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Bernice Packford Thats the topic and youre the speaker.

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2 Bernice Packford Thats the topic and youre the speaker

3 Dont Mock the Artisanal-Pickle Makers New York Times, Mon, 02/27/2012, By Adam Davidson Rickls Pickles

4 American educator and philosopher John Dewey defined freedom as the power to choose among known alternatives.

5 Locally, money is like blood. It needs to keep moving around to keep the economy going… When you dont spend locally, it flows out, like a wound.

6 How does money come into our local economy?

7 How do we keep the bucket full? Problems of leakage: movement of money outside of the area it was spent in Fill it faster (more sources of income) This is what buying locally can do!

8 2001 BC tax cuts of $2.1 billion BC has weak manufacturing base, so much of what we buy comes from outside of the province. Many of the services we purchase are also created outside the province and the country Where did it go??? $.5 billion left the country

9 How much of your gas dollar stays in the community? Of every dollar spent on gasoline, only $.15 stays in the community Leakage! Heading to Invermere $$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$ Heading to Alberta?? And what can we do about it??

10 Big Box stores are major sources of leakage out of local economies Average portion of $100 spent at a Target store that stays in the local economy: $16 Average portion of $100 spent at independent retailers that stays in the local economy: $32 Average amount of local wages paid for every $100 spent at a full-service chain restaurant: $18.68 Average amount of local wages paid for every $100 spent at a full-service locally owned restaurant: $28.46 index Chicago: compared ten locally owned restaurants, retail stores, and service providers with chains competing in the same categories. Every $100 spent at one of the independent businesses created $68 in additional economic activity… Spending the same amount at a chain generated $43 worth of local impact. (Civic Economics, The Andersonville Study of Retail Economics, 2004.)

11 "As stores closed in the city enclaves, as well as in suburban and rural malls… Retail stores are boarded up, marked with graffiti and as jobs are lost in the neighborhood, even neighborhood housing also begins to decay. Welfare rolls rise, crime and violence increase and unemployed youth often turn to underground employment, drugs, crime, school truancy and eventual drop out from both school and society… Shils, E. B. (1997). The Shils report: measuring the economic and sociological impact of the mega-retail discount chains on small enterprise in urban, suburban and rural communities: The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Carries 15,000 containers, goes rom China to LA in four days

12 What happens when large retailers move in? Lose local infrastructure support. Local warehousing is lost Banking, legal, accounting and other local services are not needed by the large chains. Kill local business. Significant monetary leakage out of community Significant monetary leakage out of community Revenues gained by the large discount chains are actually money lost from local merchants.

13 Regional impacts: studies show that towns outside of Wal-Marts lost sales on average of 25% because of customers moving out to shop at the chains. Local businesses use local business, so when a small retailer goes down, others in the community are weakened by that loss.

14 Superstores harm communities Low prices have hidden costs weaken downtown and Main Streets Waste or abandonment of previous public and private investments in existing community assets Displace locally owned businesses that contribute to local civic life increase property taxes by needing costly services: roads, water and sewer lines etc. Barnstable, MA: the annual cost of providing city services to traditional downtown and neighborhood business districts was $786 per 1,000 ft 2. Big-box stores were 30% more costly, requiring $1,023 in services per 1,000 ft 2. (Tischler & Associates, Fiscal Impact Analysis of Residential and Nonresidential Land Use Prototypes, 2002) Homogenizes communities Encourages sprawl and greater dependence on autos Money leaves community to pay distant shareholders

15 On average, Wal-Mart store openings reduce retail employment by about 2.7%, implying that each Wal-Mart employee replaces about 1.4 employees in the rest of the retail sector. Retail earnings at the county level also decline as a result of Wal- Mart entry, by about 1.3%. Neumark, D., Zhang, J., & Ciccarella, S. (2007). The Effects of Wal-Mart on Local Labor Markets. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor. In discussing Wal-Mart's future growth and expansion plans, David D. Glass, Chief Executive Officer, said: "We're going to dominate North America."

