Item 6 Starting point after Sample for age 6. Point to the one that doesn’t belong. Which one doesn’t belong? If starting here and incorrect response is given, drop back to Item 1.

80 Start: All Ages See this person? Begin timing.
Subtest: Face Recognition Scale: Simultaneous/Gv Start: All Ages Begin timing. See this person? Expose the picture for 5 seconds, then immediately turn the page. NOTE: See this person? (Sample Exposure) Faces are cropped….eliminate background details.

81 Find that person here. Correct: Incorrect or no response:
Subtest: Face Recognition Scale: Simultaneous/Gv Find that person here. Correct: Go on to Item 1. Incorrect or no response: This is the person I showed you (point to person). Let’s try again. Turn back to the exposure page and repeat the item. Find that person here. Sample Response

82 If necessary, say What is this?
Subtest: Expressive Vocabulary Scale: Knowledge/Gc If necessary, say What is this? If child names a specific part instead of the whole object say Yes, but tell me the name of the whole thing. If the child names an irrelevant part of the picture, point to the intended object and say Yes, but tell me the name of this. What is this? (warthog)

83 Subtest: Triangles Scale: Simultaneous/Gv
Items have time limits. Begin timing when you turn the page. Stop timing when child is finished or time limit. Begin timing. Put these together to make one like this (point to easel). Record response times in seconds for ages (not at ages 3-6).

84 Starting Directions Subtest: Word Order Scale: Sequential/Gsm
Look at these pictures (point to the entire row). Point to the Star…Cup…Key…Bird…House. Correct the child as necessary and repeat until the child associates the appropriate word with each picture.

85 Riddles Subtest: Riddles Scale:Knowledge/Gc Pictures (Items 1-8)
Point to something that swims in the water and lives in a bowl. Point to an animal that gives milk. Point to something you can wear to keep warm. An oral response is acceptable. If oral response is incorrect, say Point to the answer.

86 Interpretation

87 Completing the Record Form
Front: Ages 7-18 Color-coded Record Form Score summaries on front and back covers Back: Ages 3-6

88 Subtests - (Ages 7-18) Color-coded Green = Learning Red = Sequential
Purple = Simultaneous Brown = Planning Blue = Knowledge Solid color = Core Test Colored Text = Supplemental Test Record raw score, scaled score, PR, and AE Use Tables D.1, D.4, D.5

89 Scale Indexes Record & sum scaled scores for each core test within a Scale Index Record the sums for each Scale Index in the appropriate column (FCI or MPI) Sum to obtain total for global index Record the SS, confidence intervals, and PR (Use Tables D.2 and D.4)

90 Range of Standard Scores
Global Scale Index Scale Index 40 to 160 50 to 155 131 or greater 116 to 130 85 to 115 70 to 84 69 or less Upper extreme Above average Average Below average Lower extreme Descriptive Category Range of Standard Scores NOTE: Break from previous tradition of average being

91 Nonverbal Index Record scaled scores for required subtests and sum
Record standard score, confidence interval, and PR (Tables D.2, D.4)

92 Profile of Scale Indexes
Page 3 of Record Form Profile of Scale Indexes

93 Analysis of Scale Indexes
Page 3 of Record Form

94 Inside back cover for ages 3-6
Profile and Analysis of Scale Indexes Inside back cover for ages 3-6 P. 23

95 Background Questions Page 2 of Record Form NOTE:

96 Summary of Qualitative Indicators
Optional Page 2 Record Form NOTE: Integrate this information with test results. (error analysis across tests) The QIs focus on observable behaviors, not diagnostic categories. The QIs are listed on the record form by each subtest to permit examiners to use these QIs as an optional procedure. The record form includes a place for the examiner to summarize these QIs (both negative behaviors and positive behaviors) shown above. This summary is intended to help examiners assess the validity of the obtained profile of scores, not to diagnose psychological problems. The QIs are not incorporated into the interpretive system presented in the KABC-II manual. Test-taking behaviors (how student approaches tasks) About 5% have behaviors that affect performance Verify impact across settings Strategies employed – shifting – especially when tasks get hard Process approach to assessment Valid reflection of student’s performance ** asks to repeat question **appears inattentive but isn’t Hard to distinguish between Executive Function problems and attention problems Often co-morbid with anxiety and depression

97 Ground Rules for Interpreting the KABC-II
Interpret a scale index only if performance is consistent on subtests that compose scale (base rate rule <10%) Use .05 level of statistical significance when determining personal strengths/weaknesses Consider differences that are both statistically significant and uncommon (<10%) to be potentially valuable for diagnosis and educational purposes NOTE: We provide interpretive guidelines that err on the side of caution. Verification with other data is a good thing and we encourage it. Examples of "other data" include background information, clinical observations of behavior during the evaluation and in alternate settings, scores on KABC-II supplementary subtests, scores on other tests from the child's record or during the present evaluation, and so forth. We recommend that statistically significant differences be verified with other data if these differences are not "uncommonly large" as a precaution to emphasize the importance of obtaining multiple sources of data.

