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General Lab Safety Information

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1 General Lab Safety Information
Laboratory Safety Training Grand Valley State University General Lab Safety Information

2 The Lab Safety Program Introduction
GVSU is required to provide you with information about the hazardous chemicals you use and how to safely handle them. This training supports GVSU’s obligations and is based on OSHA’s Hazard Communication Program and Chemical Hygiene Plan (collectively referred to as the Lab Safety Program). This training provides general information about how to handle chemicals safely. You should also receive work area-specific training from your supervisor or other designated trainer.

3 Lab Safety Hazards Typical hazards found in labs include:
Chemical Hazards: - Fire/Explosion - Chemical and Thermal Burns - Absorption of Chemicals - Inhalation of Chemicals - Ingestion of Chemicals Physical Hazards - Slips, Trips and Falls - Cuts, Scrapes, Bruises Biological Hazards - Contact with Infectious Agents Electrical Hazards Radiation Hazards

4 Chemical Hazards Health Hazards
Examples: - Allergens Embryotoxins - Carcinogens Toxic or highly toxic agents - Nephrotoxins (kidneys) - Irritants - Corrosives Sensitizers - Hepatotoxins (liver) Reproductive toxins - Neurotoxins Hematoxins (blood) - Asphyxiants - Mutagens - Teratogens - Radioactive isotopes

5 Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards
Examples: Flammable and Combustible liquids & gases - materials which under standard lab conditions can cause a fire in the presence of an ignition source. Corrosives - a material that can corrode metal or tissue. Water Reactive Materials – react with heat to form explosive gasses Reactives – chemicals that release energy quickly, possibly resulting in detonation. Oxidizers – Can explode in contact with organics or strong reducers Pyrophorics – ignite spontaneously in air Peroxide Forming Chemicals and Organic Peroxides - unstable materials that are sensitive to shock or accidental ignition Compressed Gasses – present hazards from unplanned release Cryogens – Supercooled liquids that can damage body tissue

6 Routes of Exposure INHALATION of vapors, gasses, mists, or particulates. SKIN CONTACT with certain chemicals can cause damage to skin tissue or allow absorption of chemicals into the blood. INGESTION through the gastrointestinal Tract. INJECTION from skin punctures from contaminated objects.

7 Identifying Chemical Hazards: The MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheets are designed to provide specific information about chemicals, such as physical properties, physical and health hazards, and proper handling procedures. MSDS’s should be readily accessible to employees using the products. You should be informed of the location of MSDSs by your supervisor, and how to obtain the MSDSs. Familiarize yourself with the contents of the MSDS for any particularly hazardous material.

8 Labeling and Storage: General
Physically separate incompatible chemicals according to physical hazard class Ensure that storage area is dry and well ventilated Store chemicals away from heat sources and post signs on chemical storage areas Store liquids in spill trays Ensure all containers are in good condition, properly capped, and labeled: For Containers labeled by the manufacturer inspect the labeling on incoming containers and replace damaged or semi-attached labels. For transferred products or prepared solutions labeled by the user, label each container with the chemical name and hazard warning, including peroxide forming chemicals. Refer to the MSDS for hazard warnings. For a new compound, treat appropriately. The hazards of the new compound should be understood before making it. For unattended operations all containers, regardless of hazard, must be labeled if left unattended. For multiple small containers, either label with abbreviations with a key in a visible location or label the box or tray that they are stored in.

9 Safe Use and Storage: Flammable & Combustible Materials
Flammable materials have flash points < 100oF (37.8oC). Store in NFPA approved flammable liquid containers (‘safety cans”) or flammable liquid storage cabinets or in designated areas. When dispensing from metal or other conductive containers proper grounding of the containers is necessary. Ensure fire extinguishers and/or sprinkler systems are in the area. Use only refrigerators designed for flammable liquid storage. Flammable liquids should be stored away from strong oxidizers, direct sunlight, and heat sources, such as hot plates.

10 Safe Use and Storage: Corrosives
A substance that causes destruction or permanent changes in human skin tissue or is highly destructive to steel. Segregate acids from bases Never add water to acid. Liquid corrosives should be stored below eye level Containers and equipment used for storage and processing of corrosive materials should be corrosion resistant. For all chemicals: Wear proper personal protective equipment and know the location of eyewash and safety shower.

11 Safe Use and Storage: Oxidizer
Agents which are known to readily give up oxygen and gain hydrogen. Fire and explosion hazards. Store oxidizers in containers with tight fitting screw-top lids. Store away from flammables, organics, and reducers. Know the reactivity of the materials you are working with in the experiment or process. Ensure there are no extraneous materials in the area that could become involved. If the reaction is anticipated to be violent or explosive, use shields or other methods for isolating the materials or the process.

