# Energy-Efficient Algorithms Andrew Meidl Seminar411 Presented: 1/30/13.

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Energy-Efficient Algorithms Andrew Meidl Seminar411 Presented: 1/30/13

Presentation Overview EE Algorithm Understanding Why We Use EE Algorithms Places where algorithms are used WSN Types of Energy Efficient Algorithms

EE Algorithms Finite set of steps that are used with a system in order to reduce energy consumption Involves repetition Ex: Making same type of food for 100 people Dont want to underuse or overuse materials Formula (Kai, Liu. 2009)

Why Develop EE Algorithms Energy efficiency in electronic devices helps them operate more efficiently Energy conservation is key to reducing energy costs Increase in performance = increase in energy consumption Greater energy consumed can lead to a reduction in availability. Energy converted into heat Produces wear and can reduce the reliability of components within a system

Where are they used? Electronic Devices such as mobile phones and laptops Power down mechanism Active, idle, Sleep states Radio Frequency Identification Readers Object Tracking and Inventory control Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN): Monitoring Systems WNS consist of nodes and base stations Video of WSN system being used by crop owners, 2008 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ix6GUfgEIbs

Wireless Sensor Networks and EE Algorithms Base Stations : transmitter and receiver of signals which can connect to other networks Storage Center, data processing Sensor Nodes: contain batteries which have low battery energy The node is useless when the energy is depleted = unable to receive or send messages The sensors can be located in dangerous or hard to get to locations such as volcanoes and battlefields Sensors closest to sink nodes have been found to deplete energy faster then other sensors resulting in a energy hole Transmissions then end and the network connection ends Energy-efficient algorithms are then used in order to prolong a network lifetime.

Types of Energy-Efficient Algorithms EE Routing Algorithms A Leaping Based Algorithm Coal Mine: helps with safety measures EE Cluster Algorithms Level-based and Time-based clustering Algorithm in WSN EE Scheduling Algorithms Pinwheel Scheduling Algorithm (PSA): Wireless Data Broadcasting And numerous others

EE Routing Algorithms in a Coal Mine Leaping based algorithm: focus on load balancing within WSN Reduce energy consumption of fixed nodes and mainly use the energy from the mobile nodes Result: prolonged network lifetime & an increase in speed Nodes with high energy can choose to forward data farther Nodes with low energy can choose to forward data closer Communication between nodes is where most energy is used up Distributed routing can be set up quickly Response to emergencies is quicker

Energy Consumed by a Node Formula used to calculate the energy consumed by a node when it receives and forwards kilobits (Kai, Liu. 2009) If the distance (d) is less than or equal to the maximum (d0): Free Space Model is applied If the distance is greater than the maximum: Multichannel Attenuation Model

EE Level-Based and Time- Based Clustering Algorithm 2 phases: Set Up Phase and a Steady State Phase Set Up: Clusters (groups of nodes) are formed and are assigned a Cluster Head(CH) Steady State: data transfers to the Base Station occur EELT Algorithm benefit Low controlling overhead -> decrease energy consumption in set up phase Cluster creation and inter-cluster multi-hop occur because of one advertisement message(ADV)

EELT Algorithm: How It Works With the Base Station(BS) in the center BS sends a message to all nodes Nodes calc. distance and their levels using the signal strength of received message The node then relays its info to a CH which computes the avg. and max energy of its cluster then sends it to the BS The BS broadcast the avgs. and the maximums to the network Any node with more energy than the avg. is a candidate for CH for a round The nodes then sets a time to start broadcasting its ADV message CHs send their data to the BS by the use of multi hopping rather then single hopping This significantly saves energy

EELT: Node Selection Algorithm used to determine a nodes movement when hopping Tashtarian. 2007, pg. 4

EE Scheduling Algorithm in Wireless Data Broadcasting Scheduling algorithms are meant to reduce tuning and access time in mobile devices. Access time = speed at which a mobile device can access requested data Reflects system responsiveness Tuning time = duration the mobile device remains active. Helps measure energy consumed while a MD is active Pinwheel Scheduling Algorithm (PSA): Organizes all types of message used in broadcast channels. Sorts messages by popularity Messages are given extra information to help assist mobile devices when they request for a message, reducing access and tuning time.

Mean Tuning and Access Time Variables used to determine the mean tuning and access time Mean Tuning Time Mean Access Time Number of slots a mobile device uses multiplied by T slot (Shin, Haw-Yun. 2011)

Summary Wireless Sensor Network Broadcasting Channels 3 forms of Energy-efficient Algorithms Scheduling Routing Clustering In the future

References Grandham, Shashidhar. An integral Flow-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Wireless Communications and Sensor Conference. IEEE, March 2004. Pg 2341- 2346 Vol. 4. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1311454 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1311454 Kai, Liu. A Mine-Environment-Based Energy Efficient Routing Algorithm For Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Explore. Hybrid Intelligent System, 2009. P215-218. Vol. 2. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5254452 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5254452 Li, Tao. Generalized Energy-Efficient Algorithms for the RFID Estimation Problem. IEEE/ACM transactions, Networking, Dec. 2012. Vol. 20, Issue 6, pg. 1978-1990. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6188523 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6188523 Matsuo, Ryoko. Energy-efficient standby mode algorithm in short-range one-to-one millimeter wave communications. Communications(ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference, pg.4033 – 4038, June 2012. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6363899 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6363899

References Shin, Haw-Yun. Energy-Efficient Algorithm to Improve the Performance of Wireless Data Broadcasting. Machine Learning and Cybernetics(ICMLC), 2011. Vol. 3, pg1226-1231. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6016849 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6016849 Sivasanker, P. Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient On-Demand Routing Algorithms for MANET. IEEE. Industrial and Information Systems, Dec. 2008. Pg. 1-5. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4798361 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4798361 Strong, Peter. Wireless Sensor Networks. Oct. 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ix6GUfgEIbs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ix6GUfgEIbs Tashtarian, Farzad. A New Energy-Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks, Sept. 2007. Pg. 1-6. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4446085 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.uwplatt.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4446085 Yu, Yimin, Energy-efficient Algorithm for Sensor Networks with Non-Uniform maximum Transmission Range. Sensors (Basel), June 2011. National Center for Biotechnology Information.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3231426/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3231426/