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School-wide PBIS: Secondary & Tertiary Interventions Day 1

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Presentation on theme: "School-wide PBIS: Secondary & Tertiary Interventions Day 1"— Presentation transcript:

1 School-wide PBIS: Secondary & Tertiary Interventions Day 1
Mitchell Yell & Christine Christle University of South Carolina

2 Introductions Who are we? Who are you?

3 Do you have a tough school?

4 Do you have disruptive students?

5 Over 6000 schools have a solution: School-Wide PBIS!!

6 Why are we here? Review of School-wide PBIS-Year 1
Sustaining and maintaining PBIS Continued improvement & development Expanding school-wide PBIS Developing Secondary & Tertiary Systems

7 Workshop Goals Goal 1: Review School-wide Systems and problem solve any issues Goal 2: Identify Secondary level students, behaviors, and interventions Goal 3: Identify Tertiary level students, behaviors, and interventions

8 Review Year 1 What is PBIS?
A systems approach to enhance the capacity of schools to educate all children by developing evidence-based school-wide discipline systems Schools develop their own unique systems A team-based process for systematic problem solving

9 Keeping PBIS Alive School-wide PBIS is active and alive, not static!
PBIS is not something we’ve done, it is something we’re doing! The team keeps PBIS alive & growing by planning, support, data based decision-making, & learning

10 Fidelity of Implementation is Crucial!!
05% 22% 11% 20% 84% 58%

11 The Triangle Where does it come from and what does it mean?

12 Primary (All) Secondary (Some)
Public Health & Disease Prevention (Commission on Chronic Illness, 1957; Larson, 1994; Mrazek & Haggerty, 1994) Tertiary (Few) -Intensive intervention to reduce complications, severity, & intensity of current cases Secondary (Some) -Targeted intervention to reduce current cases Primary (All) -A universal prevention system that reduces new cases 20

13 Specialized & Individualized
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized & Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students

14 The Triangle is Academics too!
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive 80-90%

15 What is Primary Prevention?
School-wide primary prevention consists of system-wide rules, routines, & physical arrangements that are developed and taught by the school staff to prevent problem behavior and increase learning.

16 Research on SWPBIS tells us that
Efforts to prevent problem behavior are more successful if the “host environment” (your school) supports the adoption and use of evidence-based practices

17 Evidence-Based Features
Administrative leadership Team implementation Focus on prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Continuum of consistent consequences for problem behavior Continuum of increasingly intensive interventions On-going collection and use of data for decision-making

18 School-wide PBS School environment is predictable common language
common vision (understanding of expectations) common experience (everyone knows & does)

19 School-wide PBS School environment is positive
Systematic & frequent recognition of desired behavior Positive school culture

20 School-wide PBS School environment is safe
violent and disruptive behavior is not tolerated Distinction between minor and major behavioral violations Clear & consistent consequences for undesirable behavior

21 School-wide PBS School environment is consistent
All staff, all settings, all times Adults & students have the same expectations of the system

22 Classroom Setting Systems Nonclassroom Individual Student
School-wide Systems

23 School-Wide System 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline
2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation

24 Classroom System Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged Teaching classroom routines taught & encouraged Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction Active supervision Redirections for minor behavior errors Frequent precorrections for chronic errors Effective academic instruction & curriculum

25 Non-Classroom Systems
Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged Active supervision by all staff Scan, move, interact Precorrections & reminders Positive reinforcement

26 Individual Student Systems
Behavioral competence at school & district levels Function-based behavior support planning Team- & data-based decision making Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes Targeted social skills & self-management instruction Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations

27 More School-wide Strategies
PRIDE Card Program (handout) Criteria each 6 weeks No missed assignments No more than 1 absence No discipline referrals Benefits You decide what is feasible

28 More School-wide Strategies
Advisor/Advisee Program Approx twenty minute class each day or 3 X wk led by a faculty advisor with about 15 students Confidentiality: Build trusting relationship with a least one adult in school

