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Competency-based Education (CBE) A Path Forward

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1 Competency-based Education (CBE) A Path Forward
4/1/2017 Competency-based Education (CBE) A Path Forward Dr. Ross Wirth IACBE Annual Conference – April 9, 2014

2 Objectives for Today What is “competency-based education?”
4/1/2017 Objectives for Today What is “competency-based education?” What leading schools are doing 3 Basic Approaches – complementary, but potentially confusing if all done at once Phased CBE Expansion Course, degree, non-credit, blank sheet

3 Competency-based Education
4/1/2017 Competency-based Education CBE can mean – low cost to purposeful design Recognizing prior learning At a competency (not course) level (portfolio and/or exams) Lower cost, self-paced program of study (new modality) Current assignments, projects, or competency exams Strengthened learning outcomes Focus on demonstration of learning Clear rubrics for evaluating depth of learning Purposeful curriculum design that is modular and independent of course structure May include Direct Assessment of competencies

4 Competency-based Model
4/1/2017 Competency-based Model Students are provided with the means to acquire the knowledge and skills at an individual pace to demonstrate achievement of specific competencies identified as necessary to complete a program and earn a degree or other credential.  Source: US Dept. of Education

5 4/1/2017 Leading Edge Schools

6 Western Governors University
4/1/2017 Western Governors University Started in 1995 with self-paced CBE (no legacy programs) 6 month enrollment windows, no limit on number of courses 120 Competencies, but tied to traditional course structure Advisors, graders, & some Q&A support (MS required) Note: Advisors are called “faculty” but advise students 40,000 students currently enrolled Starting to partner with community colleges Establishing articulation pathways with community colleges along with CBE course development (mostly information technology courses) Leveraging grants – Ivy Tech (Gates grant) & Sinclair (DoL grant) $5780/yr – all-you-can-learn 6-month subscription model

7 Southern New Hampshire Univ.
4/1/2017 Southern New Hampshire Univ. dba College for America (concept driven by Clay Christensen) Developed separate from other programs 120 competencies – direct assessment (no courses) – P/F grading Working toward grouping competencies into course equivalents No time restriction for mastery; work on multiple modules at same time ePortfolio & badge system for demonstrating progress Advisors & content experts – very data-driven with predictive analytics Modules also marketed separately to employers (non-credit) AA in general business studies currently Coming – BA in communications, with specialties in health care management and business Breakeven thought to be 5000 students (500 currently) Target enrollment of 350,000 by 2018 $2500/year – All-you-can-learn

8 Kentucky Community & Technical College System
4/1/2017 Kentucky Community & Technical College System Two self-paced options Learn-On-Demand – removes dead time in the academic calendar Direct2Degree – Carefully designed single-train course sequence (new) - also a good advising model for other modalities Easy to skip past courses that have been transferred in Working toward 24x7 faculty support with back-up available 24 hour turnaround for grading Learning Resources Textbook (adaptive learning) fee required in addition to tuition This fee is proportionally split among all publishers based on “average student use”

9 Kentucky Community & Technical College System
4/1/2017 Kentucky Community & Technical College System Monthly subscription to encourage faster progression (25 mo.) Adaptive learning enables more modules for the subscription fee 81 modules for AS in General Studies taken individually and organized into courses when all modules for a course are done 3 to 5 modules per course Adding Business Admin., Info. Tech., & Nursing Each module (3-8 weeks) stands alone for credit for stop-outs 3-levels of competency across one to three courses Financial Aid options – semester term (traditional student) non-term (multiple starts each semester) no-term monthly subscription (DoEd experimental site)

10 4/1/2017 CBE Approaches

11 Decision – Learning Resources
Mix (from lowest to highest cost to deliver) Student Curated thru Directed Search Leverage existing resources, but fill in gaps through student searching by key words provided Flipped Classroom using Existing content in LMS (Blue Quill) Open Resources (add additional time to ID & vet) Publisher’s Adaptive Learning platform Adds to the cost to deliver, but quicker

12 Decision – CBE Approach
4/1/2017 Decision – CBE Approach Complementary to offer but potentially confusing Students must choose one 3 approaches to CBE Additional modality for individual courses Opportunistic & Quick implementation Focused, single-train of courses Intensive with quick response times Secondary brand (like College for America) Disruptive, but leverages existing resources

13 Approach – Decision Criteria
4/1/2017 Approach – Decision Criteria Course-based or Direct Assessment? Self-paced or within existing modalities? Time & capital available to develop? Development approach? OER, Student Curated, Adaptive Learning? Types of Assessment? Separate or aligned with existing courses? Financial Aid Integration?