16 HAS WAL-MART BURIED MOM AND POP?: THE IMPACT OF WAL-MART ON SELF-EMPLOYMENT AND SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES Contrary to popular belief, our results suggest that the process of creative destruction unleashed by Wal-Mart has had no statistically significant long-run impact on the overall size and profitability of the small business sector in the United States. Sobel & Dean. (2008). HAS WAL-MART BURIED MOM AND POP?: THE IMPACT OF WAL-MART ON SELF-EMPLOYMENT AND SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES. Economic Inquiry; Oct 2008; 46, 4; pg. 676

17 WAL-MART AND SOCIAL CAPITAL Our results indicate that the presence of Wal-Mart depresses social capital stocks in local communities… these externalities represent real costs for communities in the form of reduced economic growth. Our results also indicate that community leaders should think carefully about providing infrastructure development subsidies to the chain. Given the measurable impact that social capital has on economic well-being, our findings are important. Less clear is what should or could be done about this… Local county leaders should be made aware of the likely adverse effects of the chain on local civic capacity and social capital, and consider implementing policies and programs to help mitigate these effects. Goetz, S. J., & Rupasingha, A. (2006). Wal-Mart and social capital American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(5).

18 WalMarts presence depresses voter turnout on election day, signifying a reduction in local social capital and civic capacity (or, in this case, activity)… In the case of tax-exempt non-profit organizations per 10,000 we again have the expected sign and statistical significance for both Wal-Mart variables at below the 1 % level. In particular, local lawyers, accountants and bankers provide essential support services for the mom-and-pop stores, and these individuals typically are community leaders. With the arrival of Wal-Mart, and the attendant reduction in the demand for their services, they leave the community to pursue opportunities elsewhere. In the process, the social capital they embody is destroyed, and their entrepreneurial skills and other forms of location-specific human capital are forever lost to the community… Goetz, S. J., & Rupasingha, A. (2006). Wal-Mart and social capital. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(5), 1304- 1310. WAL-MART AND SOCIAL CAPITAL


20 Go Local Buy Local -- Support yourself: more of your money is used to make purchases from other local businesses, service providers and farms. Support community groups: Non-profit organizations receive an average 250% more support from smaller business owners than they do from large businesses. Keep our community unique: Our community is our home. Tourism also benefit. When people go on vacation they generally seek out destinations that offer them the sense of being someplace, not just anyplace. Big-Box Economic Impact Studies:

21 Reduce environmental impact: Locally owned businesses make more local purchases, and are generally set in town or city centers as opposed to developing on the fringe: less sprawl, congestion, habitat loss and pollution. Create more good jobs: Small & local businesses are the largest employers. Get better service: Local businesses often hire people with a better understanding of the products Big-Box Economic Impact Studies:

22 Invest in community: Local businesses are owned by people who live in this community, are less likely to leave, and are more invested in the communitys future. Put your taxes to good use: Local businesses in town centers require comparatively little infrastructure investment and make efficient use of public services Encourage local prosperity: In an increasingly homogenized world, entrepreneurs and skilled workers are more likely to invest and settle in communities that preserve their businesses and distinctive character. Big-Box Economic Impact Studies:

23 Why local foods? The land is there for growing There are benefits to our children to be engaged in growing food Locally fresh food is healthier and less likely to have pesticides or biocontaminants It increases the security of our communities It keeps our money flowing around our communities

24 How do we get there? Consider a big box/chain-store descent plan… At the same time considering a local purchasing ascent plan… Lots Little Now In the near future How Could You Switch 1% Of Your Budget To Be Spent Locally

25 Plug the leaks Keeps wealth closer to home Keeps it going around the local economy Supports your neighbours Puts your money where your mouth is. More local foods Buy from non-chain businesses Use less fossil fuels Use local banking/cred it unions Engage with your neighbours to strengthen your community!

26 So why are we not building strong communities through increased local economic activity? Pressure Change hi Hi lo Lo Change Lo Hi AttractionResistance

27 Change hi Hi Potentially keeps change from happening LOLO Change Lo Practical real-world reasons to not change Psychological defense-based reasons to not change

28 The conservative impulse: … the tendency of adaptive beings to assimilate reality to their existing structure, and so to avoid or reorganize parts of the environment which cannot be assimilated. (Marris, 1974 p. 4)


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31 Greenwash Disinformation disseminated by an organisation, etc., so as to present an environmentally responsible public image; a public image of environmental responsibility promulgated by or for an organisation, etc., but perceived as being unfounded or intentionally misleading.