12 Safe Use and Storage: Water Reactives and Pyrophorics
Water Reactive materials include alkali metals such as lithium, sodium, potassium, acid anhydrides, and acid chlorides. Do not use in the presence of water! Pyrophoric materials can ignite spontaneously upon contact with air. Some include silane, silicon tetrachloride, and white or yellow phosphorous. Water reactive and pyrophoric materials should be stored in inert environments. Know the properties of the material and use proper materials for dispensing. Ensure proper fire extinguishers are available and know the locations of safety showers. Never work alone with pyrophoric materials

13 Safe Use and Storage: Peroxidizable and Unstable Chemicals
May undergo auto-oxidation to form peroxides which may explode. Peroxides can form even if a container has not been opened, necessitating careful handling. Dispose of or check for peroxide formation after the recommended time: 3 months or one year, depending on the chemical. Do not open any container that has obvious solid formation around the lid. Follow the same basic handling procedures as for flammable materials. Store away from light and heat Unstable materials can spontaneously release large amounts of energy under normal conditions, or when struck, vibrated, or otherwise agitated. Date all containers of explosive or shock sensitive materials upon receipt. If there is a chance of explosion, use barriers or other methods for isolating the materials or the process.

14 Safe Use and Storage: Cryogenics
Liquids and/or gasses capable of achieving very low temperatures. Typically liquid nitrogen, Oxygen, and CO2. Hazards include fire, explosion, pressure buildup, frostbite, and asphyxiation. In addition to hazards associated with compressed gas, cryogens have two unique properties: Extremely low temperatures can freeze human tissue and strong materials can become weak or brittle. Cryogenic liquids can create large volumes of gas when they vaporize which can rupture a vessel or displace oxygen. Use proper PPE when using and use rubber or wood tongs to remove materials immersed in cryogens. Cylinders and dewars should not be filled to more than 80% capacity. Storage of radioactive, toxic, or infectious agents should be placed in plastic cryogenic storage ampoules. REHEAT COLD SAMPLES slowly.

15 Safe Use and Storage: Compressed Gasses
Cylinders with regulators shall be individually secured. Only cylinders with valve protection caps may be secured in groups. Cylinders must be secured in an upright position. Use suitable racks, straps, chains, or stands to support the cylinders. Use an appropriate cart to move cylinders.

16 Safe Use: Hazardous and Toxic Substances
In addition to the physical hazards of a chemical, it may have additional hazardous or toxic characteristics. OSHA requires labs to identify “Particularly Hazardous Substances” that require additional special handling. These include: Carcinogens – As identified by the OSHA-Regulated carcinogen list, the National Toxicology Program, or the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Reproductive Toxins – A list of these can be obtained thru the Lab Safety Office. Acutely Toxic Substances – Determined by the LD-50 or LC-50 of the chemical. It is the responsibility of the Principal Investigator to identify these and communicate hazards and precautions.

17 Personal Protective Equipment Eye and Face Protection
Safety Glasses/Goggles: Provide protection against flying particles striking the eye. Required where impact or hazardous materials hazards exist. Special eyewear is required for intense light such as lasers, UV or welding. Chemical Splash Goggles: Provide both protection from both impact and chemical splash. Required when working with corrosives or particularly injurious chemicals or anywhere where a chemical splash hazard exists. Face Shield: Provide an additional level of protection when working with larger quantities of materials with ah high probability of eye and face injury exists -Note: Contact lenses do not provide eye protection in the lab; however their use is acceptable as long as appropriate eye protection is used and the MSDS does not identify restrictions

18 Personal Protective Equipment Skin and Body Protection
Protective Clothing: The level of protective clothing will vary depending upon the hazards present. If there is a reasonable risk of splash, skin surfaces should be protected. Lab coats, coveralls, aprons, or Tyvek may be necessary for corrosive or irritant chemicals and biological hazards. Footwear: Due to chemical and physical hazards in the lab, open toed shoes and sandals are not permitted. Chemical resistant overshoes, boots or shoes may be necessary when working with corrosives or large quantities of corrosives. Gloves: Should be worn when working with hazardous chemicals, biological hazards, unknown toxics, corrosives, sharp objects, or hot/cold objects. Some gloves may be incompatible with certain chemicals, so consult MSDS or the glove manufacturer.

19 Personal Protective Equipment Respiratory and Hearing Protection
Respirators: Required respirator use is required only where engineering controls such as general ventilation do not reduce exposure to acceptable levels. Paper masks may reduce nuisance dusts or vapors, however they are not sufficient in areas with respiratory hazards. Hearing Protection: In areas with noise levels above 85 decibels hearing protection is required. These conditions rarely occur at GVSU, however hearing protection such as earplugs may provide comfort in a noisy environment.

