Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Splash Screen.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Section 1: Principles of Government
Essential Question Section 1: Principles of Government Section 2: The Formation of Governments Section 3: Types of Government Section 4: Economic Theories Chapter Summary Chapter Menu

3 What are the basic ways that governments are formed, and how do they serve the people who live under them? Essential Question

4 What Is the State? A state is a political community in a precise territory. A state has sovereignty meaning that its government makes and enforces its own laws without approval from any other authority. A nation refers to a sizable group of people united by common race, language, custom or religion. Section 1

5 What Is the State? (cont.)
Countries in which the territories of both the state and nation coincide are referred to as nation-states. Section 1

6 Essential Features of a State
The four essential features of a state include: population—the people territory—established boundaries sovereignty—supreme and absolute authority within its boundaries government—central institution United States Acquisitions Section 1

7 Essential Features of a State (cont.)
States where people share a consensus, or agreement, about basic beliefs and values have the most stable governments. Government is the institution through which a state: maintains social order; provides public services; and enforces decisions that are binding on all its residents. Section 1

8 Origins of the State Scholars have constructed theories to explain the origins of state. Evolutionary Theory The state evolved from the family. The head of the primitive family served as government authority. Section 1

9 Origins of the State (cont.)
Force Theory The state was born of force, or the need to resist an enemy. A state emerged when everyone in an area was brought under the authority of one person or group. Divine Right Theory Certain people are chosen by a god or gods to rule. Section 1

10 Origins of the State (cont.)
Divine right describes European monarchs in the 1600s and 1700s who proclaimed their right to rule came from God alone. Social Contract Theory Thomas Hobbes promoted the idea of a social contract in which people surrendered their freedom to the state, but in return they received order and security. Section 1

11 Origins of the State (cont.)
John Locke believed that in a state of nature, men and women had certain natural rights including the rights to: life, liberty, and property. Locke’s social contract was made between the people and a government that promised to preserve these natural rights. Section 1

12 According to Thomas Hobbes’ social contract theory, what did the people receive in exchange for surrendering their freedom to the state? A. liberty B. security C. money D. property A B C D Section 1 – DQ3

13 Purposes of Government
There are four primary purposes of government. Maintaining social order: Governments resolve conflicts to make civilized life possible. Providing public services: Governments provide services that make community life possible. Section 1

14 Purposes of Government (cont.)
Providing security and defense: Governments protect the people against attack by other states and other threats. Providing for the economy: Governments pass laws that shape the economic environment. Section 1

15 A. provide tax advantages to specific industries
What might a democratic government do to influence the life of its population? A. provide tax advantages to specific industries B. maintain an even distribution of wealth C. provide secure employment D. develop a formal class system A B C D Section 1 – DQ4

16 Government Systems There are two primary systems of government:
Unitary system Gives key powers to the central government. Federal system Divides key powers between national and state government. Section 2

17 Government Systems (cont.)
The United States began its federal system by forming a confederacy. A confederacy is a loose union of independent states. Section 2

18 In a unitary system of government all key powers belong to
A. the state. B. local government. C. central government. A B C Section 2 – DQ1

19 Constitutions and Government
A government’s constitution is an incomplete guide that provides a statement of goals and a framework for governing that draws its authority from the people. A constitutional government places limits on the powers of those who govern. A preamble is a statement that sets forth the goals and purposes that the government will serve. Section 2

20 “We the people of the United states, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide fore the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

21 Constitutions and Government (cont.)
The main body of a constitution sets out the plan for government divided into articles and sections. Most written constitutions describe the procedure for amending, or changing, the constitution. Constitutional law is the field of law that studies questions on how to interpret the Constitution. Section 2

22 A B C D Most governments’ constitutions
A. provide a comprehensive guide to all governing. B. reflect exactly how that constitution is enforced. C. communicate that government’s intentions, purpose and goals. D. represent the “final word” of a government to prevent future modification. A B C D Section 2 – DQ2

23 Politics and Government
Politics refer to the struggle to control government and manage societal conflicts that could influence the lives of individuals. People participate in politics to: influence what benefits and services the government supplies and turn their values and beliefs into public policy. Section 2

24 Politics and Government (cont.)
Politics can affect several key matters: Air and water quality Economic conditions Peace and war Citizen’s rights and freedoms Section 2

25 Politics and Government (cont.)
The Framers of the Constitution worried that special interest groups–people united by special political interests–would hinder the launch of their new government.

