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Salmonella Control: Tighter Regs – New Realities.

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Presentation on theme: "Salmonella Control: Tighter Regs – New Realities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Salmonella Control: Tighter Regs – New Realities

2 HOST Bill Kinross Group Publisher, Meatingplace MODERATOR Ann Bagel Storck Managing Editor, Meatingplace

3 Regulatory Discussion Elizabeth Krushinskie DVM, PhD Director of QA and Food Safety Mountaire Farms, Inc.

4 Overview Setting the Stage Current Features Coming Attractions Foreign Dramas

5 Poll Question Are you aware of the Healthy People 2010 initiative and could you explain it to someone else? Yes No

6 Setting the Stage In 2000, HHS set objectives related to foodborne illness reduction in their Healthy People 2010 document – Salmonellosis infections were projected to be reduced from 13.7 in 1997 to 6.8/100,000 by 2010 Preliminary FoodNet data for 2009 reported a Salmonella infection rate of 15.19/100,000, well above the 2010 goal

7 Setting the Stage USDAs Response – FSIS contributes to meeting this objective by regulating the Salmonella burden of meat, poultry, and egg products through the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) System implemented in 1996

8 Setting the Stage In 1996, the Agency established a Performance Standard for the incidence of Salmonella on broiler carcasses post-chill (per 9 CFR 381.94) In 2006, FSIS classified establishments according to their performance relative to the Performance Standard (Category I, II, or III)

9 Current Features Salmonella Performance Standard - Broilers (9 CFR 381.94) Class of ProductPerformance Std No of Samples Tested Max No of Positives Broilers – Category II 20.0%5112 Broilers – Category I 10.0%516

10 Setting the Stage 4 th Quarter CY2009 results of FSIS testing have shown that only 3.5% of samples from large plants were positive, 18.4% of small, and 25.0% of very small with an overall average of 8.6%

11 Setting the Stage In addition, 82% of establishments were considered to be in Category I (achieving consistent process control) in Q4FY2009 – FSIS goal is 90% by October 1, 2010 – Only 2% were in Category III (failing to meet the performance standard)

12 Current Features At this time, pathogen control in processing is governed by five key regulations : – On-line Reprocessing (OLR) 9 CFR 381.3(b) – Off-line Reconditioning for Contamination 9 CFR 381.91 – Zero Tolerance for Fecal Contamination 9 CFR 381.65(e)

13 Current Features Chiller Chlorination and Water Reuse – FSIS Notice 45-03 Use of Chlorine to Treat Poultry Chiller Water Salmonella Performance Standard post-chill

14 Coming Attractions Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) Revised post-chill Performance Standard Revised Salmonella criteria for Stuffed, Raw, Not-Ready-To-Eat (NRTE) that appear to be Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Control of S. Enteriditis in broilers Raw Chicken Parts Baseline

15 Coming Attractions Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) – Announced in a January 2008 Federal Register Notice – Described as a voluntary incentive-based program for meat and poultry establishments that is intended to yield significant data on attribution of human illness to FSIS-regulated products

16 Coming Attractions Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) – The Agency developed the SIP to offer waivers to existing regulations (ie for increased line speed, changes to chilling of carcasses, etc) in return for increased process control efforts for Salmonella and Campylobacter – Industry is concerned that changes to current waivers would require participation in SIP – Also concerned about having the micro data collected used against us

17 Coming Attractions Revised Post-Chill Salmonella Performance Standard – FSIS initiated a new young chicken baseline in June 2007 – We are still waiting for the results to be published – Anticipate the Performance Standard to be significantly reduced from the current 20% – Will add a new PS for Campylobacter

18 Coming Attractions Possibly revised Salmonella Performance Standard - Broilers (9 CFR 381.94) Class of ProductPerformance Std No of Samples Tested Max No of Positives Broilers – Category II 8.0%514 Broilers – Category I 4.0%512

19 Coming Attractions Revised Salmonella criteria for Stuffed, Raw, Not-Ready-To-Eat (NRTE) that appear to be Ready-To-Eat (RTE) – FSIS has been informally discussing new policies to address Salmonella in retail, non-RTE, frozen stuffed poultry products In effect, FSIS would like to declare Salmonella to be an adulterant in these products