14 Phased Roll-out Enhancement to Concept
4/1/2017 Phased Roll-out Enhancement to Concept

15 Growing the Concept New Modality – Individual Courses
4/1/2017 Growing the Concept New Modality – Individual Courses Self-paced with Support Services Extend to a full Degree Path Single Train, Tri-modalities, or 2nd Brand Content Re-use for non-credit offering Potential for pathway to credit Full Competency Mapping Ultimate Objective for CBE

16 Learning & Assessment Flow
4/1/2017 Learning & Assessment Flow A D P TIV E FLOW A D P TIV E FLOW A D P TIV E FLOW A D P TIV E FLOW Course Pre-Test Unit Pre-test Learning Activity Unit Post-test Course Post-Test Series of Learning Modules Course Complete Copy any changes to CBE2 Exam for credit

17 Competency-based Education (CBE) A Path Forward
4/1/2017 Competency-based Education (CBE) A Path Forward

18 Trade-off Challenge to Avoid
CBE requires managing in a way to avoid common trade-offs Cost lower Speed quicker Quality unchanged for academics improved for student support

19 Mixed Modalities Offers an alternative to online & F2F
Speed can be increased, but without a reduction in student cost Fits easily within existing financial aid Individual courses can be implemented as faculty have time and interest

20 Single-train Completion
4/1/2017 Single-train Completion Can be run in parallel with existing financial aid, but without an ability to move back-and-forth between approaches Students must choose a financial aid plan Provides a student advising model

21 New Division - Business Model similar to College for America
Single Train course sequence Majority of courses common to all degrees No alternate pathways for elective options Competency-based, self-paced learning No-frills, low-cost student pricing No financial aid, but with provision for adjustment for economic situation

22 Best Practices Successful ideas becoming common in CBE programs
4/1/2017 Best Practices Successful ideas becoming common in CBE programs Competencies grouped into self-paced courses Students are challenged at their level of knowledge and progress Competency report to complement the transcript All-you-can-learn subscription model (monthly?) Difficult to integrate with other term based modalities Single-train course sequence (also an advising model) Adaptive learning to recognize prior learning (text included) Authentic assessment Projects & portfolios Extensive student support system Advisors & LMS tracking

23 Target CBE Student Working Adult Prior experience in field of study
Some college, but no degree Self-starter & able to follow directions Technology savvy Information literate

24 Competency vs. Learning Outcome
4/1/2017 Competency vs. Learning Outcome Learning Outcomes are defined in terms of “Particular levels of knowledge, skills, and abilities that a student has attained” Competencies take this further by Describing learning outcomes in terms that “describe not only what is to be learned but also the specific levels of performance that students are expected to master” Ewell, P. T. (2001, September). Accreditation and student learning outcomes: A proposed point of departure. Washington, SC: Council for Higher Education Accreditation. Peter Ewel (2001)

25 Phase 1 Summary Self-paced modality Provides a continuum of offerings
4/1/2017 Phase 1 Summary Self-paced modality Leverages existing learning resources Complemented with adaptive learning Provides a continuum of offerings Values instructor assistance in learning Recognizes cost of assessing across different levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Meets the challenge of lowering cost to students (if they are qualified learners) While maintaining quality

26 4/1/2017 Phase 2 Summary Expands from individual courses to a full degree program Targets additional self-paced courses Integrates with existing modalities when students require greater instructor interaction Expand competencies into assessing higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Develop additional exams ( level) and competency-based assignments ( level)

27 4/1/2017 Alternate Assessment Short essay questions structured around a competency-driven grading rubric Competency assessed with demonstration of learning Peer Assessment (progress tracking) Clearly defined rubric Calibration exercise prior to peer assessment Multiple (3-5) peers doing the assessment