29 Advisor/Advisee Program
Set goals/curriculum to enhance values such as citizenship and relationship building (birthdays…) Assist students in social and academic growth Evaluate the program each 9 wks Advisors and advisees

30 Team Exercise Check on your SWPBIS implementation
Report on your SWPBIS implementation

31 What does your triangle look like?
6+ referrals: Red 2-5 referrals: Yellow 0-1 referrals: Green

32 Team Action Planning

33 Team Reporting What does your pyramid look like
Team Reporting What does your pyramid look like? What are your challenges with SWPBIS

34 Secondary Interventions

35 What if primary prevention doesn’t work?
Should we…

36 Get Tough?

37 Threaten?

38 Use Punishment?

39 But is punishment effective?

40 and aren’t we educators?

41 So does punishment send the wrong message?

42 What can we do?

43 Is there a better way? Yes!! The better way is to…
Expand SWPBIS by developing and implementing secondary & tertiary interventions into your school, and Develop a continuum of effective interventions to support ALL students Match students with problem behavior to the appropriate intensity of intervention

44 Secondary & Tertiary Systems
~80% of Students ~15% ~5% ~5%

45 Secondary Prevention Secondary interventions are used with individuals or small numbers of students who are not responding to primary or universal interventions Secondary interventions are more intensive because there is a smaller number of students at risk for engaging in more serious problem behavior and need more support Social skills training teach specific skills using effective instruction Behaviorally based intervention effective use of reinforcement/punishment to facilitate success Academic curricular restructuring intensive instruction in reading

46 What are secondary interventions?
Interventions that involve small groups of students or individual students These students exhibit problem behavior but do not need the high intensity tertiary interventions

47 When are schools ready to implement?
When we have: The SWPBIS system functioning well Staff buy-in & participation of 80% Set scores of 80 or more SWPBIS has been in place for one year

48 Who receives these interventions?
At risk students Account for 20% of 25% of student population Typically account for 60% of a school’s discipline referrals (“frequent flyers”) Consume significant amounts of time & resources

49 Data-based Indicators
Secondary & Tertiary Interventions Students

50 How do you find these students?
The team examines ODRs & suspensions Teacher referral Parent referral Under the radar students High absenteeism Academic problems Socially isolated

51 In most cases they will find you!!
In other words… In most cases they will find you!!

52 Identification Option: A Multiple Gate Approach (Walker & Severson, 1990)
An efficient method for quickly identifying students who might be in need of additional academic and social supports. Usually consists of three “gates” 1. Teacher rating of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. 2. Records review, including attendance, academic performance, behavior reports. 3. Direct observations of class by trained professional (e.g. school psych, social worker, counselor, etc..)

53 A Multiple Gate Approach
Parent Interview & Discussion 1. Discuss opportunity for their child to a participate in a program that will offer additional supports. 2. Support may include academic tutoring, study skills, social development, organizational support, etc..

54 Major Secondary Intervention Features
Direct student orientation, training, practice, & review Link to School-wide expectations, routines, etc. Link to academic programming & expectations Low effort by teachers

55 Secondary Characteristics
Daily-weekly monitoring, review, & evaluations with adult Regular, overt, & frequent opportunities for positive reinforcement Individualized academic & behavioral targets, & accommodations Student chooses to participate

56 More Secondary Features
Daily-weekly home-school communications Behavioral contracting Self-management strategies Continuous monitoring for decision-making

57 Examples

58 Why Do Targeted Interventions Work?
Improved structure Prompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior. System for linking student with at least one positive adult. Student chooses to participate. Student is “set up for success” First contact each morning is positive. “Blow-out” days are pre-empted. First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive.

