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BLR’s Safety Training Presentations

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1 BLR’s Safety Training Presentations
Flammable and Combustible Liquids 29 CFR I. Background for the Trainer: This training session reviews the importance of correctly handling and storing flammable/combustible liquids as described in OSHA’s Flammable Liquids Standard located in 29 CFR OSHA also has specific requirements for spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials (29 CFR ) and dipping and coating operations that use flammable or combustible liquids (29 CFR ). II. Speaker’s Notes: In this training session, we will discuss the hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids as well as the proper storage and handling procedures.

2 Flammable and Combustible Liquids. What’s the Big Deal?
Ignite with explosive force Burn readily and give off twice the heat as an ordinary combustible fire Common materials people often take for granted or use carelessly I. Speaker’s Notes: Flammable and combustible liquids can be easily ignited by any of a number of potential sources of ignition. Flammable vapors can ignite with explosive force. Once ignited, flammable and combustible liquids burn readily and give off twice as much heat as a fire burning ordinary combustible material such as paper, cardboard, or wood. Fires in which flammable or combustible liquids are involved are difficult to put out and very dangerous. The temperature of the fire rises quickly. Billowing clouds of thick black and acrid smoke are produced. Flammable liquid fires also spread rapidly when spilled material flows dozens or even hundreds of feet away. Flammable and combustible materials are so common that many people take them for granted and use them carelessly. How often have you seen someone smoking while filling his or her car with gas? What about talking on a cell phone when pumping gas? Cell phones are not explosion proof and could ignite flammable liquids. Flammable and combustible liquids are also very common at home, in the garage, and are used in many hobbies. We need to understand their hazards and the precautions that we need to take to use, store, and handle them safely.

3 Goals Hazards and identification of flammable/combustible liquids
Safe storage, handling, and dispensing Quiz I. Speaker’s Notes: We will start by discussing the physical and health hazards of flammable/combustible liquids as well as how to identify them. Then, we will talk about procedures and steps needed for safely storing, handling, and dispensing flammable/combustible liquids. Finally, we will wrap up this training session with a quiz.

4 Examples of Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Flammable liquids Isopropyl alcohol Propane Solvents such as acetone, MEK, paint thinner Fuels such as gasoline, kerosene Aerosol cans Combustible liquids Oil Greases and lubricants Oil-based paints I. Background for the Trainer: Add to the slide specific examples of flammable or combustible liquids that are used, stored, or dispensed at your company. II. Speaker’s Notes: Learn to recognize some of the more common flammable and combustible liquids so you can take precautions when storing, dispensing, or using these materials both at work or at home. Can you think of any other flammable or combustible materials that we use here at work or that you may use at home?

5 Flashpoint Lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapors to be ignited Low Flashpoint = High flammability Flammable liquids have a flashpoint < 100˚ F Combustible liquids have a flashpoint > 100˚F I. Background for the Trainer: Consider bringing copies of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for a couple of different flammable or combustible liquids to show the employees how to find flashpoint information. II. Speaker’s Notes: The flashpoint is the lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off enough vapors, in high enough of a concentration, that the vapors can be ignited. A low flashpoint indicates a more flammable substance. For example, a solvent may have a flashpoint of 50˚F, this means that the solvent vapors could easily ignite and burn at room temperature. Oil, with a flashpoint of 300˚F, would have to be heated before it would give off enough vapors that could be ignited. Flammable liquids are defined as having a flashpoint less than 100˚F. This means that many flammable liquids give off enough vapors to be ignited at room temperature. These materials become even more dangerous during hot summers when they are giving off a lot of flammable vapors. Combustible liquids are defined as having a flashpoint greater than or equal to 100˚F. Although they often do not give off enough vapors to be ignited under normal conditions, they are still dangerous and will burn easily and readily when ignited.

