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Re-tuning the GPS Constellation Performance Analysis Working Group

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Presentation on theme: "Re-tuning the GPS Constellation Performance Analysis Working Group"— Presentation transcript:

1 Re-tuning the GPS Constellation Performance Analysis Working Group
This Briefing is UNCLASSIFIED Re-tuning the GPS Constellation Performance Analysis Working Group (1999) Capt Michael Violet 2 SOPS/DOAS

2 Overview GPS -- The Early Years GPS Constellation History
1999 Rephasing of GPS Constellation Constellation Tuning Conclusion

3 GPS - The Early Years (< 1974)
GPS Grew Out of Other Programs US Navy’s Transit/Timation Programs US Air Force’s 621B Program Early Constellation Designs Were Varied Elliptical Geosynchronous Orbits (“Eggbeater”, “Rotating X”, “Rotating Y”) Multiple Walker Delta Patterns at Different Altitudes Rosette Constellations Repeating Ground Tracks for Table Lookup of Positions Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) Constellation (Semisynchronous) Walker Delta Pattern 24/3/2 (T/P/V) with a 63 deg inclination 3 Planes Spaced Equally About Equator 8 Satellites per Plane Spaced Equally Within Plane

4 GPS - The Early Years (< 1974)
Proof of Concept -- 6 Block I Satellites in 2 Planes Eventually Build Up to 24 Block II Satellites in 3 Planes 3 Plane Approach Allowed Easy Replenishment (only need 3 spares) Constellation Buildup Simplified Due to Multiple Launch Capability on Shuttle

5 GPS - The Early Years (< 1989)
In 1980, Funding Constraints Drove Changes Studies Performed to Determine Absolute Minimum Satellites Constellation Reduced to 18 Satellites (+ 3 spares) Extensive Analysis Selected 6-Plane Constellation Walker Delta Pattern 18/6/2 (equal spacing within plane) Inclination Decreased to 55 degrees due to Launch Vehicle Constraints Spares Located in Every Other Plane to Ensure 0.98 Availability

6 Right Ascension of the Ascending Node
 is the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node The Vernal Equinox is an inertial direction, meaning it does not rotate with the Earth

7 Longitude of the Ascending Node

8 GPS - The Early Years (< 1989)
Constellation Improved Once More Prior to 1st Block II Launch Dr. Paul Massatt (Aerospace) Came Up With Asymmetrical Design Design Removes 95% of Degraded Coverage Found in Baseline 18+3 system Improved Robustness in the Event of Satellite Failures Satellites are no longer equally spaced within the plane

9 GPS Constellation History
Block I Constellation Buildup Feb Nov 1985 Block II Constellation Buildup (Phase 1) Feb Feb 1990 Optimal 21 Constellation (21 satellites with 3 spares) Funding Allowed for Return to Original Number of Satellites 21 Considered Minimal Number of Satellites Necessary for Adequate Coverage Ensures Constellation Value Does Not Drop Below 0.996 CV -- % of Earth/Time where 4 satellites are available with PDOP < 10 1st Block II Rephasing (Optimal 21) Feb 1990 Block II Constellation Buildup (Phase 2) Jan Jul 1991

10 GPS Constellation History
Dr. Rhodus and Dr. Massatt (Aerospace) Modified Asymmetrical Design Again Less Sensitivity to Satellite Drift & More Robustness during Multiple Satellite Failures Used Steepest Descent Optimization Approach, Subject to Constraints PDOP < 6 with all satellites operating PDOP < 10 with worst-case single-satellite failure July 1991 the US Air Force Directed Transition to the Optimal 21+3 Constellation 2nd Block II Rephasing (Optimal 21+3) Jul Block II Constellation Buildup (Phase 3) Feb Mar 1994

11 GPS Constellation History
3rd Block II Rephasing (Optimal 21+3 Corrected) Sep 1994 Block II Constellation Buildup (Phase 4) Mar Nov 1997 Driven by Aug 1994 Presentation at PAWG Analysis by Aerospace (Dr. Paul Massatt and Ted Bujewski): Right Ascension (RA) errors can slightly degrade constellation coverage Degraded coverage can be corrected by slightly modifying the target LAN positions Modified LAN positions also improve coverage with on-orbit satellite failures or outages Analysis recommended regular adjustments of target LANs for these RA errors AFSPC/DO directed rephasing constellation to corrected target LANs in Oct 1994 One-Time-Only Rephasing Individual Satellite Rephasings (Due to Failures) Nov present SVN 16 was replaced by SVN 40 (16 was moved to E5) SVN 20 failed and was replaced by SVN 30 SVN 28 failed and was replaced by SVN 33

12 So What Now?? Fourth GPS Constellation Rephasing
In five years, the RA errors have grown again, such that coverage is slightly degraded 11 satellites are more than 2 degrees out of optimal (corrected) LAN positions Initiated Minor Rephasing of Constellation to Correct for these Errors Furthermore, Initiating Yearly LAN Tuning to Avoid Error Growth Altogether Earth (J2 only) Moon Sun






18 Constellation Tuning New Yearly Tuning Process October 1 (every year)
obtain latest vector ephemeris for the constellation propagate to 1 July of following year calculate how far off Right Ascension is from its spec value tune the target LAN by the Right Ascension error value Create a new Delta-V Projection Letter IAW new values Jan 1 (every year) New Target LAN values take effect Can perform maneuvers at new target value from Oct - Dec if prudent

19 Conclusions Constellation Rephasing requires minimal ops effort
5-6 extra maneuvers between Aug 1999 and Jan 2000 Approximately 2-3 maneuvers per month Constellation Rephasing will slightly improve coverage to users New Annual Tuning Procedures Will Control Constellation Entropy

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