Presentation on theme: "Medford Fire Prevention Bureau Fire Inspection Module"— Presentation transcript:
1 Medford Fire Prevention Bureau Fire Inspection Module IntroductionBased on the 2004 Oregon Fire Code
2 Scope and Right of Entry Scope (IFC 101.2)Establishes regulations affecting or relating to structures, processes, premises and safeguards regarding:The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage , handling or use of structures, materials, or devicesConditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of structures or premisesFire hazards in the structure or the premises from occupancy or operationMatters related to the construction, extension, repair, alteration, or removal of fire suppression or alarm systemsRight of Entry (IFC )May at all reasonable hours, enter into all buildings and upon all premises, except private residences, for the purpose of inspection to ascertain if fire hazards exist therein or thereonMajor changes in new IFC:Incentives for sprinkler systemsSprinklers for all residential buildings 3+ units
3 Occupancy Classification Groups A-Assembly (IFC 202)B-BusinessE-EducationalF-Factory, IndustrialH-HazardousI-InstitutionalM-MercantileR-ResidentialSR-Special ResidentialS-StorageU-MiscellaneousMajor changes in new IFC:Sprinklers for all residential buildings 3+ unitsDifferent Occupancy Classifications:A-1 Studios/TheatersA-2 Nightclubs/RestaurantsA-3 Churches/GymnasiumsA-4 Indoor arenasA-5 Outdoor arenasR-1 Hotels/motelsR-2 ApartmentsR-3 Single family residences, Residential care 6 or fewer, occupants capable of self-preservationR-4 Residential care 6-16, occupants capable of self-preservation
4 Access/PremisesGroup Question: What types of hazards should we look for on the exterior?
5 Access/Premises Address Visible from Street (IFC 505.1) Access Maintained & Unobstructed (IFC 503.1)Water Supply (IFC 508; Appendix B,C)Fire Service FeaturesHydrant Accessible (IFC )FDCStandpipesVegetation Hazard (IFC )Other Potential HazardsBlocked fire exit doorsDiscussion
6 Access/Premises Exterior Combustible Storage Trash Receptacles Min. 10’ from property line (or 3’ if storage does not exceed 6’ high) (IFC 315.3)Storage not allowed under nonsprinkled eaves in sprinkled buildings (IFC )Storage in open shall not exceed 20’ high (IFC )Trash ReceptaclesRubbish containers over 5 1/3 cubic feet (40 gallons) shall be provided with lids and be noncombustible (IFC )Dumpsters 1.5 cubic yards or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5’ of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines, excluding exceptions.(IFC )Exterior
7 Egress HazardsBuildings or structures that are not provided with adequate means of egress or emergency escapes are unsafe and shall be subject to the abatement procedures specified in Section (IFC )Most important inspection item.This is one place in the code that states buildings are deemed dangerous without proper egress. Any other references state it is up to the fire code official to determine if a hazard exits.
8 Egress Hazards-Locked Exits Scores die in Argentina club fire ( )At least 175 people have died in a fire that tore through a crowded nightclub in the Argentine capital, Buenos Aires. More than 619 others were injured when the fire broke out late on Thursday, city officials said.Up to 4,000 people, many of them teenagers, were inside the club for a New Year performance by rock group Los Callejeros, reports say.Officials are investigating the possibility that emergency exits at the nightclub were locked.Argentine Interior Minister Anibal Fernandez said the blaze may have claimed more victims because the exits had been tied shut with wire, Reuters news agency reports."It appears they were condemned to walk into a trap," Mr Fernandez said.Buenos Aires Mayor Anibal Ibarra said the emergency exit appeared to be shut "so that people wouldn't enter without paying" and firefighters had to break it open, Reuters added.Relatives have been identifying the deadCase in point: Buenos Aires Nightclub Fire175 dead600+ injuredThey were afraid someone would enter without paying, so they wired the exits closed.Deadliest item over the years=locked/blocked or inadequate exits.If there are locked/blocked exits and a fire occurs, odds are someone will die.
