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Presentation on theme: "THE CARNIVAL IN VENICE."— Presentation transcript:


2 HISTORY STORIA The Carnival in Venice is said to be originated from an important victory of the "Repubblica della Serenissima" (how it was called the town of VENEZIA in those times), in the war against Ulrico, Patriarch of Aquileia, in the year To celebrate this victory, dances and reunions started to take place in SAN MARCO SQUARE. We should not forget that at the time Venice was a rather powerful small republic, center of much traveling inside Italy and on the road to China. At the beginning, this celebration started the day after Christmas and went on like that for several centuries , until the 17th  century . As regards the use of masks, the oldest document dates back to 2nd May From the early 14th century onwards, new laws started to be promulgated, with the aim of stopping the moral decline of the Venetian people of the day.This restrictive carnival legislation started with a decree prohibiting masquerades from going around the city at night. In 1608, to avoid the terrible consequences of the immoral behaviour deriving from wearing masks throughout the year, every citizen, nobleman and foreigner alike, was obliged to only wear a mask during the days of carnival and at official banquets.The penalities inflicted for breaking this law were heavy. After the fall of the Republic, the Austrian government forbade the use of masks for both private and elite parties Si dice che il Carnevale veneziano derivi le proprie origini da un’importante vittoria della Serenissima contro Ulrico, celebrata, all’epoca, con riunioni e danze in Piazza S.Marco. Agli inizi,il Carnevale cominciava il giorno dopo il Natale e questa usanza continuò fino al 17° secolo. L’uso delle maschere risale alla seconda metà del 1600 ; i Veneziani portavano la maschera durante tutto l’anno e spesso se ne servivano per commettere atti immorali o contro la legge .Per questa ragione, dal 1608 fu consentito l’uso della maschera soltanto durante il periodo del Carnevale.

3 Alcune delle maschere che vediamo oggi in giro per Venezia sono le famose e tipiche tradizionali maschere Some of the masks we see walking around in Venice streets are the typical, famous masks that lived through centuries in the fantasy and tradition of the Carnival of Venice. Other masks did not become so famous, or weren't used for impersonations by the Commedia dell'Arte, but still are fascinating and alive in art and memories.

4 La Bautta è considerata la maschera tradizionale veneziana, fatta in un modo che renda possibile mangiare e bere senza essere tolta ; è sempre bianca e non è soltanto una maschera carnevalesca poiché, all’epoca, veniva usata tutto l’anno, soprattutto quando si voleva nascondere la propria identità. The Bauta is considered the traditional Venetian mask, the one mostly used to cover your features, made in a way that it is still possible to eat and drink without having to take it off. The Bauta is always white, and it is not only a Carnival mask, in the sense in those times ,it could also be used all year long, to protect one's identity. In a way, the Bauta was some kind of leveler. All ages, all social status could get together, all of them wearing a mask and concealing their true identity.

5 THE FACE IL VOLTO The "Volto" was the more common mask used in Venice for centuries. Volto means "face" to design that is was the most common, simplest mask. Also called "Larva", with the possible meaning of  "ghost", as it gives an unreal appearance to the people wearing it, just imagine ... at night, under a full moon ... in those narrow streets ... Il “ volto” è stata la maschera più usata a Venezia per secoli Chiamata anche “Larva”, con il possibile significato di “fantasma”..

The "Plague Doctor" may be considered a mask nowadays, but , at the time, it was a sad reality. The mask with the long beak is made to keep in it substances and aromas that would have protected the doctor from getting contaminated from the plague. Considerata oggi una maschera, un tempo era una trista realtà. Si diceva che il lungo becco contenesse sostanze ed aromi che avrebbero protetto il medico dalla peste.

7 MORETTA Misteriosa ed intrigante: questa la ragione del grande successo della “Moretta”, maschera usata soltanto dalle donne. Mysterious and intriguing , this is the reason of the great success of this mask, the so called “Moretta” (meaning "Dark", because of its  color) , which was used by women only.

8 GNAGA Carnival is also transvestitism, appearing in different clothes, different personality. No exception in Venice. Men in women's clothing, usually. At times , the Gnagas were going around the city carrying with them young babies, or accompanying with other men dressed as infants, to make the tease even more exaggerated. Carnevale è anche travestirsi , apparire sotto abiti diversi, diversa personalità. Venezia non faceva eccezione .: gli uomini si travestivano da donna. Se ne andavano in giro portando con sé bambini piccoli, o in compagnia di altri uomini vestiti come fanciulli, per rendere il travestimento ancora più esagerato.


10 ARLECCHINO HARLEQUIN Who does not know this mask ?
Harlequin, a poor character, wearing a colorful patched costume, the patches probably remnants of richer costumes. From a primitive naïve and simple character, he evolves into a smart, more sophisticated one, that with his simplicity outwits all the arrogant and greedy personages with whom he interacts. Anarchic kind of behavior, always hungry and with no money, in modern times he could have been a hippie. The evolution of the character (1572) went on until the 18th century, when it became too sophisticated, no more wit, the hunger and fantasy gone Chi non lo conosce ? Arlecchino , un personaggio povero, che indossa un costume colorato a pezze, probabilmente gli avanzi di un costume più ricco.Sempre affamato, senza soldi, questo personaggio si è evoluto dal 1572 fino al 18° secolo, quando è divenuto troppo sofisticato e senza l’arguzia di un tempo.

