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Chapter 10 Sanitary Facilities and Equipment

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Sanitary Facilities and Equipment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Sanitary Facilities and Equipment

2 Key Terms Coving NSF International UL Backflow Air Gap Potable Water

3 Test Your Food Safety Knowledge
A hose attached to a utility-sink faucet & left sitting in a bucket of dirty could contaminate the water supply. -True There must be a minimum of 20 foot-candles of light (215 lux) in a food-prep area. -False Handwashing stations are required in dishwashing & service areas. When mounted on legs, tabletop equipment must be at least 2 inches off the floor. Grease on an establishment’s ceiling can be a sign of inadequate ventilation.

4 Facility Design A well-designed kitchen will address: Workflow
It must keep food out of the temperature danger zone as much as possible It must limit the number of times food is handled Instructor Notes A facility should be designed so it will keep food safe and can be cleaned quickly and effectively. The workflow should keep food out of the temperature danger zone as much as possible and limit the number of times food is handled. For example, storage areas should be near the receiving area to prevent delays in storing food. Prep tables should be near coolers and freezers for the same reason. A good layout will also encourage good personal hygiene practices. The drawing in the slide shows a well-designed facility. 10-2

5 Facility Design A well-designed kitchen will address: continued
Contamination The risk of cross-contamination must be minimized Place equipment to prevent splashing or spillage from one piece of equipment to another Equipment accessibility Place equipment so staff can easily clean the facility and all equipment Instructor Notes Place equipment to prevent splashing or spillage from one piece of equipment onto another. For example, it is not a good practice to place the dirty-utensil table next to the salad-prep sink. Hard-to-reach areas are less likely to be cleaned. A well-planned layout makes it easier for staff to clean the facility and equipment. 10-3

6 Design Review Design plans may require approval by the local regulatory authority Benefits of a design review: Ensures design meets regulatory requirements Ensures safe flow of food May save time and money Instructor Notes Before starting any new construction or a large remodeling project, check with your local regulatory authority. You may need approval for your design plan. Even if you don’t need approval, you should ask your regulatory authority to review the plan. 10-4

7 Material Selection for Interior Surfaces
Flooring must be: Smooth Nonabsorbent Easy to clean Durable For use in these areas: Food prep and storage Dishwashing Walk-in coolers Restrooms 10-5

8 Material Selection for Interior Surfaces
Coving Curved, sealed edge placed between the floor and wall Eliminates sharp corners or gaps that are hard to clean Must be glued tightly to the wall to: Eliminate hiding places for pests Protect the wall from moisture 10-6

9 Walls, Ceilings, and Doors
Materials for walls, ceilings, and doors must be: Smooth Nonabsorbent Easy to clean Durable Instructor Notes Light colors are recommended for walls and ceilings. Walls should be able to withstand repeated washing. 10-7

10 Equipment Selection Purchase equipment with food-contact surfaces that are: Safe for contact with food Nonabsorbent, smooth and corrosion resistant Easy to clean and maintain Durable—stands up to heavy use and repeated cleaning Resistant to pitting, chipping, scratching, and decomposition Instructor Notes Equipment must meet certain standards that depend on whether or not the equipment’s surfaces come in direct contact with food. Food-contact surfaces must also resist crazing (spider cracks), scoring, and distortion. 10-8

11 Equipment Selection Purchase equipment with nonfood-contact surfaces that are: Nonabsorbent, smooth, and corrosion resistant Easy to clean and maintain Free of unnecessary ledges, projections, and crevices Instructor Notes Nonfood-contact surfaces aren’t designed for direct contact with food, but food may splash or spill onto them. 10-9

12 Equipment Selection Look for the following marks when purchasing equipment: NSF mark: Equipment has been evaluated, tested, and certified as meeting NSF’s food-equipment standards Instructor Notes Fortunately, there are organizations to help with the task of choosing equipment. Look for the NSF mark or the UL classified or UL EPH listed marks on foodservice equipment. Only use equipment designed for use in a foodservice operation. NSF creates standards for foodservice equipment. It also certifies equipment. The NSF mark means an item has been evaluated, tested, and certified by NSF as meeting its food-equipment standards. 10-10