9 Egress Hazards-Locked Exits What’s wrong with these pictures?Chain lockedBar lockedSlide lockedPropped locked
10 Egress Hazards-Locked Exits Locks and Latches-Prohibited, Except…: (IFC )On places of detentionOn main exterior door in Group A(300 or less), Groups B, F, M, S, and churches, provided:The locking device is readily distinguishable as lockedThere is a sign on egress side: “THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS OCCUPIED”On egress doors used in pairs, approved automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used , provided the door leaf having the automatic flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted hardwareOn individual dwelling units, 10 or less occupants, must be openable from inside without the use of a key or tool (night latch, dead bolt, security chain OK)When are locks permissible?Main exterior door only when:Lock says “locked”Sign above doorMake sure it is a required exit door:Look for exit signsLook for panic hardwareLook for other egress doors nearby
11 Egress Hazards-Locked Exits Bolt Locks-Prohibited, Except…: (IFC )On doors not required for egress in individual dwelling units or sleeping unitsWhere a pair of doors serves a storage or equipment room, manually operated edge or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leafDelayed Egress Locks Permissible Under Certain Conditions (IFC )Panic Hardware (IFC )100 or more in Groups A & EGroups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-5Look at exit doors. Make sure there are no added locking devices. Make sure they open properly.
12 Egress Hazards Obstructed Exits or Exit Pathways (IFC 1003.6) Proper Door Swing (IFC )To swing in direction of egress travel when:Occupant load of 50 or more personsGroup H occupanciesAdditional Exits-Common Path of Egress Travel? (IFC )Max. common path of egress travel <=75’100’ for: Groups B, F, S (sprinkled); Groups B, S, U (<30 occupants); Group I-325’ for Groups H-1, H-2, H-3When are Two Exits Required? (IFC 1014)Groups. A, B, E, F, M, U occupant load >50.Groups. H-1, H-2, H-3 occupant load >3Groups. H-4, H-5, I-1, I-3, I-4, R occupant load >10.Required Number of Exits for Occupant Load: (IFC Table )Two (50-500)Three ( )Four (1000+)
13 Egress Hazards When is One Exit Permissible? (IFC Table 1018.2) One Story Max. Occupant Load Max. Travel DistanceGroups A, B, E, F, M, U ’ (Group B-100’ sprinkled)Groups H-2, H ’Groups H-4, H-5, I, R ’Group S ’Two StoriesGroups B, F, M, S ’Group R dwelling units ’Posting of Maximum Occupant Load (IFC )Assembly with 50 or more occupantsOvercrowding (admittance beyond approved capacity) (IFC 107.6)Also includes:Obstructions in aisles, passageways or other means of egressAny condition that constitutes a life safety hazardCommon Path of Egress Travel:That portion of exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included within the permitted travel distance.Example: 70’ x 40’ OfficeSF per occupant (Two exits not req. based on IFC 1014)Two exits required because common path of egress travel is exceeded (>75’)
14 Egress HazardsAssembly without fixed seatsConcentrated (chairs only—not fixed) 7 netStanding space netUnconcentrated (tables and chairs) netBusiness areas grossEducationalClassroom area netShops and other vocational room areas 50 netGroup Question:You go into a small restaurant and notice the doors only swing inward and there is only one exit. You know there is another door through the back of the kitchen. What is the maximum occupancy load?When are two exits required? Generally 50+ occupants.When are outward swinging doors required?Can the second exit pass through a kitchen, storage room, closet, etc.?Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes.Exception: Dwelling units (IFC )
15 Egress Hazards (Cont.) Hazardous Storage Near Exits Combustible mats. not stored in exits or exit enclosures (IFC )LP containers stored in buildings accessible to the public shall not be located near exit access doors, exits, stairs, or in areas norm. used, or for intended use, for the safe egress of people (IFC )Storage of any flammable/combustible liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored near or be allowed to obstruct physically the route of egress (IFC )Storage Under Stairways (IFC )Protected the greater of 1Hr. or rating of stairway enclosureStorage under unprotected stairways prohibited
16 Egress Hazards (Cont.) Corridors Dead End Corridors (IFC 1016.3) Max. 20’, exceptI-3, condition 2-4 max. =50’B & F occupancies sprinkled max. =50’Not limited where corridor is less than 2 ½ times least widthMinimum Unobstructed Widths (IFC )36” for occupant load <50, otherwise min. 44”72” Group E, 100 or more72” Group I, patients not capable of self-preservation96” Group I-2
17 Emergency Lighting/Illumination Existing Buildings, Where Required:A>50 (Except Churches <300)B three or more stories and 100 or more occupants above or below level of exit dischargeB 1,000 or more occupantsE exitways and windowless areas of occupancyF>100 (Except buildings used only in daylight with windows)IM (Except buildings <3000 sq. ft on one story only)R-1 (Except where each guestroom has direct outdoor grade level access)R-2 (Except where each guestroom has direct outdoor grade level access)R-4 (Except where each guestroom has direct outdoor grade level access)(IFC )You see this things all the time. Sometimes you don’t see them at all. When are they really required?