6 Sources of Ignition Lit cigarettes Welding and cutting
Static electricity Sparks from machinery or combustion engines Hot surfaces or machinery Electrical equipment I. Background for the Trainer: Add to the list in the slide any other sources of ignition that the employees at your company should be made aware of. II. Speaker’s Notes: There are many potential sources of ignition for flammable and combustible liquids because any open flame, spark, or even hot surface could potentially ignite a flammable or combustible liquid. Lit cigarettes are an obvious concern. Describe your company’s smoking policy and designated smoking areas. Even in outside areas, smoking is not permitted within 25 feet of gasoline pumps or other flammable liquid storage or dispensing areas. Welding and cutting operations have often been the source of fires and should never be conducted near flammable or combustible liquids. Most companies require a “Hot Work Permit” to be completed before welding can be done. This permit requires the welder to make sure a 30-foot area around the welding location is clear of flammable or combustible materials. If it cannot be cleared, fire watches and other precautions are required. Static electricity can also ignite flammable liquids. That is why special precautions are taken when dispensing flammable liquids. Static electricity has caused explosions at gas stations. A customer had a portable gas tank in his truck bed that built up a static charge as it moved across the truck bed. Instead of placing the container on the ground to fill it (and thereby grounding the static) he filled it in the truck bed. When the gas nozzle touched the container the static discharged from the container and into the nozzle and ignited the gasoline fumes. Sparks from machinery or combustion engines such as grinders or forklifts backfiring could ignite a flammable or combustible liquid. Hot equipment such as a motor that overheats or an industrial oven or dryer could ignite a flammable or combustible liquid stored or dispensed too close. Electric equipment including panels, conduit, outlets, etc. could short circuit and ignite a nearby flammable liquid.

7 Health Hazards Short-term exposure Long-term exposure Inhalation
Skin contact Eye contact Ingestion Long-term exposure Organ damage or cancer I. Background for the Trainer: Bring some different Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for some of the flammable or combustible materials used. Describe where employees can find the MSDSs. II. Speaker’s Notes: Flammable and combustible liquids have some similar health hazard concerns. However, because each type of chemical is different, you should still consult the MSDS and read the container’s label. Overexposure by the inhalation of the fumes of a flammable or combustible material will usually result in a headache, dizziness, or nausea. Skin contact will often result in skin irritation such as a rash or other form of dermatitis. Other flammable or combustible materials may result in the defatting of the skin, which causes the skin to become extremely dry and cracked. Eye contact will result in eye irritation. Sometimes, just being exposed to the vapors will cause eye irritation. Ingesting a flammable or combustible material may result in feeling sick to your stomach or nausea. Long-term effects of overexposure to flammable and combustible materials depend on the material. Consult the MSDS for specifics; however, they typically result in damage to organs such as the lungs or kidneys. Cancer may even result, depending on the hazardous material.

8 Identification or Labels
Warning signs DOT label HMIS® labels I. Background for the Trainer: Discuss the specific types of warning signs and labels that are used by your company. Bring a couple of different containers of flammable liquids to demonstrate what the labels look like. II. Speaker’s Notes: Warning signs should be posted in areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, dispensed, and used. These signs should indicate that flammable and combustible liquids are in the area and that employees need to be wary of ignition sources such as smoking or welding in the area. The Department of Transportation ( DOT) label for flammable liquids is a very recognizable red color, with a white flame in its center, and the number 3 (which indicates flammable liquid). You will find this label on containers such as drums and as placards on the many tank trucks that travel our highways as they transport fuels and other flammable chemicals. The Hazardous Material Information System® (HMIS®) labels are often found on small containers such as drums. These have colors that represent different hazards. Red represents the flammability hazard. The numbers in each color indicate the degree of the hazard. 4 is a severe fire hazard, 3 is a serious fire hazard, 2 is a moderate fire hazard, 1 is a minor fire hazard, and 0 is a minimal fire hazard. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) labels, usually found on larger containers or tanks, are also a great tool in determining a chemical’s fire hazard. A 4 in the red portion of the NFPA label indicates a severe hazard, 3 indicates a serious hazard, etc. When you see these labels or signs indicating flammable or combustible liquids, you should read the fine print on the label and look for other warnings such as: Special handling or storage instructions. Is the chemical an inhalation hazards, (many flammable solvents are)? What kind of PPE is recommended? National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) labels Read the fine print on the labels

9 MSDS Storage and handling precautions Dispensing Flammability limits
Reactivity hazards Fire fighting protective equipment and instructions Hazardous combustion products I. Speaker’s Notes: The MSDS is a great source for getting more information about any chemical. MSDSs also have a section containing fire and explosion data that usually contains the information listed on this slide. Special storage and handling precautions may be described in the MSDS. Dispensing instructions might include using proper bonding and grounding techniques. The upper and lower flammability limits are the range of chemical concentration in the air that can readily catch fire. Concentrations of the chemical in the air above or below this range are less likely to burn. Reactivity hazards will describe the types of materials that the flammable/ combustible liquid should not be stored with. Oxidizers and acids are typically listed because, if spilled, and mixed they could generate an explosive mixture. The MSDS will also list fire fighting equipment and methods. This information is reserved for fire fighting professionals who are properly trained. However, the MSDS should be provided to fire fighters who are responding to a fire in your workplace so they too can understand the hazards associated with the chemicals in your workplace. Hazardous combustion products describe what gases or fumes are given off when the flammable/combustible liquid is burning.

