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Chapter 3 Colonial Ways of Life

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1 Chapter 3 Colonial Ways of Life 1607-1763

2 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
South’s first successful cash crop – Plantations used to grow tobacco and other cash crops. Many laborers (mostly slaves) were used to cultivate crops for the landowners. WHAT is SUPPLY & DEMAND? When the demand for a product is greater than the supply, the price is higher. When the demand for a product is less than the supply, the price is lower. tobacco

3 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
– The demand for tobacco in Europe was greater than the supply. This kept the price HIGH. Chesapeake Bay was ideal for growing tobacco – rivers served as roads. Indentured Servants – people whose passage was paid to America by colonists, and who agreed to become servants for a specific number of years. VA and MD had large numbers of indentured servants to grow and harvest tobacco.

4 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
SOUTH CAROLINA – Sugarcane crops failed. Rice became the major cash crop. Later, indigo became a cash crop. Eliza Lucas, only 17, discovered the secret to growing indigo – it needed high ground and sandy soil. Indigo

5 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
The Southern Economy - Social Order in the South. = Wealthy Gentry = Yeomen Planter Elite Backcountry Farmers Landless Tenant Farmers Servants and enslaved Africans

6 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
Planter Elite – wealthy landowners, gentry, had political and economic influence. Plantations were like small towns. Most plantations were small, rough estates & the planters & their indentured servants worked side-by-side. Usually 30 or less people. In VA & MD, planters switched from indentured servants to slave labor which allowed them to grow larger. The gentry became real gentlemen and amused themselves with hunting, fishing, gambling.

7 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
Backcountry Farmers – Most landowners in the colonial south were actually small farmers living in the “backcountry” farther inland and were called YEOMEN, to distinguish them from the gentry. They grew some tobacco, but practiced subsistence farming – enough to feed their families.

8 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
UNEVEN distribution of wealth & power led to REBELLION. BACON’S REBELLION – 1. Sir William Berkeley – governor of VA who controlled the colony. a. Exempted himself & his councilors from taxation. b. Restricted the vote to people who owned property. c. These actions & his Native American polices angered the backcountry & tenant farmers.

9 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
– war erupted between the backcountry farmers (who wanted Native American land) & Native Americans. Gov. Berkeley did not use military action but asked for money from the House of Burgesses to build forts for protection. BACON took up the backcountry farmers cause because his land was attacked by Natives; he & his men attacked the Natives. The newly elected House (1) authorized troops to attack the Natives, (2) restored the vote to all free men and (3) took away the tax exemption. Bacon was still not satisfied & returned in 1676 with troops and seized power. Then, he fled after being pursued and raised his own army. He got sick and died; his army disintegrated.

10 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
IMPORTANCE OF BACON’S REBELLION It convinced many wealthy planters that the best way to keep Virginian society stable was to have land available for the backcountry farmers regardless of how it effected Native Americans. It also accelerated an existing trend in VA of using enslaved Africans instead of indentured servants to work the fields because they did not have to be freed & fewer people wanted to be indentured servants. Also, King Charles II granted a charter to the ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY for slave trade and, thus, it was easier to acquire slaves.

11 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
SLAVERY IN THE COLONIES 1450 – 1870 – million Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas. Roughly 2 million died at sea. OLAUDAH EQUIANO – kidnapped by other Africans from his home in West Africa and traded to Europeans, then shipped to America. Later, he became a writer & described his journey across the Atlantic.

12 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
DID YOU KNOW? Of the 8-10 million Africans who came to the Americas, approximately 3.5 million went to Brazil, & another 1.5 million went to the Spanish colonies. The British, French, & Dutch colonies in the Caribbean imported nearly 4 million others to work on their sugar plantations. Approximately 500,000 Africans were transported to North America before the slave trade ended in the 1800s.

13 C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies
DID YOU KNOW? The first Africans brought to VA & MD were treated like indentured servants & their children who were born were not always considered slaves. Some of the first enslaved Africans obtained their freedom by converting to Christianity. MARYLAND was the first colony to legalize slavery. In 1705, VA passed a SLAVE CODE. 1. They could not own property. 2. They could not testify against a white person. 3. They could not assemble in large numbers. SLAVES PLAYED A VITAL ROLE IN PLANTATION GROWTH

14 Chapter 3, Section 2 Why didn’t New England farmers grow wheat?
What is plankton and where can you find it? How did most people in New England make a living? What is a fall line? What did every colony need? Why did the English buy ships made in America? Why were towns important in New England?

15 C 3, SECTION 2 – New England and the Middle Colonies Describe how resources affected economic development. NEW ENGLAND Resources ------ Industries Fishing & whaling Lumber & ship building Subsistence farming of corn, vegetables, orchards, & livestock Sea Forest & waterfalls- POOR FARM LAND

16 Chapter 3, Section 2 – Continued
Town Meetings developed into local town government. Selectmen managed the town’s affairs. Town meetings helped set the stage for the American Revolution & the emergence of democratic government. PURITAN’S’ houses were located close to the church so they could never have an excuse not to come to church. They did “Holy Watching.” But Puritans did drink rum, enjoyed music & liked to wear bright colors.