18 Emergency Lighting/Illumination Emergency Lighting (IFC )For means of egressMaintained operable (IFC )Required when two or more exits are requiredDuration of 90 minutes (60 min. existing) or moreAvg. 1 foot-candle, min. 0.1 foot-candleTesting (Backup power) (NFPA 101, Sec )30-day intervals for not less than 30 secondsAnnually for not less than 90 minutesIllumination of Means of Egress (IFC )Means of egress illuminated when the building or structure is occupied.Min. one foot-candle at floor level, with exceptions.
20 Exit Signs Must be Illuminated or Self-luminous. 90 minutes battery backup (60 for existing) (IFC 1011; ,4)Readily Visible from any DirectionAccess to Exits MarkedWhere exit or path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupantsNot required: (IFC )In rooms or areas which require only one exitMain exterior exit doorsTesting (Backup Power) (NFPA 101, Sec )30-day intervals for not less than 30 secondsAnnually for not less than 90 minutesSame requirements for existing buildings as backup emergency lighting.
21 Electrical HazardsThis fine wiring was found in a local restaurant. Notice the light gage speaker wire plugged into an outlet, spliced, stapled across the wall, running over to a wall switch, and powering a light. What’s wrong with this?
22 Electrical Hazards General Hazards (IFC 605.1) Overloaded circuitsBroken or missing fixtures, cover plates, etc.Shock hazardGround fault protectionClearance for Electrical Service Equipment (IFC 605.3)Min. 30” width, 36” depth, and 78” height, or width of equipmentExtension Cords (IFC 605.5)Only for temporary use with portable appliancePlugged into permanent receptacle, power tap, or approved multi-plugServe only one appliance, except for approved multi-plug cordsGrounded when serving grounded applianceNot affixed to structure, run through doors, walls, under rugs, etc.Properly ratedPower Strips (IFC )Plugged into permanent receptacle, not piggybacked
23 Wall/Ceiling Finishes Look for wall coverings that might be highly flammable or create smoke spread hazard, like:FoamPlasticspapers1” x wood or plywood (flame spread 70+, smoke density ) covered walls may work in rooms and enclosed spaces, but would not be acceptable in required exitwaysFlame Spread/Smoke Density (IFC 806.3)Class A: Flame Spread 0-25 (noncombustible)/Smoke Density 0-450Class B: Flame Spread 26-75/Smoke Density 0-450Class C: Flame Spread /Smoke Density 0-450
24 Wall/Ceiling Finishes The RI Station fire100 dead200+ injuredProbably upwards of 350 occupants (max. 300 allowed)-OvercrowdedExiting OKMajor problem: Polyurethane foam wall coveringsNIST conducted a test showing fire sprinkler would have controlled the fire and kept the interior tenable. The new IFC requires sprinklers for such occupancies:Fire area exceeding 5000 sq. ft., or300 or more occupants, orThe fire area is located on a floor other than the level of exit dischargeThe Station Fire
26 Fire Alarm SystemsWhat occupancies require a fire alarm system?
27 Fire Alarm Systems Where Required (IFC 907.2) Maintained (IFC 907.20) Group A, 300 or moreGroup B, 500 or more, or > 100 above or below the lowest level of exit dischargeGroup E, 50 or moreGroup F, two or more stories and 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit dischargeGroup H-5, manufacture of organic coatingsGroup IGroup M, 500 or more, or > 100 above or below the lowest level of exit dischargeGroup R-1 & R-2, see specificsMaintained (IFC )Serviced annually (City of Medford; IFC 901.6; )Manual, Automatic, Manual & Automatic
28 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans When you say emergency plans, this is what a lot of people think your talking about. There is more to it than an escape plan. We will get to the requirements in a few slides.