10 Goals Hazards and identification of flammable/combustible liquids
Safe storage, handling, and dispensing Quiz I. Speaker’s Notes: Are there any questions concerning the physical and health hazards of flammable/combustible liquids as well as how to identify them? Let’s talk about procedures and steps needed for safely storing, handling, and dispensing flammable/combustible liquids.

11 Storage Room Requirements
“No smoking” signs Ventilated room Explosion-proof lighting and electrical equipment Containers bonded and grounded Secondary containment I. Background for the Trainer: Add to the slide any other specific storage requirements that your company has. II. Speaker’s Notes: “No smoking” signs are needed to remind employees about the flammability of the chemicals in the storage areas and the importance of not smoking. Storage requirements for flammable and combustible materials are often dictated by the local building codes and the local fire department. However, the basic requirements are typically the same. If storage room is indoors, the room is often required to have a certain amount of ventilation. Again, this helps prevent the buildup of flammable vapors. Also, in the event of a spill of flammable or combustible liquids, the room can be ventilated to make it safer for the emergency response team to clean up the spill. Explosion-proof electrical equipment is required to prevent a short circuit of electricity from igniting the vapors that might be in the room. Do not use portable power equipment, which does not meet explosion-proof requirements, in rooms that are known to intermittently contain flammable substances. Special covers are also required over light fixtures to prevent ignition by hot glass or filament if a bulb bursts. Keeping the flammable containers bonded and grounded will prevent the buildup of static electricity when dispensing the liquids. Therefore, the static electricity will not spark and cause an explosion. Secondary containment is also often required to keep a spill of flammable or combustible materials from entering a nearby drain or escaping to the environment. It also makes it easier for the cleanup crew.

12 Storage Tips Store in fire-resistant building, rooms, and cabinets
Storage areas marked with warning signs Keep storage areas free of other combustible materials Avoid stacking containers Do not store incompatible materials Cool area, out of direct sunlight Maintained distance from electrical panels or furnaces I. Speaker’s Notes: When possible, store flammable/combustible liquids in designated fire resistant buildings, rooms, or cabinets. All storage areas must be marked with warning signs such as “No Smoking”. Keep storage areas free of other combustible materials such as chips, leaves, rags, pallets, paper, etc. Avoid stacking containers to prevent a tip over and spill. OSHA allows a maximum of two drums stacked with a pallet between to prevent excess stress on the container walls. Do not store with incompatible materials such as oxidizers. The storage area should be cool and out of direct sunlight to prevent high temperatures from increasing the amount of vapor that could escape or even warming the container to temperatures that could ignite the vapors. Do not store/dispense near electrical panels, furnace, etc. This will be discussed in more detail in a later slide.

13 Maximum Storage Limits
Maximum limit per fire division 120 gallons in drums 660 gallons in portable tanks Storage in approved fire cabinets 360 gallons Larger quantities should be stored in approved inside storage rooms I. Background for the Trainer: Evaluate the storage practices of your company to make sure these limits are not exceeded. Refer to OSHA 29 CFR or NFPA 30 for exact storage requirements because the maximum limit is lower for some of the more flammable liquids. II. Speaker’s Notes: OSHA and the NFPA limit the amount of flammable liquids that can be stored outside of an approved storage room. This maximum limit refers to the amount that can be stored or used per fire division. A fire division is a room or large area that is separated from other areas by fire walls. 120 gallons maximum in drums and 660 gallons maximum in portable tanks can be stored in each fire division outside of an approved storage room. Fire cabinets must meet strict approval requirements. Ordinary storage cabinets cannot be used to store flammable liquids. Cabinets must be labeled “Flammable—Keep Fire Away”. Stay within the maximum storage quantities of the cabinets, per the manufacturer’s instructions. 360 gallons is the maximum that can be stored in cabinets per fire division. Meeting this maximum storage limit may require up to three cabinets.

14 Safe Handling Use only approved containers to transfer liquids
Keep containers closed when not in use Label containers properly Take only the amount needed for the job Put rags soaked with flammable liquids in approved closed containers Do not weld or torch empty containers I. Speaker’s Notes: Small supplies of flammable liquids must be stored in approved, fire-resistant safety containers that have self-closing lids. Keep the container closed except when adding or removing chemicals. This prevents flammable vapors from escaping and building up to ignitable levels. Containers must always be labeled with information such as the name and hazards of the chemical. Take only the minimum amount needed for the job. If an incident such as a spill or fire does occur, it will be minimal. Practice good housekeeping by disposing of soaked rags in approved, closed containers. Just like the liquid, rags must be kept in closed containers to prevent ignition. Never weld or torch cut a drum that once contained a flammable liquid. There are still chemical vapors in the drum that could ignite and cause an explosion.