20 Coming Attractions Control of S. Enteriditis (SE) in broilers – 2009 FoodNet results showed that SE infections were the most common of the Salmonella serotypes identified It also showed that there was a 32% increase in SE compared to 1996-1998 – FSIS data has also shown an increase in the proportion of SE recovered from post-chill regulatory samples

21 Coming Attractions Raw Chicken Parts Baseline – In January 2010, FSIS published FSIS Notice 08-10 announcing the implementation of a nationwide raw chicken parts microbiological baseline data collection program for one year – This will include all cut-up chicken parts: skin on, skinless, bone in, and boneless plus giblets – May result in a Performance Standard at point of packaging

22 Foreign Dramas Russian ban on the use of chlorine in processing – The Russian Parliament banned the sale of raw chicken products that have been treated with chlorine effective January 1, 2010 – Since that time, USDA and the U.S.A. Poultry & Egg Export Council (USAPEEC) have been in continuing negotiation with Russia trying to get a finalized trade agreement

23 Mike Mullen Corporate Account Manager For more information contact: or 800-392-3392

24 Pre-Harvest Salmonella Interventions: Value and Methods B.M. Hargis DVM, PhD Professor and Director University of Arkansas Poultry Health Laboratory Tyson Endowed Chair for Sustainable Poultry Health

25 Purpose of Presentation To demonstrate that the source of Salmonella contamination of poultry carcasses is from pre-slaughter infections of poultry To provide evidence that ante-mortem interventions can markedly reduce post- mortem contamination To compare available ante-mortem intervention strategies with regard to efficacy

26 No Silver Bullet for Salmonella Salmonella is Amazingly Frustrating Many Strains (serotypes) – vaccination difficult Differ in Ability to Cause Disease Transmitted Vertically and Horizontally Many Sources of Infection – many carriers – most broilers are infected from the breeder flocks through the hatchery Maintaining Zero Infections is Expensive Difficult to Maintain Free Status

27 Salmonella – Live Production Source Food Borne Pathogens Do Not Originate from Spontaneous Generation! Poultry from Salmonella-free farms arrive at processing - free of Salmonella Poultry that enter the processing plant free of Salmonella, exit the processing plant without contamination in facilities not contaminated by previously infected flocks

28 Evidence for Live Production Source Scheduling of infected flocks for the end of the shift has greatly reduced post-chill contamination Flocks that are not infected, when processed as the first flock of the day, are Salmonella free Effective live production interventions have resulted in marked reductions in contaminated carcasses in numerous published studies

29 Hargis, B. M., D. J. Caldwell, and J. A. Byrd. 2001. Microbial pathogens of poultry: Live bird considerations. Pages 121–136 in Poultry Meat Processing. Non-infected flocks are processed as Salmonella negative Carcass contamination increases markedly after crop removal – crop is the primary source Once a plant is contaminated, negative flocks may be contaminated during processing

30 First 2 flocks of a Processing Day Salmonella positive/Total samples When flocks identified as Salmonella negative entered a processing plant as the first Flocks of a shift – no Salmonella was detected at pre- or post-chill

31 EXPERIMENT 2 Flock 1 - Low Level Detection Antemortem

32 EXPERIMENT 2 Flock 2 - High Level Detection Antemortem

33 EXPERIMENT 2 Flock 3 - Low Level Detection Antemortem

34 Hargis, B. M., D. J. Caldwell, R. L. Brewer, D. E. Corrier, and J. R. DeLoach. Evaluation of the chicken crop as a source of Salmonella contamination from broiler carcasses. Poult. Sci 74:1548–1552.1995. The crop was found to be several times more frequently contaminated with Salmonella than the ceca The crop ruptured during processing 80x more frequently than the ceca

35 Ramirez, G. A., L. L. Sarlin, D. J. Caldwell, C. R. Yezak, M. E. Hume, D. E. Corrier, J. R. DeLoach, and B. M. Hargis. Effect of feed withdrawal on the incidence of Salmonella in the crops and ceca of market age broiler chickens. Poult. Sci 76:654–656.1997. The incidence of crop contamination pre- slaughter was greatly increased by pre-slaughter feed withdrawal The longer the feed withdrawal period, the greater the incidence of crop Salmonella recovery Several subsequent papers also confirmed this and linked to increased processing plant contamination