29 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans Includes Fire Evacuation and Fire Safety PlansWhen Required: (IFC 404)Group A, except worship areas <2000 occupantsGroup EGroup HGroup IGroup R subject to licensure by the stateGroup SRHigh RiseCovered MallsUnderground buildingsBuilding with an atrium and an occ. in Group A, E, or MWhere required.
30 Fire Evacuation Plans Includes: (IFC 404.3.1) Emergency egress or escape routesProcedures for employees for:Those who remain to operate critical equip. before evacuatingTo account for employees and occupantsID those:Responsible for rescue or medical aidWho can be contacted for further informationID preferred and alternative means of notifying occupants of a fire or emergencyProcedure to notify Fire DepartmentEmergency Plans includes fire evacuation plans and fire safety plans:
31 Fire Safety Plans Includes: (IFC 404.3.2) Procedure for reporting fire or other emergencyLife safety strategy and procedures for notifying, relocating, and evacuating occupantsFloor plans identifying:Exits, Primary evacuation routes, secondary evacuation routes, accessible egress routes, areas of refuge, manual fire alarm boxes, portable fire extinguishers, occupant hose stations, fire alarm annunciators and controls, area separation wallsList of major fire hazardsID personnel responsible for systems and equip. installed to prevent or control firesID personnel responsible for maintenance, housekeeping, and controlling fuel hazard sources
32 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans Maintenance (IFC 404.4)Shall be reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes in:Staff assignmentsOccupancyPhysical arrangement of buildingAvailability (IFC 404.5)Shall be available in the workplace for reference and review by employeesShall be available to fire code official for review upon requestWe should ask to see the emergency plans when required.
33 Emergency Evacuation Drills When Required (IFC 405)Group A-quarterly for employees only.Group E-monthly complete evacuation.Group I-quarterly each shift for staff only.Group R1-quarterly each shift for staff only.Group R-4 & SR-see IFC (IFC Table 405.2)Shall be Led by a Competent PersonShall be Held at Unexpected Times and Under Varying ConditionsShall be Initiated by the Fire Alarm System when PresentOccupants Shall be Accounted ForA Record Shall be KeptFrequency
35 Fire Extinguishers Where Required (IFC 906.1) Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S OccupanciesException: Groups A, B, and E occupancies with quick response sprinklers, extinguishers only required in special-hazard areasCooking areas, flammable liquid storage or dispensing, special hazard areas, buildings under construction (except R-3), additional required by Table 906.1Plain View and Accessible (IFC )Signs Required if not Readily Visible (IFC 906.6)Proper Size (NFPA 10)For light hazard occupancies min. “2A10BC”Proper Travel Distance/Number (Table 906.3(1))For light hazard occupancies max. travel distance=75’For light hazard, max sq. ft per unit of AProper Mounting (IFC 906.9)Height:Max. 5’ if <40 lbs.Max. 3 ½’ if >= 40 lbs.Min. 4” off groundServiced Annually (NFPA 10)6 year collar12 year hydrostatic testRequirements:
36 Fire/Smoke Separations Fire doors, fire dampers, smoke dampers, etc. Also can include holes in walls and ceilings. Also includes penetrations between floors and firewalls.
37 Fire/Smoke Separations Must be Maintained (IFC 703.1)TestingFire Doors-Horizontal and Vertical Sliding and Rolling (IFC 703.4)Tested AnnuallySmokeproof EnclosuresSemiannual testing required-includes smoke dampers, door closures, etc (NFPA 101, Sec )When inspecting:Notice any holes.Drop fire/smoke doors that are held open, making sure they close properly.Ask if the fire doors were tested.Ask if the smoke enclosure items were tested.
