# Scientific Method and Measurement

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Scientific Method and Measurement
Chapter 0 Scientific Method and Measurement

The Method What organized method do scientists use to solve a problem?
The scientific method Define the problem Make a hypothesis Make observations Record data Review the data Modify hypothesis Retest

The Method What is the definition of… Hypothesis?
Independent Variable? Dependent Variable? Control? Qualitative Data? Quantitative Data? A prediction or guess What you change What happened/changed What you keep the same Non-numerical (ex. Blue) Numerical (ex. 55 cm)

The Method Why is it important not to have too many independent variables? It is impossible to tell which one affected your results Limit the number of variables Have lots of controls

Theory vs. Law What is the main difference between a theory and a law?
A law is a (mathematical) relationship that predicts what happens and is always correct. A theory is an evolving body of information. It has not been proven correct.

Airplane Challenge I challenge your team to build a paper airplane that will FLY the farthest distance. Each team will build three planes. 3 pieces of paper, 6 paper clips, scissors Your team will test ONE variable to see which of your three prototypes will work the best.

Airplane Challenge Before you fly! What is my independent variable?
What is my dependent variable? What is my first hypothesis? After you fly! What did I observe after the test flights? Please answer these questions in your notebook.

Precision vs. Accuracy What is the difference between precision and accuracy? Accuracy refers to how close it is to the correct value Precision refers to how close together a group of measurements are to each other

Precision vs. Accuracy On the right hand side of your notes, please draw the following targets with the bullet holes.

Precision vs. Accuracy Label the target that is accurate and precise.

Precision vs. Accuracy Label the target that is the least precise.

Precision vs. Accuracy Label the target that is precise and inaccurate.

Precision vs. Accuracy

Practice Problem #1 An archer shoots three arrows at a target and each land within 1 cm of each other, but none of the arrows are within 30 cm of the center. Explain whether the archer is precise, accurate, neither or both.

Practice Problem #2 The table lists the results of temperature measurements of a beaker of boiling water. The temperature of boiling water is 100 °C. Explain whether each thermometer was accurate, precise, neither or both.

Precision and Measurement
Pick the measuring device that makes the most sense: bar, book or paper clip Measure the object or area. Estimate the final value. (ex. 0.5, quarter, 1/3) Record your measurements in the table. Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) Height of a Lab Bench Length of a Desk (long ways) Thickness of Desk

Precision and Measurement (p. 2)
Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 15 ½ 230 Bars Paper clips Length of a Desk (long ways) 2 Height of a Lab Bench 2 2/3 Thickness of a Desk 3 Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 15 1/3 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 2 Height of a Lab Bench 2 2/3 Thickness of a Desk 1 Paper clips Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 15.75 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 2 Height of a Lab Bench 4.5 Books Thickness of a Desk 0.8 Paper clips Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 15 2/3 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 3 1/3 Books Height of a Lab Bench 4 ½ Thickness of a Desk 4/5 Paper clips

Precision and Measurement (p. 3)
Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 16 ¼ Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 2 Height of a Lab Bench 4 ½ Thickness of a Desk 1 Paper clip Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 17 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 2 1/8 Height of a Lab Bench 4.5 Books Thickness of a Desk 0.85 Paper clip Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 17 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 3 ½ Books Height of a Lab Bench 4 ½ Thickness of a Desk 1 Paper clips Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 17 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 2.5 Height of a Lab Bench 3.5 Books Thickness of a Desk 1 Paper clips

Precision and Measurement (p. 5)
Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 15.5 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 2 Height of a Lab Bench 4.5 Books Thickness of a Desk 0.9 Paper Clips Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 15 1/6 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 2 Height of a Lab Bench 5 ¾ Books Thickness of a Desk Paper Clips Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 16 Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 3.5 Books Height of a Lab Bench 2 2/3 Thickness of a Desk 2/3 Paper Clips Object or Area Measurement Bar, Book or Paper Clip Width of the Lab Area (cabinets to cabinets) 15 ½ Bars Length of a Desk (long ways) 2 ¼ Height of a Lab Bench 4 ½ Books Thickness of a Desk Paper Clips

Precision and Measurement
Which measurement do I feel is the most precise and WHY? What is one benefit AND one drawback to using a smaller unit of measurement?

Scientific Notation What is scientific notation?
A shortcut for writing really large or really small numbers Every number can be represented by a number between 1 and 10 and multiplied by a power of 10

Scientific Notation How do I do scientific notation?
Put a decimal after the first non-zero number Count the number of spaces the decimal place moved If the decimal moved to the left, the exponent is positive and if it moved to the right its negative Get rid of (drop) unwanted zeros

Scientific Notation What are some examples of scientific notation?
Large numbers 190,000,000 1.9 x 108 Zeros at the end are dropped Small number 5.67 x 10-4 Zeros at the beginning are dropped

Scientific Notation Practice
Please convert the following into proper scientific notation: 784000 101 -4321 1.30 7.84 x 105 1.01 x 102 x 10-2 x 103 6 x 10-7 1.30

Scientific Notation Reversed
Please convert the following into standard format: 5.68 x 103 2.1 x 10-5 4.309 x 102 5680 430.9

Scientific Notation Revisited
Put into scientific notation: 1358 Put into standard format: 5.4 x 102 9.03 x 10-3

Scientific Notation and Calculators
What buttons are used on a calculator for scientific notation? Its EE -or- exp

Scientific Notation and Calculators
What may show up on my screen? On your screen, you may see the following: X10 exponent E exponent (space) exponent

Scientific Notation and Calculators
Put the following number into your calculator and hit equals/enter: 4.56 x 1015 Please understand that you will need to translate this into proper notation!