28 Policy Gaps Pass/Fail grading New compensation model is required
4/1/2017 Policy Gaps Pass/Fail grading Currently no P/F option for Franklin courses Limit on number of P/F courses accepted? New compensation model is required Roles: process advisor, content Q&A, and grader Unknown degree of student need for help & time required that is likely to vary by course

29 Phase 3 Summary Develop a “total needs” curriculum that
4/1/2017 Phase 3 Summary Develop a “total needs” curriculum that Meets the needs of graduating students and employee development by hiring managers Leverages faculty and LMS content across multiple markets with hooks for up-selling Includes a pathway to credit that leverages student data for suggestive marketing

30 Potential Pilot Projects
4/1/2017 Potential Pilot Projects Entrepreneurship – Seminars and UG Certificate HRM 701 & SHRM CEUs – CCE seminars Risk Mgt & Insurance – CCE seminars Internet Marketing – CCE seminars Information Analytics – Oracle Certificate Business Forensics – UG Certificate Inst Design & Perf Tech – GR Certificate Turnkey “Corporate University”

31 Phase 3 gaps to be addressed
4/1/2017 Phase 3 gaps to be addressed Needs closer alignment between credit and non-credit course development & administration Requires curriculum to be deconstructed into a “business needs” structure An integrated marketing approach is required Will need to track competencies separate from Colleague

32 4/1/2017 Phase 4 Summary Approach Program Outcomes independent from courses (Blank Sheet curriculum development) Competencies first, then courses as competency groups (for transferability) Assessment of higher levels of competency built into the course sequence

33 Two Approaches to Competency Specification
4/1/2017 Two Approaches to Competency Specification Industry needs, built on academic foundation Certification focus Competency Model Clearinghouse (DoL) Academics, taking into account hiring manager needs Degree focus Tuning USA built on Lumina DQP

34 Existing Competency Frameworks
4/1/2017 Existing Competency Frameworks Franklin’s current Gen. Ed. & Programs OBR Transfer Module (part of Franklin’s) Lumina Degree Qualifications Profile Tuning USA degree specification Competency Model Clearinghouse (DoL) Modeled after other schools Southern New Hampshire University Western Governors University Northern Arizona University

35 Blank-Sheet Program Design
4/1/2017 Blank-Sheet Program Design What competencies are required of all graduates? (Gen. Ed. structure is redesigned) What competencies are specific to established groups of jobs? (Bus. & Prof. Core) How can the above competencies be structured for delivery within a “course” structure? How many of the required learning components and assessments already exist? Direct and/or course-based assessment? How can articulation be enabled?

36 Summary Multi-phase Pilot Tests
4/1/2017 Summary Multi-phase Pilot Tests Self-paced modality for courses Expand competencies into assessing higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Non-credit Integration – multiple pathways to credit Purposeful curriculum development using competencies across the program

37 Hip Pocket slides

38 Kentucky Community & Technical College System
4/1/2017 Kentucky Community & Technical College System Learning Resources Textbook (adaptive learning) fee required in addition to tuition This fee is proportionally split among all publishers based on “average student use” Learning & Assessment Credit for prior learning with pre-test passthru to post-test (grade) Authentic assessment (projects & portfolios) Student Support Extra effort made to ensure student engagement Using for on-demand tutoring, study tools, and study groups (significant impact on learning & retention) Starfish Retention Solutions for advising (improved retention)

39 Univ. of Wisconsin system
4/1/2017 Univ. of Wisconsin system Flexible Option Rolling out a three month “all-you-can-learn” term program Subscription model - $9000/year or $900 per “competency set” (expected to cover 50% of up-front development expense) A degree is composed of eight to 15 competency sets New 3-month “term” begins the first of each month 1 to 85 student advising ratio Direct Assessment – no tie to credit hours Incorporates Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) Assessed via exams, case study analysis, papers, & portfolio review $8,000,000 initial funding Failed to get DoED approval for Federal Financial Aid for roll-out Moving toward Experimental Site status

40 Capella University (pilot test)
4/1/2017 Capella University (pilot test) New self-paced modality developed for a few programs Four to 10 competencies per course plus “final” assessment “Direct assessment” of learning, but not really “open ended” term – DoEd waived rules for financial aid Limited to students of corporate partners BS Business Admin. & MBA