59 Why Do Targeted Interventions Work?
Increase in contingent feedback Feedback occurs more often. Feedback is tied to student behavior. Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded. Program can be applied in all school locations Classroom, playground, cafeteria (anywhere there is a supervisor)

60 Why Do Targeted Interventions Work?
Elevated reward for appropriate behavior Adult and peer attention delivered each target period Adult attention (and tangible) delivered at end of day Linking behavior support & academic support For academic-based, escape-maintained problem behavior incorporate academic support Linking school and home support Provide format for positive student/parent contact Program is organized to morph into a self-management system Increased options for making choices Increased ability to self-monitor performance/progress

61 Examples of Secondary Interventions
The Behavior Education Program (BEP) Check and Connect Think Time Academic Support (adult & peer tutoring) Family Support & Parent Management Training Behavioral Contracting Social Skills Training Mentoring * Secondary prevention involves interventions that provide behavioral or academic support, mentoring, skill development, and assistance to more severely at-risk students. Students who do not respond to universal interventions become candidates for intensive, individually tailored interventions that are more expensive. Interventions for achieving secondary prevention goals are often referred to as “selected.”

62 Behavior Education Program (BEP)
Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program by Deanne Crone, Robert Horner, and Leanne Hawken (2003) Guilford Publishing, Inc. ISBN List Price: $25.00

63 BEP Daily Cycle *BEP coordinator greets student
Step 1: Student checks in with BEP coordinator when he/she arrives at school *BEP coordinator greets student *Student turns in previous days signed BEP form *BEP coordinator gives precorrections *Student picks-up new BEP form *Together they review daily goals

64 Morning Contact Greeted (positive, personal, “glad to see you”)
Prompted (ready to go to class?) Readiness check (books, pencils, etc?) Gets BEP form (prompt for positive interaction)

65 BEP Daily Cycle Step 2: Student gives BEP form to each teacher prior to each period *teacher completes card *teacher initials card Step 3: At the end of day student checks-out with BEP coordinator *review days points & goals *receive reinforcer if goal met *take card home

66 BEP Daily Cycle Step 4: Student takes BEP form home and gives to his/her parents *receives reinforcer from parent *parents sign card Step 5: Student returns signed BEP next day, Reinforcement by BEP coordinator Step 6: Weekly BEP meeting with data graphing

67 System Issues BEP Coordinator PBIS meeting
Conducts check in/check out with students Chairs BEP meetings, Frequent faculty contacts Collects student data on student improvement PBIS meeting BEP coordinator meets with PBIS team to report on program

68 Referral to BEP Coordinator
Multiple office disciplinary referrals Recommendation by teacher Recommendation by parent Time to action: 1 week (maximum)

69 The BEP Contract The establishment of a written behavioral agreement between a student, the BEP coordinator, teachers & student regarding the performance of specific target behaviors

70 Elements of the BEP Contract
Behaviors must be observable Behaviors must be measurable Clearly specify rewards or privileges Bonuses may be included Reliable means of record keeping

71 Rules of Contracting Contract reward should be immediate
Initially reward small approximations Terms must be clear Contract must be honest, & positive Contract must be used systematically Homme, 1970

72 Developing the BEP Contract
Select target behavior(s) Define target behavior Observable & measurable Identify rewards & consequences Define the criteria for reward Bonus clause? Establish record keeping Write & sign the contract Implement & continuously monitor

73 BEP Process Daily Morning Check-in Daily Teacher Home Evaluation
Afternoon Check-in

74 BEP Form

75 Does BEP Work? Evaluation of a Targeted Intervention Within a School-Wide System of Behavior Support Hawken & Horner, in press Journal of Behavioral Education

76 Results (Average =45% reduction; N = 17)

77 Results (Average = 28% reduction; N = 17)

78 BEP Video

79 Check and Connect Outcomes in Junior High School in Palatine, IL

80 Check and Connect Outcomes in Junior High School in Palatine, IL

81 Check and Connect Outcomes (Palatine, IL)

82 Next Steps Is the BEP (Check and Connect) system appropriate for you?
Are there more than 10 students with chronic patterns of problem behavior? Is a school-wide system in place? Is there faculty commitment to work with tougher kids? Are in-school resources available to implement? Build Action Plan Review and present current data Administration/Faculty commitment Action steps within a doable timeline