36 Poult Sci. 2002 Jan;81(1):70-4. Fluorescent marker for the detection of crop and upper gastrointestinal leakage in poultry processing plants. Byrd JA, Hargis BM, Corrier DE, Brewer RL, Caldwell DJ, Bailey RH, McReynolds JL, Herron KL, Stanker LH. Byrd JAHargis BMCorrier DEBrewer RLCaldwell DJBailey RHMcReynolds JL Herron KLStanker LH

37 Thoracic Cavity With Visible Contamination -Lights Off - with Black Light Note: zero tolerance for visible ingesta caused a common response of extended pre-slaughter feed withdrawal – resulting in greater Salmonella (and Campylobater contamination of crops pre-slaughter

38 Poult Sci. 2001 Mar;80(3):278-83. Effect of lactic acid administration in the drinking water during preslaughter feed withdrawal on Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broilers. Byrd JA, Hargis BM, Caldwell DJ, Bailey RH, Herron KL, McReynolds JL, Brewer RL, Anderson RC, Bischoff KM, Callaway TR, Kubena LF. Byrd JAHargis BMCaldwell DJBailey RHHerron KLMcReynolds JLBrewer RL Anderson RCBischoff KMCallaway TRKubena LF Treatment of chicks with high levels of certain organic acids during the feed withdrawal reduced carcass contamination post-chill by more than 50% Issue of reduced water consumption, carcass shrinkage, and cost of organic acid treatment A commercial product, developed at the University of Arkansas, uses a blend of acids and flavoring agents overcomes water refusal issue

39 Hargis, B. M., D. J. Caldwell, and J. A. Byrd. 2010. Microbial pathogens of poultry: Live bird considerations, C. Owens, Ed. Vaccination generally only has modest effects on intestinal colonization Vaccination is complicated by the more than 30 serovars of Salmonella that commonly infect poultry – relatively serotype specific While injected killed vaccines often protect against disease, only live vaccines have the potential to reduce enteric infection through development of mucosal immunity

40 Current USDA-sponsored Research Project at the UA - PHL We have developed a methodology for incorporating Salmonella and Campylobacter antigens (epitopes) into a non-pathogenic Bacillus vector This vector co-presents selected highly conserved antigens with an immunostimulatory molecule – oral application is possible Early research indicates that Campylobacter constructs are nearly 100% effective for eliminating infection in broiler chickens Current Salmonella constructs elicit moderate protection, research is ongoing

41 Bacillus-vectored Vaccine Against Campylobacter

42 Bacillus-vectored Vaccine Cell surface expression of epitopes and immunostimulatory molecules. Similar to expression system previously evaluated in Salmonella.

43 Campylobacter jejuni Enumeration by qPCR

44 Campylobacter jejuni-specific IgG Antibody Levels

45 Campylobacter jejuni-specific IgA Antibody Levels

46 A Probiotic/DFM Developed at the University of Arkansas This lactic acid-based culture, laboratory designation B11, has been evaluated in more than 26 refereed papers during the last 7 years and reduces Salmonella in both laboratory and field studies Application in field trials has resulted in more than 80% reductions in Salmonella entering processing plants Commercial product (FloraMax® )is limited by drinking water administration Current field trials with in-feed application of a new Spore-based culture are promising


48 Limitations of Lactic Acid Bacterial- Based Probiotics Shelf life Shelf life Heat stability Heat stability Application Application


50 In Vitro Antimicrobial Screening In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity (Overlay) In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity (Overlay) – Salmonella – Clostridium – Campylobacter Hard Agar Nutrient Media Soft Agar Overlay w/ Pathogen Bacillus Colony

51 Overlay: Salmonella ssp.

52 Spore Yield High Concentration of Spores – 10 11 -10 12 spores/g of fermentate – Highly heat resistant –survive pelleting – GRAS – safe isolates

53 In vivo Screening P-value < 0.05 DE E CD DE

54 In vivo Screening *Denotes significant Difference from Control P-value < 0.05 * * * * * ** Recovery of S. typhimurium: Chick In vivo Trial