41 4/1/2017 UniversityNow dba Pattern University & New Charter University (not accredited) 1000 students, mainly in Pattern University Pattern CBE, online, self-paced $350/mo. Undergraduate & $520/mo. Graduate Does not participate in Federal Financial Aid program Prospective students can sample classes – up to final exam

42 Southern New Hampshire Univ.
4/1/2017 Southern New Hampshire Univ. dba College for America cont. President Paul LeBlanc now spends more time in Washington and at conferences than on campus 5 year board commitment $3,500,000 investment last year Breakeven thought to be 5000 students (500 currently) Target enrollment of 350,000 by 2018 Partnering with Kepler University ( to bring low cost ($1000/yr) higher education to Rwanda

43 Western Governors University
4/1/2017 Western Governors University Learning path – student customized Course pre-assessment of prior learning Meet with a “personal mentor” to customize a learning path for the course Mentors are F/T employees who have a graduate degree in field they oversee Self-paced learning using support material Competency exam or assessed assignments

44 Northern Arizona University
4/1/2017 Northern Arizona University Separate from other programs (Pearson adaptive learning) Design process: existing courses → competencies → independent, interdisciplinary modules → courses for transferability BS computer information technology & small business admin. 500 students currently – 8000 in five years to hit breakeven Considering monthly subscription (currently six months) No refund once the month starts & financial aid paid at month end “Competency report” in addition to traditional transcript Direct assessment of learning Pre-test to award credit for prior learning Has had some difficulty with accreditation in a few states Each learning component supported in multiple ways Text, video, exercises, etc.

45 Competency Transcript
4/1/2017 Competency Transcript In use at Northern Arizona University Supports direct assessment of competencies Complements traditional course-based transcript Courses are composed of separate competencies that are taken individually Serves as a communication device for student use with potential employers

46 Direct Assessment Multi-tier – Northern Arizona University
4/1/2017 Direct Assessment Multi-tier – Northern Arizona University “competency” is deemed as 86% of “mastery” Option to go deeper by doing additional assignments that show higher comprehension More complex application of learning Student differentiation extends to effort expended However, this increases the time to develop assessments Competency Transcript describes competency, type of assessment, and level achieved Capella and College of America (SNHU) Non-performance, basic, proficient, and distinguished “Distinguished” level required at graduate level (Capella)

47 Cross-institution Degree Tuning (Competency Alignment)
4/1/2017 Cross-institution Degree Tuning (Competency Alignment) Dr. Ross Wirth

48 Degree Tuning Tuning is a collaborative, faculty-driven process that
4/1/2017 Degree Tuning Tuning is a collaborative, faculty-driven process that identifies what a student should know and be able to do in a chosen discipline at the completion of a degree by defining areas of competency identifying learning outcomes and scaling competencies and outcomes to a degree level Source: Institute for Evidence-based Change (IEBC)

49 Tuning Tuning is faculty-driven, Tuning does not standardize, but
4/1/2017 Tuning Tuning is faculty-driven, With input from employers and students Tuning does not standardize, but Organizes what is common and accepted Tuning does not require new curriculum, but Does offer an opportunity to be more intentional Tuning focuses on Learning Outcomes, Not curricula nor method of delivery Tuning does not all address everything, Institutional individuality is encouraged

50 Tuning – definition 2 Tuning,
4/1/2017 Tuning – definition 2 Tuning, a faculty-driven response to the Bologna process, is the process of “harmonizing” higher education programs and degrees by defining student learning outcomes by subject area Source: Tuning Educational Structures USA

51 Tuning – Objective Purposeful curriculum design that is
4/1/2017 Tuning – Objective Purposeful curriculum design that is Mapped across progressive courses of Increased rigor and high-impact challenges to Engage students in more complex levels of achievement

52 4/1/2017 Benefits of Tuning Students gain clear expectations and pathways to degree completion Elevator speech for why their degree is important for employers Scaffolding for underrepresented students Aligns coursework with civic, societal, and workforce needs Provides a response to criticism of higher education Responsiveness to changes in discipline knowledge and its application Aligns higher education institutions Emphasizes life-long learning Faculty enjoy engagement in the discipline