83 HUG: Hello, Update, Goodbye
Pam Hallvik, Nancy Ferguson, & Sally Helton Tigard-Tualatin Schools, Tigard, Oregon

84 H.U.G. Program The H.U.G. Program consists of a plan and process that require students to: Check-in with a significant adult before school Carry a tracking form Ask their teacher to rate their behavior Check-out at the end of each day Take the form home to parents Return the H.U.G. form the next morning

85 Advantages of H.U.G. Responds positively to students needing additional support Staff can teach appropriate behaviors & provide practice opportunities Provides opportunities for reinforcement & positive attention Encourages daily communication between teachers and parents Data are collected to determine success of the program or whether changes are needed

86 “Hello” - Morning The student goes to the counselor’s office when he or she arrives at school. At that time they will receive following: Positive, sincere greeting Check to see if they are prepared for day (lunch ticket, materials, etc.) Check to learn how they are feeling (any morning conflicts?) Collection of returned H.U.G. form signed by parents Verbal reinforcement for returning signed form possibly accompanied by sticker or small reward New H.U.G. form

87 (Hello, Update, Goodbye)
H.U.G. (Hello, Update, Goodbye) Name: ____________________________ Date: ________________ Please indicate whether the student has met the goal during the time period indicated: Meets = 2 pts So, so = 1 point Doesn’t meet = 0 pts HUG Daily Goal _____/_____ HUG Daily Score _____/_____ Teacher Comments: Please state briefly any specific behaviors or achievements that demonstrate the student’s progress. Goals AM to Recess AM Recess AM Recess to Lunch Lunch Recess PM Be Safe J K L Be Kind Be Responsible Total Points Teacher Initials Parent’s Signature ___________________________________ Parent’s Comments _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

88 “Update” - During Day Student: give H.U.G. form to his or her teacher on arrival to class Teacher will rate student’s behavior at times indicated on form & offer brief, positive comment to student about rating. Adults in other settings, such as PE, Music, & recess, etc., will complete ratings for time period they have students.

89 “Goodbye” - End of Day Students will return with their H.U.G. forms to counselor’s room at 2:25 each day: Students will again receive positive, sincere greeting Counselor or H.U.G. assistant will check to see whether student met his/her goal. If so, student will receive small reward. If not, student will receive encouragement to try again tomorrow along with problem-solving discussion of what they might do differently. Students take forms home to share with their parents. Parents give positive feedback to their children. Parents then sign form & put it in student’s backpack for return to school.

90 H.U.G. Coordinator Signs H.U.G. Contract agreement
Facilitates the check-in/check-out process Provides H.U.G. students with positive, constructive feedback and small tangible rewards Instructs staff members on the use of the HUG form Collects, summarizes, and reports H.U.G. data to the PBIS team each week

91 Teachers Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement
Accept H.U.G. Report Form daily from students Evaluate student behaviors and complete the form Offer constructive and positive feedback to students

92 Students Follow all H.U.G. Program guidelines
Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement GIVE IT YOUR BEST!!!!

93 Parents Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement.
Review H.U.G. Progress Report with child daily. Provide positive and constructive feedback. Communicate with the school when there are concerns or celebrations regarding their child’s behavior

94 H.U.G Program Contract Agreement
I have read the H.U.G. Team Members’ Responsibilities Form. I understand that my signature indicates that I am willing to participate in the H.U.G. Program and fulfill all my responsibilities. Student signature: ___________________ Date ______ Parent(s) signature(s): _________________ Date ______ Teacher signature: ____________________ Date ______ Administrator signature: ________________ Date ______ H.U.G. Coordinator signature: _____________Date ______ Copies will be given to all H.U.G. participants. Thank you for your participation and support!!!

95 Team Action Planning

96 Team Reporting What secondary systems do you already have in place
Team Reporting What secondary systems do you already have in place? Are they working?

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