Scientific Notation and Calculators
Using your calculator, determine the following answers in scientific notation: Multiply: (4.57 x 10-3)(2.0 x 105) Divide (3.1 x 103)/(4.7x105) 914 OR 6.6x10-3

Scientific Notation What power are you multiplying and dividing by each time you move a decimal? Powers of 10 These powers allow us to understand very large (size of galaxies) and very small (size of atoms) numbers

Powers of Ten What are some familiar powers of ten? 109 - Billons
106 - Millions 103 - Thousands 102 - Hundreds Micro

Powers of Ten In meters, what is the correct power of ten?
Distance from LA to NYC Diameter of the earth Diameter of the sun Diameter of our galaxy 3.9 x 106 1.3 x 107 1.4 x 109 1.1 x 1021

Powers of Ten

Powers of Ten

Powers of Ten (Simpsons Style)

Dimensional Analysis Why is dimensional analysis important?
It allows us to easily convert between units using a series of equivalent fractions

Dimensional Dominoes - Colors
With your team, set up the color dominoes to convert the following colors into new ones. Convert cowpoke brown to deeply red Convert cowpoke brown to pink glitz Convert black leather to orange sizzle Convert orange sizzle to black leather Convert cowpoke brown to tabby

Dimensional Dominoes - Units
The portage trails on maps are measured and marked in rods. On a recent canoe trip to the Skagit and Cascade Rivers my brother and I portaged a total of 2342 rods. How many total miles did we carry our gear? Directions: With your team, set up the unit dominoes to convert the following units into new ones then copy the set-up into your notes. Answer = 7.3 miles

Dimensional Dominoes - Units
The English unit, the rod, is equal to 16.5 ft. What is this length expressed in meters? Directions: With your team, set up the unit dominoes to convert the following units into new ones then copy the set-up into your notes (right side). Answer = 5.03 meters

Dimensional Dominoes - Units
If a college student smokes an average of 10 cigarettes per day for five years of school, how much money will they have spent on smokes by the time they graduate? Directions: With your team, set up the unit dominoes to convert the following units into new ones then copy the set-up into your notes. Answer = \$

Dimensional Dominoes - Units
The weight of bullets and arrows is measured in a unit called the grain. If an arrow weighs 330 grains what is its weight in ounces? Directions: With your team, set up the unit dominoes to convert the following units into new ones then copy the set-up into your notes. Answer = ounces

Dimensional Dominoes - Units
Assuming that you attend school 180 days a year for 8 hours a day from first through twelfth grade, you’d be in class for a total of 2160 school days. How many total years of your life will you have spent in school by the time you graduate? Directions: With your team, set up the unit dominoes to convert the following units into new ones then copy the set-up into your notes. Answer = 1.97 years

Dimensional Dominoes - Units
How many pounds does a 5 gallon pail of water weight? Directions: With your team, set up the unit dominoes to convert the following units into new ones then copy the set-up into your notes. Answer = pounds

Dimensional Analysis Jerseylicious "How much is a centimeter?"

Dimensional Analysis American Chopper – Why we have the metric system!

Dimensional Analysis What is a base unit? What is a prefix?
Basic unit from which all other units are created Ex. Length – meters Ex. Mass – grams Goes in front of a base unit to indicate how many Ex. Length – kilometers Ex. Mass – milligrams

Dimensional Analysis How many different types are there? Three types:
Two step - converting to or from a base unit Ex. m to km Three step - converting from a non-base unit to a non-base unit Ex. mm to km Non-metric – converting between different scales

Dimensional Analysis - Two Step
Please convert 5 kilograms to grams. First fraction is what we have: Second fraction is what we want: Remember… The unit with the prefix gets the one! Multiply across the top and bottom and then divide.

Dimensional Analysis - Two Step
Please convert: 2.5 cm to m 0.04 J to kJ 3.1 x 104 mL to L 50.8 g to ng 3.5 g to mg 0.5 L to cL

Dimensional Analysis - Three Step
Please convert 92 kilograms to milligrams. First fraction is what we have: Second fraction is the conversion to the base unit: Third fraction is what we want: Calculate the same way as before

Dimensional Analysis - Three Step
Please convert: 36.0 cm to km 52 Mg to mg 601 mL to cL 0.003 dg to cg 8 μg to mg km mg 60.1 cL 0.03 cg 0.008 mg

Dimensional Analysis – Non-metric
What is a non-metric conversion? Use math formulas Ex. Temperature Use other equivalencies Ex. 12 inches = 1 foot

Dimensional Analysis – Non-metric
Please convert: 34 inches to feet 15 °C to °F 5 L to gallons 2000 calories to J 2 atm to Pa 2.8 ft 59 °F 1.32 gallons 8368 J Pa