13 Equipment Selection Look for the following marks when purchasing equipment: continued Underwriters Laboratory (UL) mark: Provides classification listings for equipment meeting ANSI/NSF standards Underwriters Laboratory (UL) EPH mark: Equipment meets UL environmental and public-health standards Instructor Notes Underwriters Laboratories (UL) provides classification listings for equipment that meets ANSI/NSF standards. UL also certifies items that meet its own standards for environmental and public health (EPH). Equipment that meets UL EPH standards is also acceptable for foodservice use. This is shown by the UL EPH Listed mark. 10-11

14 Installing and Maintaining Equipment
Floor-mounted equipment should be either: Mounted on legs at least 6 inches (15 centimeters) high Sealed to a masonry base Instructor Notes Stationary equipment should be easy to clean and easy to clean around. How you install it can make a big difference. When installing equipment, follow manufacturers’ recommendations. Also, check with your regulatory authority for requirements. Seal any gaps between equipment and surrounding countertops and walls. 10-12

15 Installing and Maintaining Equipment
Tabletop equipment should be either: Mounted on legs at least 4 inches (10 centimeters) high Sealed to the countertop Instructor Notes Seal any gaps between equipment and surrounding countertops and walls. 10-13

16 Installing and Maintaining Equipment
Once equipment has been installed: It must be maintained regularly Only qualified people should maintain it Set up a maintenance schedule with your supplier or manufacturer Check equipment regularly to make sure it is working right 10-14

17 Dishwashing Machines When selecting and installing dishwashing machines: Post information about settings on the machine Water temperature Conveyor speed Water pressure Position the machine so its thermometer is readable Instructor Notes The machine thermometer should show the temperature in increments of no greater than 2°F (1°C). 10-15

18 Handwashing Stations Handwashing stations must be conveniently located and are required in: Restrooms Food-prep areas Service areas Dishwashing areas Instructor Notes Handwashing stations must be put in areas that make it easy for staff to wash their hands often. These stations must work right and be well stocked and maintained. 10-16

19 Hot and cold running water
Handwashing Stations Handwashing stations must have: Hot and cold running water Soap A way to dry hands Instructor Notes Hot and cold water must be supplied through a mixing valve or combination faucet at a temperature of at least 100ºF (38ºC). The soap can be liquid, bar, or powder. Most local codes require disposable paper towels. A warm-air dryer may be used as a backup. If continuous cloth towel systems are allowed for your operation, only use them if the unit is working correctly. Also, make sure the towel rolls are checked and changed regularly. Do not use common cloth towels. They can transfer dirt and pathogens from one person’s hands to another’s. Garbage containers are required if disposable paper towels are used. There must be a sign that tells employees to wash hands before returning to work. The message should be in all languages used by employees in the operation. Trash container Signage 10-17

20 Utilities and Building Systems
Acceptable sources of potable water: Approved public water mains Regularly tested and maintained private sources Closed, portable water containers Water transport vehicles Instructor Notes An operation uses many utilities and building systems. Utilities include water, electricity, gas, sewage, and garbage disposal. Building systems include plumbing, lighting, and ventilation. There must be enough utilities to meet the needs of the operation. In addition, the utilities and systems must work correctly. If they do not, the risk of contamination is greater. Having safe water is critical. When water is safe to drink, it is called potable. If your operation uses a private water supply, such as a well, you must make sure the water is safe to use. Check with your local regulatory authority for information on inspections, testing, and other requirements. Generally, you should test private water systems at least once a year. Keep these test reports on file. 10-18

21 Utilities and Building Systems
Only licensed plumbers should: Install plumbing systems Install grease traps Repair leaks from overhead pipes Instructor Notes Plumbing that is not installed or maintained the right way can allow potable and unsafe water to be mixed. This can cause foodborne-illness outbreaks. Have only licensed plumbers work on the plumbing in your operation. A buildup of grease in pipes is another common problem in plumbing systems. Grease traps are often installed to prevent a grease buildup from blocking the drain. If used, they should be put in by a licensed plumber and be easy to access. Also, make sure they are cleaned regularly following the manufacturer’s recommendations. If the traps are not cleaned often enough or correctly, dirty water can back up. This backup could lead to odors and contamination. Overhead wastewater pipes or fire-safety sprinkler systems can leak and cause contamination. Even overhead pipes carrying potable water can be a problem. This is because water can condense on the pipes and drip onto food. Check all pipes regularly to make sure they are in good shape and do not leak. 10-19

