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Wide Range Achievement Test

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Presentation on theme: "Wide Range Achievement Test"— Presentation transcript:

1 Wide Range Achievement Test
WRAT4 Authors: Gary S. Wilkinson, PhD Gary J. Robertson, PhD

2 History WRAT4 test series originated in the 1930s
First published for use in 1946 Most recent edition, WRAT3, was published in 1993 Widespread use in a variety of settings as measures of the basic academic skills necessary for effective learning, communication, and thinking: Reading Spelling words Mathematical calculations

3 Structure Two alternate forms (Blue Form and Green Form)
Can be used interchangeably with comparable results Allows for retesting within short periods of time without practice effects Can also be administered together (Combined Form) for those interested in a more qualitative assessment and additional opportunity for performance observation

4 Structure Four Subtests Word Reading Sentence Comprehension
Math Computation Spelling The Word Reading Subtest and Sentence Comprehension Subtest can be combined into a Reading Composite

5 WRAT4 Subtest/Composite Configuration
Word Reading Subtest Sentence Comprehension Subtest Math Computation Subtest Spelling Subtest Reading Composite

6 Word Reading Measures letter and word decoding through letter identification and word recognition

7 Sentence Comprehension
Measures an individual’s ability to gain meaning from words and to comprehend ideas and information contained in sentences through the use of a modified cloze technique. A cloze technique is one where a portion of a sentence or phrase is removed and must be provided by the examinee. E.g., My ____ likes a clean litter box.

8 Sentence Completion Guidelines
Avoidance of specialized content that would give undue advantage to individuals having such specialized knowledge of the topics selected Content drawn from a variety of subjects Appropriate for both female and male participants and all racial/ethnic groups Contain material that is timeless

9 Sentence Completion Guidelines
Avoidance of topics that might evoke negative affect in examinees Written for the assigned target grade levels, with difficulty estimate of words contained in an item Part of speech required for correct responses are varied As few correct responses (both synonyms and non-synonyms) as possible

10 Math Computation Measures an individual’s ability to perform basic mathematics computations through counting, identifying numbers, solving simple oral problems, and calculating written mathematics problems

11 Spelling Measures an individual’s ability to encode sounds into written form through the use of a dictated spelling format containing both letters and words

12 Standardization Sample
National standardization sample n≥3000 Stratification Variables: Age 5 through 94 Grades K - 12 Race/Ethnicity Parent/Self Education Level Gender Region: Northeast, South, North Central, West Sample included students with disabilities (5%)

13 Reliability Internal Consistency Age
.87 to .96 Median Reliabilities for Subtests and Composites by Form

14 Reliability Test-Retest Reliability Time interval between testing:
Word Reading Sentence Comprehension .78 Spelling Math Computation .88 Time interval between testing: Within one month

15 Validity Internal Evidence of Validity Content review
Evidence based on developmental changes Item bias analysis Differential Item Functioning Expert review

16 Validity External Evidence of Validity
Correlations with individual achievement tests: WIAT II Reading Comp Math Comp Word Reading Sentence Comprehension Math Computation (n=33) WRAT-4

17 Validity External Evidence of Validity
Correlations with individual achievement tests: WJ 3 Achievement Broad Reading Broad Math Reading Composite Math Computation (n=31) WRAT-4

18 General Administration Guidelines
“Those who use psychological tests should confine their testing and related assessment activities to their areas of competence, as demonstrated through education, supervised training, experience, and appropriate credentialing” (Standard 12.1 of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council in Measurement in Education, 1999, p. 131)

19 General Administration Guidelines
Read the professional manual Practice administration of the test Adhere to the standard administration procedures Establish rapport with participants Maintain objectivity in evaluating responses Maintain confidentiality about the assessment process and the test results

20 General Administration Guidelines
Security of the testing materials: Primary responsibility of test users Store in a safe place Under no circumstances should Participants be permitted to see the test items other than in the formal testing session Correct responses should not be shared Photocopying of record forms, test items, or any part of the WRAT4 Professional Manual, including the normative tables, is strictly prohibited by copyright law Unauthorized reproduction compromises the security of the test and could invalidate test results

21 General Administration Guidelines
The Word Reading subtest, the Sentence Comprehension subtest, and Part 1 of the Spelling and Math Computation subtests must be administered individually Part 2 of the Spelling subtest and Math Computation subtests can be administered in a small-group format Administration time varies but is estimated at 15 and 25 minutes for younger children (ages 5 to 7 years) and 30 and 45 minutes for children 8 years or older and adults

22 Basals and Ceilings: WRAT-4
Basal: Assumption: all items administered before the basal is scored as correct Ceiling: Assumption: all items administered after the basal is scored as incorrect. 5/10 rule: Basal = 5 in a row correct starting with first item administered Ceiling = 10 in a row incorrect ending with last item administered 5/7 rule: 5/10 rule but with ceiling = 7 in a row.

23 Combined Form Scores For an assessment based on more items than the number contained in a single form, you may wish to administer both the Blue and Green forms and combine the results The back page of the Test Form provides a space to calculate scores for the Combined Form Instructions for score calculation are included in the manual

24 Interpretation Mean of 100, standard deviation of 15
Examine score profile, deviations from the norm, and large differences between subtest scores Examine responses for qualitative trends and error patterns

25 Interpretation Implications of Reliability and Validity studies:
Subtests measure beginning skills with considerable precision, a direct result of including the 15 preliminary skill items designated Letter Reading, Letter Writing, and Oral Math All of the subtests measure the beginning and average skill levels with precision throughout the entire age and grade ranges for which the WRAT4 is designed

26 Interpretation The Sentence Comprehension subtest and, to an extent, the Word Reading subtest, by their very nature, do not measure the skills of above-average and advanced readers at the later adolescent and early-to-middle adult years with the same degree of precision For these individuals, a reading comprehension test containing longer reading passages that measure literal and inferential reading skills is recommended

27 Applications Ease of administration and the simplicity of make it useful for assessment professionals who can use the results to: Collect initial data for psychological, educational, and vocational assessments Screen large groups of individuals to identify those who need to be evaluated more thoroughly for academic problems Reevaluate individuals diagnosed with learning and/or cognitive disorders Contribute to research projects needing assessment of basic academic skills for pretesting and posttesting purposes

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