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Back Ground Opposition of Separate Electorate by Hindus

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1 Back Ground Opposition of Separate Electorate by Hindus
Jinnah opinion to accept Joint Electorate Division Of AIML Culcutta Group-Quaid Lahore Group-Sir Shafi/Iqbal Quaid was in favour in reconciliation with Congress while Sir Shafi was not

2 Main Points Sind should be separated from Bombay and should be constituted into an independent province Reforms should be introduced in the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in any other province of India Reservation of seats according to the population for different communities in the Punjab and Bengal Muslims should be given 1/3rd representation in the Central Legislature.

3 Appraisal Rift in Muslim League Response to Simon Commission
Challenge of Lord Burken Head that Indian are immture

4 Nehru Report 1928

5 Background The "Nehru Report" (August 1928)
A memorandum outlining a proposed new Dominion constitution for India By a committee of the All Parties Conference chaired by Motilal Nehru with his son Jawaharlal acting as secretary Important Members Motilal Nehru,Ali Imam ,Tej Bahadur Sapru, M.S. Aney, Mangal Singh, Shuaib Qureshi, Subhas Chandra Bose, G. R. Pradhan, with Shuaaib Qureshi disagreeing with some of the recommendations,

6 Main Points 1. India should be given the status of a dominion. 2. There should be federal form of government with residuary powers vested in the center. 3. India should have a parliamentary form of government headed by a Prime Minister and six ministers appointed by the Governor General. 4. There should be bi-cameral legislature. 5. There should be no separate electorate for any community. 6. System of weightage for minorities was as bad as that of separate electorates.

7 Cont…. 7. Reservation of Muslim seats could be possible in the provinces where Muslim population was at least ten percent, but this was to be in strict proportion to the size of the community. 8. Muslims should enjoy one-fourth representation in the Central Legislature. 9. Sindh should be separated from Bombay only if the Committee certified that it was financially self-sufficient. 10. The N. W. F. P. should be given full provincial status. 11. A new Kanarese-speaking province Karnatic should be established in South India. 12. Hindi should be made the official language of India.

8 Analysis The recommendations of the Nehru Report went against the interests of the Muslim community An attempt to serve Hindu predominance over Muslims The Nehru Committee's greatest blow was the rejection of separate electorates If the report had taken into account the Delhi Proposals, the Muslims might have accepted it Nehru Committee did not consider the Delhi Proposals at all while formulating their report The Muslims were asking for one-third representation in the center while Nehru Committee gave them only one-fourth representation

9 Cont… Two demands of Muslims were considered in the Nehru Report but both of them incomplete It was said that Sindh should be separated from Bombay but the condition of self-economy was also put forward It demanded constitutional reforms in N. W. F. P. but Baluchistan was overlooked in the report Syed Ali Imam could attend only one meeting due to his illness and Shoaib Qureshi did not endorse views of the Committee on the issue of Muslim representation in legislature The Hindus under Congress threatened the government with a disobedience movement if the Nehru report was not implemented into the Act by December 31, 1929 Hindu attitude proved to be a milestone in the freedom movement of the Muslims

10 Amendments Proposed By Quaid
1/3 seats instead of 1/4th in Central Legislature Proportionate representation for Muslim in Punjab and Bangal for 10 Years Residual Powers to Provinces instead of center By MA Joher Complete independence instead of Dominion Status

11 Jinnah and Joher on Nehru Report
It also proved to be a turning point in the life of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. After reading the Nehru Report, Jinnah announced a 'parting of the ways'. The Nehru Report reflected the inner prejudice and narrow-minded approach of the Hindus (Quaid) “As a young man he had been a keen owner of grey hounds,but he had never grey hounds deal with hare as the Hindus proposed to deal with the Muslims.“(Joher)

12 Quaid’s 14 Points 1929

13 Back Ground The report was given in a meeting of the council of the All India Muslim League on March 28, 1929 Nehru Report was criticized by Muslim leaders Aga Khan and Mohammad Shafi They considered it as a death warrant because it recommended joint electoral rolls for Hindus and Muslims March 1929, the Muslim league session was held at Delhi under the presidency of Jinnah. In his address to his delegates, he consolidated Muslim viewpoints under fourteen items and these fourteen points became Jinnah 14 points


15 14 Points The form of the future constitution should be federal, with the residuary powers vested in the provinces. All cabinets at central or local level should have at least 1/3 Muslim representation. All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality. In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third. Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate as at present, provided it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of a joint electorate.

16 Cont… Any territorial distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority. Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities No bill or resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose it as being injurious to the interests of that community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.

17 Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province and Balochistan on the same footing as in the other provinces Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the other Indians, in all the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institutions and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies No cabinet, either central or provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers. No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the State's contribution of the Indian Federation

18 Analysis The fourteen points advocated by Jinnah received uninterested applause from the Muslim community and were discussed again when Jinnah rose to prominence in 1930's Among the Hindus, Jinnah's points were highly disregarded Jawaharlal Nehru referred to them as "Jinnah's ridiculous 14 points" These demands were rejected by the Congress Party After the fourteen points were publicized, Jinnah was invited to attend the round table conferences, where he forwarded the Muslim point of view

19 Some other Silent about Only demands for Muslims
Urdu Islam Only demands for Muslims Political Charter of AIML Still Separate Country was not demanded Still concept of Nation not arised

20 Comparison Nehru Report rejected weightage for minorities because it thought that minority question is a British creation and would disappointed as india would attained dominion status, while jinnah viewed that minority question is real and based upon fundamental, political difference Nehru report rejected muslim demand for separate electorates on the ground that all indians belonging to one nation, while it was not the case muslims regarded themselves a separate national entity from non-muslims Nehru report, muslims could enjoy one-fourth of the representation in the central legislature. while 14 points recommended that in central legislature muslims representation should not be less than one-third Moreover, nehru report favoured that autonomy should in the centre while jinnah recommended that uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces

21 5. Nehru report was advocating the independence of whole india which meant for all allies communities alike but jinnah hold that independence as visualised by the congress is dominion status in british commonwealth of nations which in practice implies the rule of minority Nehru refused to include in a provincial cabinet any musllim while jinnnah with his league insisted that muslim interests can best be defended by a minister commanding the confidence of the muslim majority in his provincial legislature Nehru report wished to enforced parliamentary system of government at the centre , jinnah viewed this system not suited to the genius of india and already proved to be failure in the congress governed provinces were the muslim minority were suppressed and not protected The main difference and pivot of the whole question is that the congress while claiming for itself the right for the whole of india denies the muslim league the right to speak, on behalf of indian muslims

22 Jinnah’s 14 Points .................... .Nehru Report
Separate Electorate for Muslims Joint Electorate  Demanded weightage for Minorities……..No weightage for minorities Demanded Provincial Autonomy……..Demand of Strong Central Govt Inclusions of Muslims in the cabinet....Against the inclusion in the cabinet  Obsessed with communal issues Obsessed with rule of majority 1/3rd Rep. in central Govt for Muslims.....1/4th Rep for Muslim in central govt

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