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Problems with HVAC Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Problems with HVAC Systems"— Presentation transcript:


2 Problems with HVAC Systems
Application of UV-C Problems with HVAC Systems How does UV-C help? What is UV-C How do UV-C Lamps Work ASHRAE Update CDC and GSA specifications Questions

3 Applications

4 UV in HVACR System Goals
Control Bio-Film Control Bio-aerosols Degrade Other Organic Debris Maintenance Who enjoys cleaning coils? So To Reduce: IAQ Problems Absenteeism Energy Use

5 Bio-Contamination

6 Bio-Contamination Causes: Higher Coil ΔP Reduced: Source of: Air Flow
Heat Exchange Efficiency Drain Pan Drainage Source of: Mycotoxins Endotoxins Microbial VOC Other Odor

7 Bio-Lunch at a Well Known
Tobacco Plant

8 Various Infected Coils & Drain Pans

9 Plenums, Fans & Dampers

10 Hospital Drain Pans & Overflow

11 Mold Growth in Filter

12 Mold on Fan

13 Coil Surface Samples


15 Energy Consumption Depending on the region, more than half the energy consumed can be for powering air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. And electrical power costs are often the largest expenditure for most occupied buildings. Other 17% Ventilation & Cooling 52% Lighting 31% Reducing energy use while improving the working environment of a building has always been a common goal.

16 Optimum cooling/ Design
Organic Matter Buildup Lowers Coil Efficiency / Increase in Coil Pressure New Clean Coil: Optimum cooling/ Design = Add only .006” of bio film: Decreased efficiency =

17 Typical Responses To The Problem
Speed up Fan Pump More Chilled Water Lower Coil Water Temp a Increased kWh Usage on Fan Motors Increased kWh Usage on Pump Motors Significantly Increases kWh Usage on Chiller = = = INCREASED ENERGY COSTS


19 Restore The Coil Efficiency
UV-C on The Coil UV-C Energy Vaporizes Organic Matter Energy is Reflected Through The Coil Week One Week Five

20 Aluminum surfaces throughout a coil are highly reflective to the UVC wavelength such that there is an increase in Flux Density between coil fins. Fig. 6 – Ray-tracing computer model of UVC spectral lines being reflected throughout the coil vaporizing organic matter in their path. Twenty only, out of billions of different angle reflections are shown with a 80 percent reflective value.

21 Harvesting Energy Savings From A Restored Cooling Coil
Slow Down Fan Pump Less Chilled Water Raise Coil Water Temp a Restored kWh Usage Restored kWh Usage Restores Significant kWh Usage = = = SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SAVINGS

22 UVC-HVAC Applications

23 What is UV-C

24 Light Spectrum

25 Ultraviolet Light Spectrum
1nm = 1/1000 micron UV-A (315nm - 400nm) - Includes black lights, sun tanning lamps and it is harmful to eyes UV-B (280nm - 315nm) - Causes sunburn and Skin cancer UV-C (200nm - 280nm) - Is naturally germicidal, damages the DNA of microbes and more The Sun produces all 3, UV-A & UV-B make it through the Earth’s atmosphere. UV-C is mostly filtered out

26 DNA Response to UV Energy

27 Germicidal UV-C Lamp 253.7 nm
Light Spectrum Germicidal UV-C Lamp nm

28 Cell Destruction Electromagnetic energy breaks through cell wall
Damages DNA Cannot reproduce or feed Cell “Dies” UVC energy enters the cell

29 DNA Damage

30 Lamps

31 Many kinds of lamps Black light UV-A UV-C Germicidal Fluorescent

32 Fluorescent Impure or “junk” glass; does not transmit UV-C
Contains Mercury (Hg) Contains Phosphor Contains Noble gas (Argon is the most common)

33 Germicidal Lamps Glass that transmits UV-C Phosphor is removed
Quartz Soda Barium (“soft glass”) Phosphor is removed Contains Mercury (Hg) Majority use Argon some use a mixture of Argon/ Neon or maybe a little Xenon

34 Fluorescent Vs. UV-C Lamps

35 Lamp Wattage/ Output Philips Lamp Description Lamp Wattage Diameter
µW/CM2 Philips TUV 4W 4 T5 9 Philips TUV 6W 6 15 Philips TUV 8W 8 21 Philips TUV 10W 10 T8 23 Philips TUV 11W 11 26 Philips TUV 15W 48 Philips TUV 16W 16 45 Philips TUV Fl7T8 17 88 Philips TUV 25W 25 69 Philips TUV 30W 30 100 Philips TUV 36W 36 145 Philips TUV 55W HO 55 150 Philips TUV 75W HO 75 220 Philips TUV 115W-R VHO 115 T12 610 Philips TUV 115W VHO 360 Philips TUV 240W XPT 240 T6 800 Philips TUV 270W XPT 270 T10 920 Philips TUV PL-S 5W/2P 5 PLS Philips TUV PL-S 7W/2P 7 Philips TUV PL-S 9W/2P 22 Philips TUV PL-S I I W/2P 33 Philips TUV PL-S I 3W/2P 13 31 Philips TUV PL-L I 8W/4P 18 PLL 51 Philips TUV PL-L 24W/4P 24 65 Philips TUV PL-L 35W/4P HO 35 105 Philips TUV PL-L 36W/4P 110 Philips TUV PL-L 55W/4P HF 156 Philips TUV PL-L 60W/4P 60 166 Philips TUV PL-L 95W14P HO 95 250 Philips TUV 36T5 40 144 Philips TUV 64T5 280 Philips TUV 36T5 HO 230 Philips TUV 64T5 HO 442