98 Interpreting the Results
Step 1. Interpret the global scale index (FCI, MPI, or NVI) A. Consult Table D.2 to obtain SS and 90% or 95% confidence interval. Use Table D.4 for PR and Table 5.1 for category. B. If using NVI do not conduct any other interpretive steps. FCI Average Global Scale Index Standard Score 95% confidence interval Percentile Rank Descriptive Category

99 Interpreting the Results
Step 2. Interpret the profile of scale indexes to identify strengths and weaknesses (personal/relative and normative) A. Determine whether each scale is interpretable (unitary). B. Conduct normative analysis (relative to Average range of ) C. Conduct ipsative analysis (relative to child’s mean score) D. Determine if any scales that are personal strengths or weaknesses are infrequent. NOTE: Personal (or relative) strengths/weaknesses vs. Normative

100 Is Each Scale Interpretable?
Step 2A: Use base rate rule of <10%. See Record Form p. 3 for ages and p. 23 for ages 3-6.

101 What if a Scale is Not Interpretable?
Meaningfulness of Scale may be diminished, but the tests are not invalid. Provides rich, diagnostic information Identifies uncommon variability Provides divergent vs. convergent data Consider narrow abilities or task differences Use cross-battery assessment to explore Determine if tests within scale are a notable integrity (both > 12) or a notable limitation (both < 8) NOTE: Method of interpreting unitary and non-unitary scales is same as one recommended for WISC IV in Essentials book. If uncommon differences exist within the tests that comprise a Scale, the Scale composite’s meaningfulness is uninterpretable. With uncommonly divergent scores, the person’s abilities cannot be summed up with just one score. Unitary scores (tests are not uncommonly divergent) – interpret scale Divergent scores (tests are uncommonly divergent) do not interpret scale, but look at individual tasks, collect more information, etc. Notable integrity: 2 tests are uncommonly divergent but both are > to 12. Notable Limitation: 2 tests are uncommonly divergent, but both are < to 8.

102 Any Normative Strengths or Weaknesses?
Step 2B: Identify if any of the scales are a normative weakness (<85), or a normative strength >115.

103 Graphical Profile of Norm-Referenced Performance

104 Any Relative Strengths or Weaknesses?
Step 2C: Identify personal weaknesses or strengths in the scale profile. Calculate mean and difference from mean for each interpretable scale. Mean 92 Consult Tables on p. 3. See next slide.

105 Any Relative Strengths or Weaknesses?
Step 2D: Consult statistical significance and frequency table in Record Form (p. 3 or p. 23). NOTE: 3 tests to meet: Normative strength or weakness Personal s or w Uncommon Is it an asset (strength) or a weakness?

106 Step 3. Scale Comparisons
Interpreting the Results Optional Steps Step 3. Scale Comparisons A. Learning/Glr to Delayed Recall (5-18) B. Learning/Glr to Knowledge/Gc Step 4. Supplementary Subtest Analysis Compare to the mean scaled score of the core subtests in interpretable scales. B. See Table 5.3 (p. 55) of Manual for supplementary subtests by scale and age C. Consult Table D.10 to evaluate the size and frequency of the differences. NOTE: Planned Comparisons: Initial to delayed in Glr scale Glr to Gc Gv to Gc Gf/Gv to Glr/Gsm Q: Why no Sequential/Simultaneous comparison? A: That would be looking backward.

107 Zero Raw Scores Zero scores always require caution.
If child has more than 3 raw scores of 0, do not interpret the global scale index. If child has 2 of more raw scores on a scale, do not interpret the scale index.

108 Prorating is Permitted
Prorating for the FCI or MPI A maximum of two unusable tests Must have at least one valid subtest in each scale included in the global scale index Prorating for the NVI or the Simultaneous/Gv Scale Must have at least two usable subtests Compute the rounded average (mean) of the usable scaled scores and use as the score for the unusable subtest(s). Do not perform interpretive analysis with any scores obtained by prorating.

109 KABC-II : Summary Covers an extended age range: 3-18
Provides measurement of 5 Scales Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Uses Luria or CHC Theories Conormed with KTEA-II

110 “We are the most important element in evaluation…not the tests.”
Intelligent Testing “We are the most important element in evaluation…not the tests.” Alan S. Kaufman


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