26 A. constitutional interpretations B. judicial restraint
What is the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government called? A. constitutional interpretations B. judicial restraint C. judicial activism D. politics A B C D Section 2 – DQ3

27 Governing in a Complex World
Inequalities among countries can be divided into two major groups: Industrialized nations are nations with large industries and advanced technology to provide a comfortable way of life. Developing nations are nations that are only beginning to develop industry. Section 2

28 Governing in a Complex World (cont.)
Global interdependence means that nations must interact or depend upon one another, especially economically and politically. There are two factors that contribute to global interdependence: Growing industrialization Rapid technological advances Section 2

29 Governing in a Complex World (cont.)
International organizations have many different goals and operate beyond national boundaries. Section 2

30 Governing in a Complex World (cont.)
The five types of international organizations are: National liberation organizations Terrorist organizations Multinational corporations Organizations of states of the world Nongovernmental organizations Section 2

31 Which best illustrates a catalyst for growing global interdependence?
A. different values between nations B. widespread use of the internet C. abundant global resources A B C Section 2 – DQ4

32 Major Types of Government
According to Aristotle the three major types of governments are: Autocracy: One person has all authority. A monarchy is another form of government in which a king, queen or emperor inherits the throne and heads the state. Comparing Governments Section 3

33 Major Types of Government (cont.)
Oligarchy: A small group holds power. Oligarchs derive their power from wealth, social position, military power or a combination of these. Democracy: The people govern either directly or through representatives. Section 3

34 Major Types of Government (cont.)
An assembly of people’s representatives may be called a council, a legislature, a congress or a parliament. In a republic voters elect representatives. Only a small percentage of people might be empowered to vote. Section 3

35 In an oligarchy power is
A. inherited by a monarch. B. held by representatives of the people. C. held by a single leader who rules by force. D. held by a small group who rules because of wealth or social power. A B C D Section 3 – DQ1

36 Characteristics of Democracy
A true democracy is defined by four characteristics: Individual liberty All people are as free as possible to develop their talents. Majority rule with minority rights Elected representatives enact laws that reflect the will of the majority of lawmakers. Section 3

37 Characteristics of Democracy (cont.)
The rights of the minority are respected and protected. Free elections Everyone’s vote carries the same weight. All candidates have the right to express their views freely. Citizens are free to help candidates or support issues. Section 3

38 Characteristics of Democracy (cont.)
Legal requirements for voting are kept to a minimum. Citizens vote by secret ballot without coercion or fear of punishment. Competing political parties. A political party is a group of individuals with broad common interests organized to win elections, conduct government and determine public policy. Section 3

39 Characteristics of Democracy (cont.)
Rival parties make elections meaningful by giving voters a choice. Section 3

40 Which of these characteristics indicate a democratic government?
A. The number of political parties is limited by government. B. Minority rights are protected. C. Participation in elections is limited to the elite. A B C Section 3 – DQ2

41 Essential Elements for a Democracy
A successful democracy depends on five essential elements: Citizen Participation Citizens must be willing to participate in civic life. Favorable Economy The economy must be prosperous and distribute wealth to many members of society. Section 3

42 Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.)
Free enterprise is the freedom of private business to operate with minimal government regulation. Widespread Education A democracy is more likely to succeed in countries where most people are educated. Section 3

43 Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.)
Strong Civil Society Civil society is made up of a network of voluntary associations—economic, political, charitable, religious, and many others that exist outside of government. Section 3

44 Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.)
Social Consensus A social consensus refers to a country where most people accept democratic values and generally agree about the purpose and limits of government. Section 3

45 Free enterprise is the freedom of private business to operate
A. with minimal government regulation. B. according to rigid laws enacted by the state. C. under the guidance of government regulation. A B C Section 3 – DQ3

46 The Role of Economic Systems
Economics is the study of how limited resources are used to satisfy people’s seemingly unlimited wants. All economic systems answer three questions: What and how much should be produced? How should goods and services be produced? Who gets the goods and services that are produced? Section 4