15 Electrical Installations
5 feet in all directions from container must be explosion proof or vapor proof 10 feet horizontally to 18 inches high must be vapor proof Pipe trench containing flammable liquids must be explosion proof Beyond these limits, ordinary electrical equipment I. Background for the Trainer: Describe areas in your facility that has explosion- or vapor-proof electrical installations. II. Speaker’s Notes: Faulty electrical equipment and wiring, when located near flammable liquids, may result in ignition. All electrical equipment installations must be in accordance with OSHA, Fire Code, and Building Code requirements. Have the storage locations of flammable liquids changed since your company’s buildings were first permitted? If so, your flammable liquids could be stored in a dangerous location. Key point to remember: Keep all flammable liquids stored more than five feet from ordinary electrical equipment such as panels, conduits, or outlets.

16 Dispensing Flammable Liquids
Static electricity Grounded and bonded Pumps Spark-proof tools Safety glasses or goggles Protective gloves Protective clothing Respirator or mechanical ventilation I. Background for the Trainer: Discuss the specific procedures used by your company to dispense flammable liquids. II. Speaker’s Notes: Static electricity is the main concern when dispensing flammable liquids. Static could build up between the main storage container and the small container that you are dispensing the liquid into. Eventually, the static will build to a point where it will spark and ignite the flammable liquid. The result is usually an explosion. The containers must be properly grounded. The storage container must be connected, usually by an alligator-style clip, to a grounding rod that is driven deep into the ground. Then the storage container must be connected to the smaller container that the liquid is dispensed into, which is usually done by alligator-style clips on the ends of a wire. This prevents static from building up because the electricity has an easy way to reach the ground through the wires and the grounding rod. Pumps, typically manual because motorized pumps would have to be explosion proof, are also grounded by attaching an alligator-style clip from the pump to the container. Plastic pumps, if acceptable for the chemical being dispensed, may prevent the buildup of static. Spark-proof tools such as drum wrenches used to open the container or shovels used to clean out sludge from a tank are typically made of a nonsparking bronze alloy or plastic. These are the only types of tools that should be used around flammable liquids.

17 PPE Safety glasses or goggles Protective gloves Protective clothing
Respirator or mechanical ventilation I. Background for the Trainer: Bring in examples of the types of PPE that are used by your company. II. Speaker’s Notes: Personal protective equipment (PPE) when using flammable and combustible liquids is important to prevent exposure to those chemicals. Safety glasses or goggles are probably the most important. Protect your eyes. Safety glasses are probably acceptable for most applications, but goggles should be used when there is potential for being splashed or squirted. A face shield would also protect from being splashed in the eyes. Chemical-resistant gloves made of neoprene or rubber are the most common protective gloves for working with oils or solvents. However, consult your safety supply company to make sure you have the right gloves for the type of chemical used. Some solvents may dissolve rubber or neoprene quickly and thus other glove materials must be used. Protective clothing made of chemical-resistant materials will protect your skin and clothing from flammable liquids. Coveralls are acceptable when working with combustible materials such as oils or greases. However, if you are splashed with oil and your coveralls are soaked, remove them immediately and put on a fresh pair of coveralls. You do not want to continue working with oil-soaked clothing pressed against your skin. If overexposed to vapors from flammable or combustible liquids, make an attempt to reduce your exposure to the vapors or fumes with engineering controls such as ventilation or mechanical fans. If engineering controls do not work, use air-purifying respirators with organic vapor cartridges. If the vapor levels are too great, you may be required to wear air-supplied respirators or SCBAs.

18 First Aid Fresh air if inhaled Flush the eyes
Wash skin with soap and water If ingested, consult a doctor I. Speaker’s Notes: First-aid procedures are often similar for exposure to flammable or combustible materials. However, you should consult the container label or MSDS for the exact first-aid steps. If overexposed by breathing the fumes or vapors, get some fresh air until the symptoms go away. If splashed in your eyes, or you experience eye irritation from vapors, flush your eyes in a designated eyewash station for minutes. Consider consulting a doctor for follow-up. If your skin is exposed, wash with soap and water. Consult a doctor if a flammable or combustible liquid is ingested. Some chemicals may require that vomiting be induced while others may not. Sometimes you should drink water, and other times you should drink milk. Consult the MSDS and see a doctor.