20 Safety Equipment Safety Showers and Eyewash Facilities: Eyewash facilities are required in or near all labs that use or store hazardous chemicals. Labs with more corrosive chemicals may be equipped with safety showers. Prior to working in the lab identify the nearest eyewash and shower. Notify Facilities or Lab Safety if the shower or eyewash is not operational or inaccessible. Ventilation: All operations that could generate air contaminants or have the potential to ignite or react should be done in fume hoods or use other ventilation. The hood should pull +/- 100 CFM. For safety and energy efficiency, keep the hood closed at all times when not in use. Biosafety cabinets are designed for protection from biological materials and should not be used for hazardous chemicals that should otherwise be used in a fume hood. First Aid Kit: A first aid kit should be available in all labs. Locate the kit in the lab and ensure it is adequately stocked.

21 Incident Response Fire and Spill Response
Fire: Individuals are not require to fight fires. Faculty and staff who have may choose to use fire extinguishers or other means to extinguish small fires. For major fires: 1. Pull the Alarm 2. Evacuate (close the door behind you) 3. Notify responders or public safety of the nature of the fire. Small Chemical Spills: Assess the hazard and ability to properly clean up. Use appropriate PPE and follow cleanup and disposal procedures outlined on MSDS. For biological hazards identify proper disinfection procedures. If you are unsure contact the Lab Supervisor or Lab Safety Office. Larger Spills: If fire or health hazards exist, call For larger contained spills that do not present fire or health hazards contact Public Safety or building security. -Labs using chemicals and biological hazards with greater risk should develop a spill response plan and spill kits should be available.

22 Incident Response Medical Emergencies
If immediate first aid is needed for an injury or illness dial Only trained individuals should respond to an injury or illness or administer first aid. For chemicals on skin, eyes or clothing flush with water for no less than 15 minutes. Consult MSDS for specific instructions or call 911. For skin contact with infectious agents wash with soap and water for at least 1 minute. If skin is punctured wash and dial 911. For Ingestion or symptoms of inhalation consult the MSDS and contact 911 or poison control. Complete the injury form provided in each lab.

23 Waste Disposal It is the responsibility of the lab supervisor or principal investigator to properly characterize the waste generated in the lab. Consult the Lab Safety Office for assistance. Each lab has an area with receptacles for accumulating waste. Waste is collected in the lab in clearly labeled and secured containers. Chemical waste may be mixed, only if compatible. When the waste container is full, move it to the designated waste storage site in your location.

24 General Lab Safety Rules
- Know the hazards, the worst possible outcomes, and personal protective equipment and take necessary precautions. Familiarize yourself with emergency equipment (alarms, extinguishers, showers, eyewash, evacuation routes. Review MSDS’s for chemicals and understand the chemical hazards, safe use and handling, and response procedures. Be alert to unsafe conditions and notify as appropriate. Avoid direct contact with any hazardous chemical. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after handling chemicals or biological materials. No eating, drinking or smoking in the lab. Do not mouth pipette.

25 General Lab Safety Rules (continued)
Do not use refrigerators or microwave ovens that have been used with chemicals for food storage or prep. Keep work areas clean and uncluttered. Storage of chemicals at a lab or bench must be kept to a minimum and understand incompatible materials. Dispose of hazardous waste as described in GVSU’s Hazardous Waste Management Plan. Clean up non-hazardous chemical spills immediately. Do not block exits, access to emergency equipment, or controls and do not use hallways or stairwells for storage. Follow proper safety precautions for cylinders. All containers must be labeled with the contents

26 General Lab Safety Rules (continued)
When transporting hazardous materials outside the laboratory, carry glass containers in a bottle carrier or use a cart with raised edges. Unattended Operations: Develop a protocol with the lab supervisor for operations that will be left unattended. Post warning notices, including contact name and phone # if hazardous conditions may be present. Working alone is always discouraged and can only be done with approval of the lab supervisor, who should develop protocols for working alone. Laboratory supervisors shall maintain a current and comprehensive chemical inventory of the chemicals in their lab and have MSDS’s available and accessible for each chemical.

27 Lab Specific Safety In addition to this presentation, safety training is not complete without a review of hazards specific to the lab space or research project. Consult your Lab Supervisor, Principal Investigator or the Lab Safety Specialist. Areas to consider include: Chemical Hazards – Review the chemical inventory and understand the hazards and safety precautions with their use. Biological Hazards –Understand the nature of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms, the potential for exposure and safety precautions. Physical Hazards – In what ways might you be injured in the lab…sharp edges, heavy equipment, slipping/tripping, falling objects, burns etc. Most injures occur from physical hazards in the lab. Electrical Hazards – If equipment is used understand the safe use and precautions to prevent contact with electrical or moving parts. Light and Ionizing Radiation Hazards General lab procedures and specific housekeeping tasks

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