56 Field Trial a B b b BWG (g) P-value < 0.05 a b

57 Field Trial a ab b P-value < 0.05

58 Necrotic Enteritis Model - Broilers Body Weight Gain and Mortality 22-29 Days BWG (g) 8.5% 16% 0% b b a a

59 Summary Live birds are the source of processing plant contamination – infections are mostly from parent flocks The crop is the major site of infection/contamination leading to carcass contamination Extended feed withdrawal increases the contamination problem Antemortem disinfection of the crop will reduce processing plant contamination

60 Summary- Continued Reducing infections in live birds reduces carcass contamination Current vaccines can reduce vertical transmission but only modestly affect intestinal carriage and plant contamination – new vaccine technology holds promise Water-based probiotics (Lactic Acid Bacteria) are commercially available with demonstratable efficacy – though not all work Some available probiotic products also improve production efficiency

61 Summary- Continued New specially-developed spore-based DFM for feed treatment hold tremendous promise – large scale field trials are ongoing A multipronged approach is likely the most cost-effective way for reducing Salmonella contamination of carcasses to acceptable risk levels

62 Jeb Supple (563) 582-4230

63 Post-Harvest Interventions Elizabeth Krushinskie DVM, PhD Director of QA and Food Safety Mountaire Farms, Inc.

64 Overview Current Strategies Russia

65 Current Strategies FSIS Directive 7120.1 Safe and Suitable Ingredients Used in the Production of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products – Lists all of the currently approved acidifiers and antimicrobials for use in poultry processing – Also specifies which products they can be used on and the locations they can be used at

66 Antimicrobials Chlorine and chlorine-based products are the most commonly used antimicrobials – Applicable to all processing locations – Very effective – Inexpensive

67 Antimicrobials Other products available include: – Peroxyacetic acids – Bromine – Cetylpyridinium chloride – Trisodium phosphate These typically have restrictions on the product type and location where they can be used Expensive

68 Poll Question Do you include your pathogen interventions in your HACCP plan or are they part of a pre- requisite program? HACCP Plan Pre-Requisite Program

69 Current Strategies Most companies use more than one intervention strategy in a multiple hurdle approach – These interventions can be packaged together in a pre-requisite program (ie Pathogen Management Program) that support the HACCP plan or can be included directly in the HACCP plan

70 Poll Question Do you use a post-chill antimicrobial intervention? Yes – If so, what kind? No

71 Current Strategies The most common processing steps where antimicrobial interventions can be included: – Pre-scald brush cabinets – Scalders – Picking rails – Post-picking rinse cabinets (New York washers)

72 Current Strategies The most common processing steps where antimicrobial interventions can be included: – Equipment rinses – On-line Reprocessing (OLR) brush and wash cabinets – Off-line reprocessing and salvage (required to use chlorine per 9 CFR 381.91)

73 Current Strategies The most common processing steps where antimicrobial interventions can be included: – Chillers – Post-chill rinse cabinets – Belts or conveyors in second processing

74 Current Strategies The results of these efforts, as measured by the FSIS post-chill Salmonella testing, show that the large establishments reduced their post-chill positive rate to 3.5% (4QFY09) – This is a significant improvement from the 20% positive rate reported from the baseline study in 1996 – Obviously, what we are doing is working

75 Poll Question Are you affected by the Russian ban on the use of chlorine? Yes No

76 Russia As of January 1, 2010, chlorine treated poultry products are prohibited in Russia – Largely a de facto non-scientific trade barrier – Has stopped export of U.S. leg quarters to Russia for 4 months already USDA and the USTR office are in negotiations with the Russian Veterinary Service

77 Russia No clear guidance at this point on which antimicrobials will be approved or which locations they will be required for – chiller, eviseration equipment sprays, off-line reprocessing, post-chill cabinets, etc

78 Russia At this point, the only non-chlorine chemical products that are legally approved for chiller application are: – Peroxyacetic acid blends – Bromine The industry is scrambling to investigate and adopt alternatives to chlorine in a vacuum of accurate information


80 FOR MORE INFORMATION: Beth Krushinskie: Dr. Billy Hargis: Bill Kinross: Ann Bagel Storck: Webinar recording and PowerPoint presentation available at:

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