18 C 3, SECTION 2 Devout Puritans believed that Satan used witches to work evil in the world. In 1692, 20 residents of Salem, MA were executed for witchcraft. Teenage girls accused an African servant of being a witch, and then others. Sometimes accused witches were spared if they confessed or pointed a finger at other community members. Some people denied being witches and were hanged. Only after the Salem witchcraft trials ended in 1692, did the original accusers admit that they had made up the entire story.

19 Cities grew because of trade. TRIANGULAR TRADE -
Chapter 3, Sec 2 - TRADE Cities grew because of trade. TRIANGULAR TRADE - Triangular Trade New England Fish, lumber & meat England Manufactured Goods Caribbean Sugar/Rum

20 Triangular Trade Other 3-way trade systems also existed.
Example: New England traded rum to British merchants in exchange for British goods. British merchants then traded the rum to West Africans in exchange for slaves, who were then transported across the Atlantic to the Caribbean & traded for sugar.

21 Artisans made up nearly
C 3, Sec 2, NEW URBAN SOCIETY Philadelphia – 1760 – largest colonial city Charles Town, SC – largest city in the South Artisans made up nearly half of the urban population People without skills or property – 30% Slaves – 20% City problems – overcrowding, crime, pollution,& epidemics.

PA, NY, NJ & DE had rich soil & wheat was the big cash crop. Philadelphia & New York were biggest cities in the British colonies. Middle colonies changed because of the wheat trade and the new settlers. Capitalists – made money on wheat & invested in new businesses.

23 C 3, Sec 2 - Middle Colonies Society
Wealthy entrepreneurs who owned large farms and businesses were the top class; in the middle were small farmers; & at the bottom were landless workers.

24 Chapter 3, Section 3 THE IMPERIAL SYSTEM
MERCANTILISM – set of ideas about the world economy. Mercantilists believed that to become wealthy & powerful, a country had to accumulate gold and silver. HOW DID THEY DO THIS? By selling more goods to other countries than it bought from them. (More gold & silver flows into the country than out of the country.)

25 Chapter 3, Section 3 Mercantilist also believed that a country should be self-sufficient in raw materials; therefore, a country needed colonies so that it would not have to pay out gold and silver, but could sell products back to the colonies to make money. FOR COLONIES – it gave them a market for their raw materials & a supplier of the manufactured goods they needed; however, the colonies could not sell to other countries. NOTE: The only way the New England colonies could get silver & gold was to smuggle through triangular trade.

26 Chapter 3, Section 3 NAVIGATION ACTS
Navigation Act – Required all goods imported or exported to be carried on English ships, & stated that at least ¾ of the crew on each ship had to be English. Certain raw materials (major money products) could be sold ONLY to England or other English colonies. (SUGAR, TOBACCO, LUMBER, COTTON, WOOL, & INDIGO) English Ships The STAPLE Act – required everything the colonies imported had to come through England. (There were customs inspectors to enforce the act.)

27 Chapter 3, Section 3 were smuggling through the Dutch
King Charles II discovered that the colonies were smuggling through the Dutch merchants; then when MA did not obey the Navigation Acts, he pulled their charter & made it a royal colony.

28 CHAPTER 3, Sec 3 4. James II merged MA, Plymouth, & RI together to
create the royal province called the Dominion of New England. Then, he forced CN and NJ to join the province, and later NY. He abolished their colonial assemblies & placed a governor- general in charge – Sir Edmund Andros who strictly enforced the Navigation Acts & new land taxes offended the Puritans by declaring only Anglican Church marriages were legal. 5. Andros managed to anger nearly everyone in New England- landowners, church leaders, and merchants. James II

29 Chapter 3, Section 3 MEANWHILE – back in England a
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION occurred. James II was becoming a problem, but people felt that his daughter would become Queen soon. Then, James II had a son, so his daughter would not become Queen and something had to be done to keep the country from becoming Catholic again. Parliament asked Mary and her husband William to take the throne & James II fled. This was a bloodless change of power & so it was a Glorious Revolution.

30 Chapter 3, Section 3 Parliament Queen Mary William of Orange

31 Chapter 3, Section 3 William and Mary did not allow the old system before the Dominion of England to go back in place. Rhode Island and Connecticut were allowed to resume their previous form of government. The king issued a new charter in 1691 for MA that combined MA, Maine, and Plymouth into a royal colony of MA. The king appointed a governor, but the colony could elect an assembly & the councilors. Under this system voters had to own property, but did not have to be a member of the Puritans.

