Presentation on theme: "Hydrocarbon Refrigerants Training Refrigeration Service"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hydrocarbon Refrigerants Training Refrigeration Service Presented byRefrigeration ServiceEngineers Society
2 Topics to Cover Uses of Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants HC Regulations and StandardsRefrigerant Properties and SafetyThe Refrigerant CycleSystem ComponentsServicing Procedures
3 History of Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants 1900’s - HCs used in infancy of the refrigeration industry;1930’s - CFCs developed (non-flammable), HC use reduces;1970’s - Ozone depletions by CFCs discovered;HFC and HC start to replace CFCs;Launch of HC ice cream cabinets;Over 50,000 HC cabinets in use in Europe.
4 R-290-PropaneR-600a-IsobutaneR-441A-Flammable blendMust follow recommended safety practices when working with these approved flammable refrigerants
5 Why use Flammable Refrigerants? EPA Approves Useof HCs through the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)The Montreal ProtocolReduces CFC and HCFC ProductionWorldwide concerns about the ozone layer stemming from the Montreal Protocol and global warming concerns have led to the use of alternative flammable refrigerants.CFCs and HCFC have high Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and/or high Global Warming Potentials. Natural Refrigerants like R-290 (Propane) have “0” ODP and a very low GWP of less than 3.Low Global WarmingPotentials (GWP) Less than 3Zero Ozone DepletingPotential (ODP)
6 Technician servicing procedures need to change with the introduction of flammable refrigerants
7 HCs already used worldwide; The availability of the HC refrigerants in the United States of America (USA) is limited as is the access to vacuum pumps and recovery machines approved for the flammable refrigerants. Check with your local supplier.HCs already used worldwide;Over 80 million domestic refrigerators in use worldwide;HCs also used in commercial appliances-bottle coolers, chest freezers, commercial refrigerators;Also used in split system and portable AC systems in use, however not yet approved in USA
8 Applications and Limits R-290-PropaneR-600a-IsobutaneR-441A-Flammable blendR-600a and R-441A – New Household Refrigerators and Refrigerator/Freezers-57 grams (2.0 ounces) Equipment Constructed following UL250-Current EditionR-290 – New Retail Food Refrigerators Freezers-150 grams (5.3 ounces) Equipment Constructed following UL471-Current Edition
9 Understanding HC Regulations Common Regulator Agencies EPA NFPACSA ECISO IECASHRAE ULUltimately the technician is responsible for knowing the local regulationsThe Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Canadian Standards Association (CSA), European Community (EC), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), ASHRAE and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) establish regulations and set standards for the use and manufacturer of equipment using flammable refrigerants worldwide along with many individual jurisdictions. It is the responsibility of the technicians working on these flammable refrigerant systems to be aware of the local restrictions along with the global requirements.
11 Unauthorized Applications HCs allowed for use in only new systems under the SNAP approved program;NO RETROFITTING allowed in the USA (retrofitting is allowed in other countries).
12 Unauthorized Refrigerants Before servicing equipment look for MATCHING refrigerants equipment labels (the unit and compressor)If the compressor and refrigerant match then it should be acceptable to service the systemIf the labels do not match assume the system has been retrofitted andSTOP work on this system immediatelyContact the ownerInform owner of system violationsRefuse to serviceOffer to replace system with approved systemsIf the owner does not want to replace the system or appliance, the owner may wish to contact the technician who changed the refrigerant to correct the problem. In any event, it is strongly recommended no further work be done on the system. Operating or servicing a system that contains an unauthorized flammable refrigerant can lead to risk of fire, excess system pressure, damage to the compressor, and/or an explosion.
13 EPA Further Information Statement Only technicians specifically trained in handling flammable refrigerants should service refrigerators and freezers containing these refrigerants. Technicians should gain an understanding of minimizing the risk of fire and the steps to use flammable refrigerants safely.Be an qualified refrigeration technician;Be familiar with the safety precautions for flammable refrigerants;Be familiar with the information provided by other sources, such as the manufacturers of the system equipment, component manufacturers, and refrigerant suppliers.
14 Identification Labeling Compressors and systems will have labels identifying the type of flammable refrigerant.UL 250 and 471 require labeling as part of the SNAP approval
15 Further Labeling Requirements Evaporator Labeling Requirements "DANGER- Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Do Not Use Mechanical Devices To Defrost Refrigerator. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing."Labeling attach on or near any evaporators
16 Further Labeling Requirements Machine/Compressor Labeling Requirements "DANGER- Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. To Be Repaired Only By Trained Service Personnel. Do Not Puncture Refrigerant Tubing."“CAUTION- Risk of Fire or Explosion. Flammable Refrigerant Used. Consult Repair Manual/Owner’s Guide Before Attempting To Service This Product. All Safety Precautions Must be Followed."Attach near the machine/compressor compartment
17 Further Labeling Requirements Exterior Labeling Requirements “CAUTION- Risk of Fire or Explosion. Dispose of Properly In Accordance With Federal Or Local Regulations. Flammable Refrigerant Used."Attach on the exterior of the refrigerator
18 Further Labeling Requirements Near Refrigerant Tubing Labeling Requirements“CAUTION- Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used."Attach near any and all exposed refrigerant tubing
19 Further Labeling Requirements Letter Sizing“CAUTION- Risk of Fire or Explosion Due To Puncture Of Refrigerant Tubing; Follow Handling Instructions Carefully. Flammable Refrigerant Used."All of these markings shall be in letters NO LESS than 6.4 mm (1/4”) high.