11 PANTALOON PANTALONE We see here the mask of Pantaloon ( Panatalone ), The Venetian merchant, rich, greedy and naïve. From merchant to nobleman, always having to deal with people trying to take his gold from him, always losing against wit and improvisation, at times even pleasant for the trust he feels for the others, that on the other hand don't care for anything different than his money. Old but athletic, Pantaloon plays the ideal counterpart of an Harlequin always without money Pantalone, il ricco mercante veneziano, che sempre ha a che fare con gente che cerca di ottenere il suo denaro ; vecchio ma atletico, rappresenta la controparte ideale di Arlecchino che, al contrario di lui, è sempre senza denaro.

12 Colombina debutta col suo nome soltanto alla fine del 17° secolo come soubrette della Commedia dell’Arte. Colombina è l’esatto contrario dell’Innamorata : libera, insolente, non succube dei legami amorosi, talvolta brillante, chiacchierona , pettegola. Una specie di Arlecchino in abiti femminili , di solito è proprio la compagna di Arlecchino e l’unica donna ad indossare la maschera sul palcoscenico. COLOMBINA Colombina debuts with this name only by the end of 17th century as the Soubrette of the Commedia dell'Arte . Colombina is what the Innamorata is not: free, insolent, not slave of love bonds, sometimes brilliant, vane always, chatterer, gossiper, always prone to intrigue at somebody else's expenses. A sort of Harlequin in female clothes, and in fact she comes up in certain setups as Harlequina (Arlecchinetta), with a patched costume duplicate of Harlequin's. She is usually Harlequin's companion, and only woman to sometimes wear a mask on stage, Colombina brings that female pepper and intransigence to the plot. Carlo Goldoni often uses the Colombina character in his plays.

LE TRADIZIONI DEL CARNEVALE The carnival traditions were a lot, we’ll illustrate the most original ones: As strange as it may appear, bull chasing (Pamplona style, if you know what we mean) was very popular in Venice, during Carnival time (17th century, until the beginning of the 19th century). Thinking of it, in those narrow streets, and with the channels, it must have been really wild. Bull chasing was usually admitted from the first day until the last Sunday of Carnival. The chasing started (each day in a different section of the town) every day of the week except Friday, right after lunch. The final feast (bull for dinner, we guess) was every night from 10 PM until midnight. Antiche tradizioni del Carnevale : La Caccia al toro era molto popolare a Venezia durante il periodo del Carnevale ( nel 17° secolo fino al 19°). Aveva inizio dal primo giorno di Carnevale e si protraeva fino all’ultima domenica. Ogni giorno iniziava in un punto diverso della città , tutti i giorni ad eccezione del Venerdi. Alla sera si festeggiava .

This was every year the official start for the Carnival of Venice. By law everybody was allowed to wear a mask, and so the population of Venice in mass, well dressed, the face well hidden by an elegant mask, took the traditional showoff walk in Campo Santo Stefano. "Liston" means in Venetian dialect "path", "stripe". It is a way of describing that strip of the city where everybody was, the cool world go. The traditional Liston later moved towards San Marco square, due to space reasons (Campo Santo Stefano is relatively small). This was the special day when everybody was showing off all their richness, silk, gold and precious stones. And after the walk (back and forth downtown) the hype was going to a special restaurant, or to the Theater. Era ,ogni anno, l’inizio ufficiale del Carnevale di Venezia. Per legge , tutti potevano indossare la maschera e così, la popolazione se ne usciva in massa, ben vestita, il volto coperto da un’elegante maschera, e si mostrava a passeggio per Campo S.Stefano. Più tardi il “LISTON” si trasferì in Piazza S.Marco per ragioni di spazio.Era un giorno speciale, ognuno ostentava la propria ricchezza, e , dopo la passeggiata su e giù per la piazza, si andava al ristorante o a teatro.

 The Shrove Thursday celebration is closely related to the history of the Serenissima Republic of Venice, consequently to the victory over Ulrico, Patriarch of Aquileia. After the defeat, Ulrico had to pay the Venetians one bull and 12 pigs, as war reimbursement. So, from that moment on, the tradition was established of "executing" every year that same amount of animals in San Marco square, and all the population participated to the feast, banquet, dances, acrobats. Carnival was officially born. La celebrazione del Giovedì Grasso risale alla vittoria della Serenissima su Ulrico ; dopo la sconfitta, Ulrico dovette offrire ai Veneziani un toro e dodici maiali come risarcimento. Così, da quel momento , la tradizione volle che ogni anno venissero uccisi lo stesso numero di animali nella Piazza S.Marco .: tutta la popolazione partecipava alla festa , al banchetto,alle danze , alle acrobazie. Il Carnevale era ufficialmente nato!



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