19 Fire Response Extinguishing media
Hazards such as toxic fumes, heat, or explosions Training Protective equipment or instructions I. Background for the Trainer: Bring in a fire extinguisher appropriate for flammable liquid fires (i.e., ABC). Bring your company’s Emergency Action Plan that discusses how your company and employees have planned to respond to a fire at your facility. II. Speaker’s Notes: A fire that involves flammable or combustible liquids is more difficult to extinguish than your normal paper or wood fire. In fact, water will just spread the fire because flammable/combustible liquids will float on top of the water. Your MSDS or container label will describe the type of materials that will extinguish a flammable/combustible liquid fire. Examples include foam, dry chemical, carbon monoxide, etc. The hazards of fighting such a fire include the toxic fumes generated, the extreme heat, and possible explosions. Training is required to respond to a fire, particularly one that involves flammable/combustible liquids. Before using a fire extinguisher or other fire fighting equipment, employees must be trained. If you have not been trained to use fire-extinguishing equipment and you see a fire, report the fire and let the trained workers respond. Follow evacuation procedures. Employees and the local fire department, who have been specially trained, may use special protective equipment or clothing as well as special fire fighting techniques. Provide the fire department with a copy of the MSDS for the flammable/ combustible liquids that you have stored.

20 Fire Suppression Equipment
Extinguishers Manual foam or water systems Sprinkler systems Inspected regularly I. Background for the Trainer: If your company has a fire brigade or designated fire responders, discuss their role in a fire and the extra training they have received. II. Speaker’s Notes: Fire extinguishers are located strategically throughout the facility. Remember only trained and authorized persons can use the extinguishers. Manual foam or water systems, such as hoses, may also be installed in your facility. Again, these require trained and authorized persons. Sprinkler systems are also installed to extinguish fires. Discuss the type of sprinkler system installed at your company (e.g., wet system, dry system, foam system). All fire fighting equipment is inspected on a regular basis.

21 Spill Response Report the spill Turn off ignition sources
Evacuate the area Help clean up only if properly trained I. Speaker’s Notes: Clean up small spills immediately (i.e., absorb with a rag). Ask your supervisor how to properly do this. If your clothing has absorbed flammable chemicals, remove it. If you don’t, you are a walking torch waiting to be ignited. Larger spills require a more specialized response. Report the spill immediately by contacting your supervisor, signaling an alarm, or using the paging system. Turn off ignition sources in the area such as machinery or forklifts. Evacuate to a safe distance. Only trained personnel are authorized to clean up large spills.

22 Goals Hazards and identification of flammable/combustible liquids
Safe storage, handling, and dispensing Quiz I. Speaker’s Notes: Are there any questions concerning the procedures and steps needed for safely storing, handling, and dispensing flammable/combustible liquids? Let’s wrap up this training session with a quiz.

23 Summary Flammable and combustible liquids ignite with explosive force
Review labels and MSDSs Keep away from ignition sources Follow proper dispensing procedures Use only approved containers that are properly labeled

24 Quiz 1. Flammable liquids have a flashpoint > 100˚F. True or False
2. Describe the type of electrical equipment required in a room for storing or dispensing flammable liquids: __________________________________________ 3. What steps are taken to prevent static buildup when dispensing? ________________________________ 4. Describe a symptom of breathing too many fumes of flammable or combustible liquids: __________________________________________ 5. Oxidizers should not be stored with flammable liquids. True or False

25 Quiz (cont.) 6. Name a potential source of ignition at your company: __________________________________________ 7. Describe the DOT label for flammable liquids: __________________________________________ 8. What should be done with rags soaked with flammable liquids? __________________________ 9. Keep flammable liquids at least two feet away from normal electrical installations. True or False 10. Name a hazard of fighting a flammable or combustible liquids fire: ______________________

26 Quiz Answers 1. False. Flammable liquids have a flashpoint < 100˚F. Combustible liquids have a flashpoint greater than or equal to 100˚F. 2. Explosion proof. 3. Bonding and grounding containers. 4. Headache, dizziness, feeling nauseous. 5. True.

27 Quiz Answers (cont.) 6. Smoking, welding, static, sparks or hot surfaces of machinery, electrical installations. 7. Red with a white flame. 8. Put rags in approved, closed containers. 9. False, at least five feet away. 10. Toxic fumes, heat, explosions.

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