36 Lamp Intensity Philips TUV 64T5 HO 145 442
For a variety of low pressure mercury TUV lamps, the irradiance values at I meter distance are expressed below. Philips Lamp Description Lamp Wattage Diameter Microwatt/CM2 Philips TUV PL-L 35W/4P HO 35 PLL 105 Philips TUV PL-L 36W/4P 36 110 Philips TUV PL-L 55W/4P HF 55 156 Philips TUV PL-L 60W/4P 60 166 Philips TUV PL-L 95W14P HO 95 250 Philips TUV 36T5 40 T5 144 Philips TUV 64T5 75 280 Philips TUV 36T5 HO 230 Philips TUV 64T5 HO 145 442


38 Lamp Intensity Factors
µW/CM2 Philips TUV 64T5 HO 442 Distance from Lamp (inches) Intensity 2 32.3 14277 3 22.8 10078 4 18.6 8221 6 12.9 5702 8 9.85 4354 10 7.94 3509 12 6.48 2864 14 5.35 2365 18 3.6 1591 24 2.33 1030 36 1.22 539 39.37 1 48 0.681 301 60 0.452 200 80 0.256 113 100 0.169 75 120 0.115 51 Lamps follow the inverse square law Closer to the lamp the higher the intensity

39 Safety

40 UV-C Exposure limits

41 UV-C Exposure

42 Radiometer

43 HVAC Applications for UV-C
Two distinct applications for UVC Decontaminating surfaces Coils Filters “capture and kill” Decontaminating moving air-streams (“on-the-fly”) “On-The Fly” Shown is 12,000 MicroWatt/cm2 “Coil” 800 MicroWatt/cm2 shown






49 ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

50 ASHRAE Highlights 2005 -TG 2.UVAS created in Winter Meeting 2005 (Orlando) TG 2.UVAS was turned into a full TC (TC-2.9) SPC was formed (“On-the-Fly” kill) 2007- SPC was formed (Surface kill) ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook Published Chapter 16 Highlights UV Fundamentals. 2009 – ASHRAE Board of Directors publishes a position paper on Airborne Infectious Diseases…highlights UV-C 2011 – SPC goes out for public review 2011 – AHSRAE HVAC Applications Handbook Published Chapter 60 covers UV applications

51 2008 Fundamentals Handbook

52 2011 HVAC Applications Handbook

53 SPC-185 SPC MOT.UVC Lights for use in air handling units or air ducts to inactivate airborne microorganisms 1. PURPOSE This standard establishes a test method for evaluating the efficacy of a UVC device for inactivating airborne microorganisms in a moving air stream. SPC Method of Testing Ultraviolet Lamps for Use in HVAC&R Units or Air Ducts on Irradiated Surfaces. This standard establishes a test method for measuring the intensity of ultraviolet lamps on irradiated surfaces under typical HVAC&R operating conditions

54 Position Document

55 Airborne Infectious Diseases
There are three general UVGI strategies: installation into ventilating ducts, irradiation of the upper zones of occupied spaces, and in-room irradiation after one occupant and before the next. Filtration and UVGI controls research are given top priority because less is known about how these controls can be applied in buildings and HVAC systems to decrease disease events.

56 Research Priority

57 ASHRAE 2012-New Committee New Committee is being formed to write “PD” position documents for “Air Cleaning Devices” Air Filtration UV-C Others Will last 18 months 10 – 15 documents will be presented to ASHRAE for publication.

58 CDC Guidelines

59 TB in Pakistan Tuberculosis (TB), an illness that mainly affects the respiratory system, is one of the world's most pernicious diseases. TB currently infects one-third of the world's population and kills approximately 1.7 million people each year. Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide Pakistan cases are estimated at 286,000 annually Pakistan ranked 6th in the world on TB burden

60 CDC Because of the results of numerous studies ( ) and the experiences of TB clinicians and mycobacteriologists during the past several decades, the use of UVGI has been recommended as a supplement to other TB infection-control measures in settings where the need for killing or inactivating tubercle bacilli is important (2,4, ). Commercially available UV lamps used for germicidal purposes are low-pressure mercury vapor lamps (127) that emit radiant energy in the UV-C range, predominantly at a wavelength of nm (128).

61 Correctional Facilities

62 GSA Specification

63 Section Five, Sub-Section 5.8, Page 135
GSA Specification Implemented in 2000 Last revision was in 2005 Section Five, Sub-Section 5.8, Page 135 HVAC Components Revised March 2005 – PBS-P100

64 GSA Section 5.8, pg 135

65 UL “proposed” Will require AHU manufactures to test for leaking of UV from cabinets. The emissions from the equipment shall not exceed an effective irradiance value of 0.1 microWatts/cm2 The ratings of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation lamp system shall include, lamp rating in watts and voltage. Conclusion: OEM’s will rate cabinets for the maximum “Lamp Watts”

66 Take Away Remember ALL Germicidal lamps have their output at 253.7nm
Wattage dictates output…higher wattage = More UV-C output Finally, A Watt is A Watt

67 UV-C Benefits Improves Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
Cleans coils and drain pans Recovers coil efficiencies Reduces energy consumption ASHRAE acceptance Two chapters, two proposed test standards & Position Documents Should be a “Standard of Care”

68 Thank You

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