20 Further Labeling Requirements Service Access &Tubing Painting The refrigerator or freezer must have red, Pantone® Matching System (PMS) #185 marked pipes, and other devices through which the refrigerant is serviced, such as any service port;This color must be present at all service ports and where service puncturing or otherwise creating an opening from the refrigerant circuit to the atmosphere might be expected (e.g., process tubes).The color mark must extend at least 2.5 centimeters (1”) from the compressor and must be replaced if removed, repaint if necessary
21 Liability Working with any refrigerant carries a certain liability Check with your insurance carrier before with HC refrigerants
22 ASHRAE Refrigerant Ratings SAFETY GROUPIncreasing FlammabilityHigher FlammabilityA3B3Lower FlammabilityA2B2A2L*B2L*No Flame PropagationA1B1Lower ToxicityHigher ToxicityIncreasing ToxicityA2L and B2L are lower flammability refrigerantsSee ASHRAE Standard 34 for full DetailsRefrigerant Safety Group ClassificationASHRAE 34 has adopted a A2L classification for R-1234yf and R-1234ze and others to distinguish their lower flammability compared to R-152a which has an A2 classification.
23 Flammability and Ignition Sudden release of refrigerant can result in proper concentrations for: Flash Fire • Sustained Fire • Explosion
24 Ignition Sources Temperatures greater than 460°C or 860°F; Flame from a match;Torch including halide leak detectors.
25 Ignition Sources Electric sparks from: Light and Socket Switches Unsealed Relays and OverloadsOn Off switchesContactorsPressure SwitchesDefrost TimersThermostatsVacuum Pump SwitchesElectronic Leak Detectors
26 Explosive (Flame) Limits Upper and LowerExplosive (Flame) LimitsLEL -Lower Explosive LimitsR %R600a-1.8%UEL-Upper Explosive LimitR %R600a-8.5%Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): The lowest concentration (percentage) of a gas or a vapor in air capable of producing a flash of fire in presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). At a concentration in air below the LEL there is not enough fuel to ignite.Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): Highest concentration (percentage) of a gas or a vapor in air capable of producing a flash of fire in presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). Concentration higher than UFL or UEL are "too rich" to burn.Currently there is no field equipment for determining the ignition concentration percentages, therefore ignition sources must be avoided at all times.
27 MSDSMaterial Safety Data SheetsRequired to be availability to all employeesAlso required to be available to local Fire DepartmentsMention OSHA requiring the MSDS sheetsCHECK WITH THE AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICATION (AHJ) FOR LOCAL REGULATIONS
28 Cylinder SafetyNever store or expose to temperatures above 125°F (52°C);Never apply open flame;Never heat with water or heat blanket above 110°F (43°C);Never refill single trip cylinders;Never exceed refillable limits;Never remove labels;Never smoke near flammable refrigerant cylinders.
29 Check the local Authority Having Jurisdiction Cylinder TransportDepartment of Transportation Division 2.1 Classification-Flammable GasTransport in upright positionLabel vehicle as carrying flammable gasInventory vehicle contentsSome jurisdictions requireStorage in explosive proof cabinetsVenting of cabinet to exteriorCheck the local Authority Having Jurisdiction
30 Check the local Authority Having Jurisdiction Cylinder StorageStore in a locked cage;Store at ground level;Store away from air intakes;Keep ignition sources away from area;Limit access;Install combustible gas monitors.Check the local Authority Having Jurisdiction
31 Brazing Requirements Recover refrigerant; Ventilate the area; Wear personal protection equipment (PPE);Check brazing equipment for leaks and proper pressure settings;Purge with inert gas while brazing (Nitrogen);Only trained and qualified personal should be brazing.
32 Rated Equipment Flammable gas leak detectors and monitors; Personal safety monitors.
33 Confined SpaceIn ventilating the area it needs to be understood that the work area should be clear around the entire piece of equipment. There should be approximately 10 foot of clear area so any refrigerant that may have leaked can disperse adequately to make sure the LEL and UEL are not reached.All refrigerants in confined space have inherent dangers.Remember to:Use a combustible gas detector and /or monitorVentilate area and clear the area of any potential LEL or UE;Eliminate alll sources of ignition
34 Basic cycle is the same as it is for CFCs, HCFCs, & HFCs Refrigerant CycleBasic cycle is the same as it is for CFCs, HCFCs, & HFCs
35 Refrigerant Cycle What is different Additional safety requirements Monitor area and prevent possible ignition sourcesVentilate area when requiredUsing tubing cutting to remove refrigeration components – do not use a torch
36 Always Use Approval Components When Replacing Refrigerant CycleComponents of system similar to regular systems. As all systems are new equipment the engineering of all of the components is complete.Follow the MFG requirementsGenerally Same Components UsedCondenser Evaporator Metering Device Lubricants Gaskets, Seals, O-ringsAlways Use Approval Components When Replacing
37 Servicing ProceduresWhen leak testing only use non-ignitable type detectors such as UV additive, Liquid detection solution, electronic leak detectors for flammable gasses or ultra sonic leak detectors.Use only spark proof equipment-like a brass screwdriver,Use non-ignitable type detectors such as UV additive, liquid detection solution, electronic leak detectors for flammable gasses or ultra sonic leak detectors
38 Servicing ProceduresWhen leak testing only use non-ignitable type detectors such as UV additive, Liquid detection solution, electronic leak detectors for flammable gasses or ultra sonic leak detectors.Use standard evacuation and pressure testing proceduresUse standard recovery methodsUse standard charging methods (weigh in)