47 The Role of Economic Systems (cont.)
Economic systems of societies with more political freedom generally have less government regulation than societies with less political freedom. Section 4

48 An economic system must answer which question?
A. What products and services should be produced? B. What products and services are most valuable? C. How much should products and services cost? A B C Section 4 – DQ1

49 Capitalism Capitalism has five characteristics:
Private ownership and control of property and economic resources. Free enterprise Despite significant government regulation, the United States’ economic policies aim to preserve a free market. Section 4

50 Capitalism (cont.) Competition
Buyers and sellers compete over resources to produce goods and services at the most reasonable price. Freedom of choice Possibility of profits Section 4

51 Capitalism (cont.) Capitalism employs a market system based on competition between buyers and sellers with an emphasis on freedom of choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumers and business enterprises. A free market places no limits on the freedom of buyers and sellers to make economic decisions. Section 4

52 Capitalism (cont.) The idea of a laissez-faire economy was advanced by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations. Laissez-faire is French for “to let alone.” Smith said that the actions of buyers and sellers, not the government, should determine what is produced and bought. Mixed economies mix elements of capitalism and socialism. Section 4

53 Which statement is true of a laissez-faire economy?
A. Government and markets have equal control. B. Government allows the market to determine what is produced and bought. C. Government promotes capitalism by eliminating free trade. A B C Section 4 – DQ2

54 Socialism Socialism is an economic system in which a government:
owns the basic means of production, determines the use of the resources, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as education, health care, and welfare. Section 4

55 Socialism (cont.) Democratic Socialists are socialists who are committed to democracy in the political sphere but want better distribution of economic goods. Under this government, citizens have basic democratic rights like free speech and free elections but the government owns key industries and makes economic decisions. Section 4

56 Communism Communism is the economic system advanced by German philosopher Karl Marx in The Communist Manifesto. Marx defined three classes that emerged during the Industrial Revolution. The proletariat: the industrial working class, concentrated in factories The bourgeoisie: the middle class and owners of industrial capital such as factories and land Section 4

57 Communism (cont.) The capitalists: the ruling class with power over resources Under communism, Marx predicted there would only be one class—the working class. A command economy is one in which the government decides what to produce, how much to produce and how to distribute the goods and services that are produced. Section 4

58 In a government with a socialist economic system, the basic means of production are owned by
A. the government. B. the market. C. the working class. D. the individual. A B C D Section 4 – DQ3

59 Purposes of Government Maintain social order Provide public services
Provide national security Make economic decisions Chapter Summary start

60 Unitary System—National or central government holds all key powers
Government Systems Unitary System—National or central government holds all key powers Federal System—Power is divided between the national government and state or provincial governments Chapter Summary

61 Characteristics of Democracy Individual liberty
Majority rule with minority rights Free elections Competing political parties Chapter Summary

62 Capitalism—Emphasis on freedom of choice and individual incentive
Economic Theories Capitalism—Emphasis on freedom of choice and individual incentive Socialism—Government owns means of production, decides how to use resources, and distributes wealth more equally among people Communism—No recognized social classes; all property is held in common; government is unnecessary Chapter Summary

63 Figure 1

64 Figure 2

65 MIR Trans

66 ANSWERS 1. Burke felt that individual liberty and the state could not coexist; where one began, the other ended. 2. Lippmann was not in favor of big government. He favored a government that did the least possible, yet provided the most. 3. Yes; they both felt that government or the state should provide for the wants of the people. DFS Trans 1

67 DFS Trans 2 ANSWERS 1. OAS and NAFTA
2. Interpol, the UN, and the World Trade Organization   3. Possible responses include OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), the EU (European Union), the Arab League, or the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States). DFS Trans 2

68 DFS Trans 3 ANSWERS 1. representative democracy 2. oligarchy
3. No; because some monarchies, such as the United Kingdom, are democracies where the monarch’s powers are limited. DFS Trans 3

69 DFS Trans 4 ANSWERS 1. capitalism with a mixed-market economy
2. socialism and communism   3. capitalism DFS Trans 4

70 To use this Presentation Plus! product:
Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu or Chapter Introduction slides to access the Making It Relevant Transparency for this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Section Focus Transparency. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the USG Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. Help

71 This slide is intentionally blank.
End of Custom Shows

Download ppt "Splash Screen."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google