38 Fire Suppression Systems This includes fire sprinkler systems, clean agent systems, water mist systems, etc.
39 Fire Suppression Systems Must be maintained (IFC 901.6)Fire Sprinkler SystemsServiced annually (City of Medford; IFC 901.6)Internal inspection every five years (NFPA 25)StandpipesServiced every five years (City of Medford; NFPA 25)Alternative Systems (IFC 904)Wet & dry chemical-serviced semiannuallyThings to look for:On fire sprinkler systemsPressure at riserValves openInspection tag on riser or paperwork verifyingChanges in floor plan-obstructed or missing headsFor Standpipes5-year verificationFor alternative systems:Pressure6-month verification
40 Commercial Kitchen Hoods 3What’ wrong with this picture?The left picture is a restaurant kitchen in a basement in town. Do you notice anything wrong?No hood-Deep fat fryersNo suppression system-grease laden vaporsGeorge Foreman grills-non commercialRemember the electrical cord we talked about?
41 Commercial Kitchen Hoods Hood Must be Maintained Clean (IFC )Appliances Under Nozzles?UL 300 for Newer Vegetable Oils (IFC )Manual Pull Accessible (IFC )Automatic Shutoff (IFC )GasElectric (under hood)Makeup airClass K Fire Extinguisher within 30’ (IFC )6-mos. Service Required (IFC )Things to look for.
43 Heat Sources Proper Clearances Maintained (IFC 305.1) Portable electric heaters (Recommend min. 3’ clearance to radiant heater)Light fixtures (Recommend min. 12” clearance to open bulb)Flame producing devices (See listings)Candles (IFC 308)Not allowed in areas where people stand,or in an aisle or exitIn religious ceremonies, not allowed to bepassed while lightedIn Restaurants, allowed if:Noncombustible basesProtected candle flamesNo more high temperature/tip-over feature on portable electric heatersWe can recommendCandles are a major contributor to residential fires. There are rules for exitways and assembly areas.
45 Housekeeping/Decorations Keep Exits Unobstructed (IFC ; 1027)Keep Required Aisles Clear (Storage) (IFC )No Combustible Storage:In exits or exit enclosures (IFC )In boiler, mechanical, or electrical panel rooms (IFC )Under exit enclosures w/o 1 HR protection (IFC )Combustible Storage Shall be Orderly (IFC 315.2)Move Recyclables Outside (IFC 316.7)Remove:Lint (IFC )Combustible dust (IFC )Spilled combustible and flammable liquids (IFC )Decorations-Flame Resistant (IFC 805)Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, with exceptions.Make exitways a priorityNotice storage rooms
46 Mechanical HazardsFurnaces, water heaters, heating appliances, etc.
47 Mechanical Hazards Combustible Storage Near (IFC 315.2.3) Indoor storage not permitted in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms and electrical panel rooms.Unsafe Heating Appliance (IFC 603)Venting (603.5)Clearances (IMC)Guard against contact ( )Portable unvented heaters (603.4)Things to look for:Improper storageClearances to combustiblesVenting
48 Smoke DetectionFound in residential occupancies, as part of an automatic fire alarm system, smoke control system, etc.
49 Smoke Detection Hotels, Motels, Apartments, Rental Units Hard wired with “hush” feature or 10 yr. battery with “hush” feature required for rentals, hotels, apartments with ionization detectors(addressable fire alarm systems exempt) (ORS )Battery operated in hotels should be tested frequently by housekeeping/maintenanceDay Care/Nursery Sleeping Areas (State of Oregon)Lifespan10years (unless addressable)Proper Installation (NFPA 72)30’ x 30’ area for flat ceilings4” from corner4-12” down on wallsResidentialFacts
51 Storage-Combustible Interior Storage Shall be orderly (IFC 315.2) Not allowed in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms, and electrical panel rooms (IFC )2’ or more below ceiling (non-sprinklered)18” or more below sprinklers (IFC )Storage Under Exit Enclosures-Protected min. 1-hr(IFC )Attic and underfloor spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side by 1-HR const., except where sprinkled (IFC )Maintain clearance from heat sourcesHigh-piled may require sprinkler protection (IFC Ch. 23)Combustible materials where top of storage >12’High hazard commodities (tires, plastics, flammable liquids, etc.) where top of storage > 6’InteriorCommon items to look at.When is storage considered high piled?Over 12’ to top of combustible materialsOver 6’ to the top of high hazard materials (flammable liquids, tires, plastics, etc.)Red flag-over 500 sq. ft.-will require some type of protection systemOptions:Lower storageHave prevention bureau investigate
52 Storage-Compressed Gas Cylinders You won’t see this type of facility, but you will find these containers in the strangest places.