32 Greenwash Media coverage of Greenwash, based on a review of 30 national UK newspapers Futerra Sustainability Communications. (n.d.). The Greenwash guide. London, UK. Walmarts Growth Will Offset Its Planned Energy SavingsWalmarts Growth Will Offset Its Planned Energy Savings. Walmarts new stores will use more energy that its energy-saving measures will save… New stores built in 2007 alone, however, will consume enough electricity to add approximately one million metric tons of CO2 to the atmosphere. Walmart Leaves Empty Buildings Behind. Walmart Leaves Empty Buildings Behind. In the United States alone, Walmart has abandoned over 300 of its stores… resulting in over 500 million square feet of unused retail space.

33 Pressure Push towards change is a response to a pressure moving people from their status quo not necessarily by choice, but because of some compulsion that drives them to move Change Pressure hi lo Potentially push towards change

34 Pressure Change Terror Soviet Union Gulag, 1932 Toronto Canada 2010

35 Terror Persuasion Reciprocation Consistency Social proof Liking Authority Scarcity Pressure Change

36 Pressure … dramatic, sensational, fearful, shocking, and other climate change representations of a similar ilk can successfully capture peoples attention to the issue of climate change and drive a general sense of the importance of the issue. However, they are also likely to distance or disengage individuals from climate change, tending to render them feeling helpless and overwhelmed when they try to comprehend their own relationship with the issue. O'Neill, S., & Nicholson-Cole, S. (2009). "Fear won't do it": Promoting positive engagement with climate change through visual and iconic representations. Science Communication, 30(3), 355-379. Terror Persuasion Fear campaigns


38 a norm is a rule or principle that specifies actions which are required, permissible or forbidden independently of any legal or social institution Change Pressure Descriptive-norm only condition: how much energy they had used in the previous week actual energy consumption of the average household in their neighborhood during that same period preprinted suggestions for how to conserve energy 1200 San Diego households getting weekly doorhangers with information Terror Persuasion Fear campaigns Norms

39 Descriptive-plus-injunctive-information condition Same information as the descriptive- norm-only group, with one addition: If the household had consumed <average, the researcher drew a If the household had consumed >average, the researcher drew a Terror Persuasion Fear campaigns Norms Schultz, P. W., Nolan, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., Goldstein, N. J., & Griskevicius, V. (2007). The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms. Psychological Science, 18(5), 429-434.

40 Social change does not depend on correct analysis. It depends on motivation. moral compass Integrity Responsibility Forgiveness Compassion Change Pressure hi lo He stood up again and again in front of big audiences and told them that pretty much everything they knew, learned, and were doing was destroying the earth. He meant every word he spoke… Ray Anderson, Interface Flooring

41 Attraction hi lo Potentially pull towards change

42 ... the future may well be decided by the images of the future with the greatest power to capture our imaginations and draw us to them, becoming self-fulfilling prophecies." The rise and fall of images of the future precedes or accompanies the rise and fall of cultures. Polak, (1973) Image of the future.

43 Attraction Change hi lo What do we desire that can pull us towards a positive and pro-environmental change? ? How do we move from where we are now to the desired future? Given what we know, how do we help develop new visions, and then provide ourselves and others with the tools to begin to enact those visions?

44 Images that motivate for change BelievableThe image of the future cannot be dismissed as an impossible fantasy… Highly PositiveThe image has a visionary, inspirational quality that attracts people and motivates them to act to make the future like the image… Open EndedThe image of the future is not rigid or static; it points in new directions but invites further elaboration. ResponsiveThe image addresses specific challenges facing the society; it revises the most obsolete aspects of the society's previously dominant images of the future. IntegrativeThe image helps revitalize the society's sense of meaning and purpose by providing individuals with a comprehensive story of "what is happening" and "what could be. Olson, R. L. (1995). Sustainability as a social vision. Journal of Social Issues, 51(4), 15-35.

45 So where do we go? Pressure AttractionResistance Change hi HIHI lo Change lo LO Push Pull Hold on

46 I have a dream…. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. Dreamers dream about things being different. Visionaries envision themselves making the difference.

47 å The best strategy is a vision, not a plan (Henry Mintzberg ) If you want to build a ship, don't drum up people together to collect wood and don't assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea (Antoine de Saint-Exupery)

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