53 Tuning Process Components
4/1/2017 Tuning Process Components Define the discipline core Map career pathways Consult with stakeholders Hone core competencies and learning objectives Draft degree specifications

54 Students need Clarity of what courses are required
How each course relates to their post-college goals (including general education courses) Understanding of what is needed for success in each course and in their career

55 OBR Transfer Module Communicate effectively (F-1)
4/1/2017 OBR Transfer Module Communicate effectively (F-1) Evaluate arguments in a logical fashion (F-2) Employ the methods of inquiry characteristic of natural sciences, social sciences, and the arts and humanities (F-4, 7, & 8) Acquire an understanding of our global and diverse culture and society (F-6) Engage in our democratic society (F-6) (Franklin’s outcome)

56 Franklin’s Gen. Ed. Outcomes
4/1/2017 Franklin’s Gen. Ed. Outcomes Graduates will Communicate effectively (L-2e O-1) Apply logical thinking and critical analysis (L-2a O-2) Apply ethical analysis and reasoning (L-2c) Demonstrate scientific literacy (L-1 O-3) Use mathematical information and processes (L-2d) Reflect on global interdependence as it may relate to personal responsibility and societal obligations (L-4 O-4&5) Recognize, analyze, and evaluate humanities artifacts (L-1 O-3) Apply fundamental concepts, theories, and research methodologies of the social and behavioral sciences into personal, social, and professional contexts (L-1 O-3) (Lumina & OBR outcome)

57 Lumina Degree Profile Broad/Integrative Knowledge (F-4, 7, & 8)
4/1/2017 Lumina Degree Profile Broad/Integrative Knowledge (F-4, 7, & 8) Intellectual Skills Analytic inquiry (F-2) Use of information resources Engaging diverse perspectives (F-3) Quantitative fluency (F-5) Communication fluency (F-1) Applied Learning (F-major) Civic Learning (F-6) Specialized Knowledge (F-major) (Franklin’s outcome)

58 Bologna Process Dublin Descriptors
4/1/2017 Bologna Process Dublin Descriptors Acquiring knowledge and understanding Applying knowledge and understanding Making informed judgments and choices Communicating knowledge & understanding Capacities to continue learning Tuning – Subject Area Reference Points

59 Degree Qualifications & Tuning
4/1/2017 Degree Qualifications & Tuning Degree Qualifications Profile (Lumina) Levels of degree rigor Cross-curriculum general ed competencies Tuning (IEBC & Tuning USA) Discipline-specific competencies Driven by faculty, vetted by employers Institution-specific differentiation Specialized curriculum & methods of delivery Cross institution

60 Evidence-based Change Model
4/1/2017 Evidence-based Change Model Collaboration among discipline faculty Facilitation – discussion guided by data Intervention – strategy grounded in data Gauging progress – tracking metrics Lasting change that has continual review and adjustment Scaling what works, tweaking what needs improvement, & discontinuing the ineffective

61 Tuning USA Initiatives
4/1/2017 Tuning USA Initiatives 1st wave: MN, IN, & UT Biology, chemistry, physics, history, elementary education, & graphic arts 2nd wave: TX Engineering: mechanical, civil, chemical, & bio-medical 2nd wave: KY Business (general & marketing), nursing, social work, biology, & elementary education Other states: IL, MO, & community colleges

62 To what extent should we be involved?
4/1/2017 To what extent should we be involved? Lumina Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP) Becoming a standard for building competencies Tuning USA & Institute for Evidence-Based Change Cross-institution degree alignment (Midwest Higher Education Compact) Council for Adult and Experiential Learning Measuring student learning National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment Assessment & the DQP (8 OH schools now involved) Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (OECD) Standardized testing The Bologna Process Actively involved in cross-institution tuning Institute for Higher Education Policy US alignment with The Bologna Process CareerOneStop (DoL) Building workplace competency models

63 Next Generation Textbook/Course
4/1/2017 Next Generation Textbook/Course The eTextbook is only a repackaged text. What might a new concept textbook be? Imagine the possibility of building something here? Competency Rubrics Gamification * Multi-media Learning Resources Intellectual Capital

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