53 Storage-Compressed Gas Cylinders Marked (IFC )Physical Protection (IFC )Secured against Falling (IFC )RestraintCartNesting-tight mass, all have min. 3 points of contactRackSeparation from Hazardous Conditions (IFC )Protection from heating (125 deg. F max.)Incompatible materialsFalling objectsCombustible Vegetation >10’ AwayStorage (IFC 3004)Upright for containers >1.3 gal.Exception: Those designed for horizontalCan be like rockets if the fall and breakWould not want these stored high up on palletsWould not want these stored in mechanical or boiler roomsWould not want these stored where vehicular damage could take place
55 Storage-Flammable Liquids Occupancy Quantity Limits (IFC )Class 1A-max. 30 gal. unsprinkled, 60 gal. sprinkled (Table )Quantities Exceeding Limits for Control AreasShall be in liquid storage rooms or liquid storage warehouses (IFC )Liquids for Maintenance and Operation of Equipment10 Gallons in Liquid Storage Cabinets (Retail) (IFC )Proper Arrangement (IFC )Max. 3’ high or two containers, whichever is greater, for containers<30 gal.Max. one container high for containers >30 gal.Not Located Near Heat Sources (IFC )Class 1 Not in Basements (IFC )Storage of Class 1 flammable liquids-should be at ground level
56 Storage-Flammable Liquids Retail (IFC )Metal containers required for Class 1 liquidsMaximum Metal Container Size5 gal., excl. exceptions.Storage ArrangementMax. 6’ high on metal shelves, max. 4’ 6” high on pallets or in pile, for building with ceilings <18‘ highMax. 4’ 6” high on racks for building with ceilings <18’Combustible commodities shall not be stored above flammable and combustible liquids (IFC )Storage of any liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored near or be allowed to obstruct physically the route of egress (IFC )Retail requirements
58 Storage-Hazardous Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Available for all hazardous materialsIndividual Containers Marked or LabeledTrained Responsible Persons to be Liaison Personnel for Fire DepartmentFor Quantities Meeting or Exceeding IFC Limits:Hazardous Material Inventory Statement (HMIS)Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) (IFC 407)
59 Storage-Hazardous Hazardous Material Information Survey HAZARDOUS (State of Oregon)HAZARDOUSLiquids-50 GALLONS OR MORE(E.g. gasoline, diesel, motor oil, acetone, paint)Solids-500 POUNDS OR MORE(E.g. lime, metal ingots, fertilizer, caustic soda)Gases-200 CUBIC FEET OR MORE (At atmospheric pressure and temp.)(E.g. acetylene, oxygen, propane, liquid oxygen, sulfur dioxide, freon)Extremely hazardous substances that meet or exceed Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ)POISONS/EXPLOSIVES (E.g. cyanide, strychnine, dynamite, black powder)Liquids-5 GALLONS OR MORESolids-10 POUNDS OR MOREGases-20 CUBIC FEET OR MORERADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCESState of Oregon requirements
60 Storage-Hazardous Hazardous Material Information Survey (continued) (State of Oregon)NOT REPORTABLE:ABS PipePlastic tubingAcrylic SheetsPolyethylene Products (finished form)Alcoholic BeveragesPolystyrene (filler material)Metal PipePolyurethane (foam finished products)Metal RodsPVC PipeMetal Sheets TransformersPlastic PipeVinyl (film and sheeting)Not reportable