22 Utilities and Building Systems
Cross-Connection Physical link between safe water and dirty water from: Drains Sewers Other wastewater sources Backflow Reverse flow of contaminants through a cross-connection into the potable water supply Instructor Notes A cross-connection is dangerous because it can let backflow occur. Backflow is the reverse flow of contaminants through a cross-connection into a potable water supply. Backflow can happen when the pressure in a potable water supply drops below the pressure of dirty water. The pressure difference can pull the dirty water into the safe water supply. The graphic in the slide shows both a cross-connection and backflow. A running faucet below the flood rim of a sink is an example of a cross-connection that can lead to backflow. A running hose in a mop bucket is another example. 10-20

23 Utilities and Building Systems
Backflow Prevention Methods Vacuum breaker Air gap Instructor Notes The best way to prevent backflow is to avoid creating a cross-connection. Do not attach a hose to a faucet unless a backflow prevention device, such as a vacuum breaker, is attached. Threaded faucets and connections between two piping systems must have a vacuum breaker or other approved backflow prevention devices. Even if these devices are installed, never create a cross-connection. This way, if the device breaks, your water supply will not be endangered. The only sure way to prevent a backflow is to create an air gap. An air gap is an air space that separates a water supply outlet from a potentially contaminated source. A sink that is correctly designed and installed usually has two air gaps, as shown in the graphic on the slide. One is between the faucet and the flood rim of the sink. The other is between the drainpipe of the sink and the floor drain of the operation. 10-21

24 Sewer If raw sewage backs up in your operation:
Close the affected area right away Fix the problem Thoroughly clean the area Instructor Notes Sewage and wastewater are contaminated with pathogens, dirt, and chemicals. You must prevent them from contaminating food or food-contact surfaces. If raw sewage backs up in your operation, close the affected area right away. Then fix the problem and thoroughly clean the area. A facility’s drain system must be able to handle all wastewater. Areas with a lot of water should have floor drains. 10-22

25 Minimum Lighting Intensity Requirements
50 foot-candles (540 lux) in: Prep areas 10 foot-candles (108 lux) in: Walk-in coolers and freezers Dry-storage areas Dining rooms (for cleaning purposes) 20 foot-candles (215 lux) in: All other areas Instructor Notes Good lighting has many benefits. It helps improve work habits and makes it easier to clean things. It also provides a safer environment. Lighting requirements are usually measured in units called foot-candles or lux. 10-23

26 Lighting To prevent contamination from lighting use:
Shatter-resistant lightbulbs Protective covers Instructor Notes All lights should have shatter-resistant lightbulbs or protective covers. These products prevent broken glass from contaminating food or food-contact surfaces. 10-24

27 Ventilation Ventilation Systems
If adequate, there will be little buildup of grease and condensation on walls and ceilings Hoods, fans, and ductwork must not drip onto food or equipment Hood filters or grease extractors must be tight fitting and cleaned regularly Hoods and ductwork must be cleaned periodically by professionals Instructor Notes Ventilation improves the air inside an operation. It removes odors, gases, grease, dirt, and mold that can cause contamination. It is the manager’s responsibility to see that the ventilation system meets regulatory requirements. 10-25

28 Garbage Garbage Remove from prep areas as quickly as possible to prevent Odors Pests Possible contamination Clean the inside and outside of containers frequently Clean them away from food-prep and storage areas Instructor Notes Garbage can attract pests and contaminate food, equipment, and utensils if not handled the right way. 10-26

29 Garbage Garbage containers must be: Outdoor containers must be:
Leak proof, waterproof, and pest proof Easy to clean Lined Outdoor containers must be: Placed on a smooth, nonabsorbent surface Covered at all times Instructor Notes Line garbage containers with plastic bags or wet-strength paper bags. Outdoor containers must have tight-fitting lids and must be kept covered at all times. Keep their drain plugs in place. 10-27

30 Maintaining the Facility
To prevent food safety problems: Clean the operation regularly Check building systems to make sure they work Make sure the building is free of cracks Control pests Maintain the building exterior Instructor Notes Poor maintenance can cause food safety problems in your operation. Make sure the building is sound. There should be no leaks, holes, or cracks in the floors, foundation, ceilings, or windows. Maintain the outside of the building and property, including patios and parking lots. 10-28

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