32 Chapter 3, Section 3 JOHN LOCKE – wrote Two Treatises of Government
He argued that a monarch’s right to rule came from the people. “All people are born with natural rights” that includes the right to life, liberty, & property. People Wrote on the were born in a natural state & to philosophy of protect their rights, people came government together & agreed to create a government – a contract People agreed to obey government’s laws & the government agreed to uphold their rights in return. *

33 CHAPTER 3, SECTION 4 A Diverse Society
Did you know? Ben Franklin was 1 of 17 children! Family Life in Colonial America Population Growth: On average, women had 7 children. ,000 more than 250,000 1750s – more than 1,000,000 – about 2,500,000

34 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 Women in Colonial Society
Married women had no legal status. Could not own anything When she got married, her property became her husband’s Could not make a contract Could not be a party to a lawsuit Could not make a will HUSBANDS were allowed to discipline children and wives. SINGLE women & widows could own and manage property, file lawsuits, & run businesses. Despite their legal limitations, women worked outside the home in taverns, shops, managed plantations, ran print shops, and published newspapers.

35 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 Health & Diseases
Typhoid Fever – bacterial infection caused by Salmonella Tuberculosis Cholera Diphtheria Diarrhea (fluxes) Malignant Fever (flu) Typhus Scarlet Fever

36 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 Smallpox Epidemic – Boston 1721
Rev. Cotton Mather (a Puritan leader) urged his friend, Dr. Boylston, to inoculate volunteers against the disease based on information from African slaves that the Turks had developed an inoculation for smallpox. **As a result, out of 6,000 people who were not inoculated, about 15% (900) died. BUT out of 241 inoculated people, only 6 died (less than 3%) Cotton Mather Smallpox Epidemic – Boston 1721 Rev. Cotton Mather (a Puritan leader) urged his friend, Dr. Boylston, to inoculate volunteers against the disease based on information from African slaves that the Turks had developed an inoculation for smallpox. **As a result, out of 6,000 people who were not inoculated, about 15% (900) died. BUT out of 241 inoculated people, only 6 died (less than 3%) Cotton Mather

37 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 IMMIGRANTS in Colonial America
1. German Immigrants – Pennsylvania Mennonites – settled Germantown in 1683 In 1775: they made up 1/3 of the population (100,000) Called Pennsylvania Dutch (Deutsche means German) They were prosperous farmers. Introduced the Conestoga wagon that was used to cross America. Many Germans headed south - some to the Shenandoah River Valley of VA and spread down through the Carolinas. FAMOUS GERMAN – Peter Zenger was arrested for printing libel against the governor, but was cleared by a jury. He led the way for freedom of press.

38 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 2. Scotch-Irish – descendents of Scots who had helped England claim control of N. Ireland. Reasons for immigration – (1) rising taxes, (2) poor harvests, & (3) religious discrimination. 150,000 came to American colonies between 1717 and Many migrated west to find land and some to the back country of the Southern colonies.

39 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 3. JEWISH Community – Jews came fleeing from the Portuguese in Brazil to practice their religious freedom. 15,000 lived in the colonies by 1776 In Western Europe, Jews could not own property or participate in professions. In America they could live and work with Christians. Most lived in cities and were artisans or merchants.

40 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 4. AFRICANS in Colonial America A New Culture
1. In SC, Africans worked & lived in large groups isolated from the white planters which made them more independent. They developed a language called Gullah – a language that combined English and African words. 2. In the Chesapeake region, Africans spoke English because most were born in the colonies. 3. African Religion mixed with Christian faith. GULLAH CULTURE

41 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 Oppression & Resistance beatings were common.
In SC to maintain control, whippings & beatings were common. Some planters branded the disobedient; slit noses or amputated fingers and toes to horrify others as an example of what would happen if they disobeyed. In VA planters used harsh punishment, but also used persuasion such as extra food or days off to get them to work. Resistance – Passive – staged deliberate work slowdowns, “lost” or broke tools, or refused to work hard. Some escaped; some bought freedom. Governor of Spanish Florida (to weaken the South Carolina colony) promised freedom & land to enslaved people who would come to Florida.

42 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 STONO REBELLION – 75 Africans attacked their white overseers near the Stono River, stole guns, & then went toward Florida. The local militia killed Africans and ended the rebellion.

43 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 THE ENLIGHTENMENT – challenged the authority of the church in science & philosophy while elevating the power of human reason. ** IMPORTANT** LOGIC & REASONING = rationalism ** JOHN LOCKE – very influential with his contract. Also, in Essay on Human Understanding he argued that contrary to the Church, people were not born sinful. Their minds were blank & would be shaped by society & education. The Social Contract – he argued that a government should be formed by the consent of the people. BARON MONTESQUIEU –Spirit of the Laws – suggested three types of political power – executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch would provide checks & balances.

44 CHAPTER 3, Section 4 THE GREAT AWAKENING – religious
movement that stressed dependence on God. (religious feeling) PIETY – stressed an individual devoutness. Ministers spread the word through revivals. Jonathan Edwards wanted to restore spirituality to New England. He preached that people had to repent and convert to be “born again.” George Whitfield – created tension by preaching that some ministers had not been born again. .

45 Chapter 3, Section 4 New England churches split into factions –
New Lights & Old Lights Churches embracing new ideas – Baptist, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and Methodists all grew. In the South Baptists welcomed enslaved Africans at revivals & condemned brutality. Equality before God was taught. Planters feared an uprising by the slaves & broke up Baptists meetings. ** The Enlightenment provided arguments against British rule. The Great Awakening undermined allegiance to traditional authority

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