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Formation of contract Consideration.

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Presentation on theme: "Formation of contract Consideration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Formation of contract Consideration

2 The price paid for the promise
Consideration... The price paid for the promise

3 Bargain A promise asked for, or relied upon, as an aspect of a bargain between the parties to the contract Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company v Selfridge & Company [1915] AC 847

4 “An act or forbearance of one party, or promise therof, is the price for which the promise of the other is bought, and the promise thus given for value is enforceable” Sir Frederick Pollock, adopted by the House of Lords in Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company Ltd v Selfridge & Company Ltd at 855

5 Consideration Must be bargained for
Must be performed in return for a promise – quid pro quo Is a required element in the formation of a contract except deeds

6 Without consideration a promise cannot be enforced:
SO, only a party providing consideration can enforce a promise

7 Past consideration is not good consideration
If what is done is not done as a reaction to the promise, it cannot be good consideration Roscorla v Thomas (1842) 3QB 234 Eastwood v Kenyon (1840) 113 ER 482

8 PRIVITY OF CONTRACT Only parties to a contract may enforce, or be bound by, a contract

9 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co Ltd v Selfridge & Co
“My lords, in the law of England certain principles are fundamental. One is that only a person who is a party to a contract can sue on it.” Lord Haldane at 853

10 Cases on Privity Tweddle v Atkinson Beswick v Beswick
[1861] 121 ER 762 Beswick v Beswick [1966] 1 Ch 538.

11 Summary For a contract to be formed there must be: An Offer
Which has been Accepted by parties who intended to create legal relations And bargained or paid for their mutual promises in the form of Consideration And only these parties may enforce the contractual promises (Privity)

12 Contents of the Contract

13 Term or representation?
Objective test of intention “reasonable man” Hospital Products Ltd v United States Surgical Corp (1984) 156 CLR 41 Indicative factors include Importance of statement Time between statement and contract Special knowledge or skill or access to truth of one party Inclusion of statement in any subsequent document Ellul &Ellul v Oakes (1972) 3 SASR 377

14 What kind of term? Essential term
A term may be either: a Condition Essential term Breach – entitlement to terminate/or damages a Warranty Ancillary term Breach – damages, but no termination an Innominate term Intermediate term Breach – termination if sufficiently serious

15 Test: how essential was the promise?
“The question whether a term in a contract is a condition or a warranty, i.e. an essential or a non-essential promise, depends upon the intention of the parties as appearing in or from the contract. The test of essentiality is whether it appears from the general nature of the contract considered as a whole, or from some particular term or terms, that the promise is of such importance to the promisee that he would not have entered into the contract unless he had been assured of a strict, or a substantial, performance of the promise, as the case may be, and that this ought to have been apparent to the promisor…. Jordan CJ in Tramways Advertising v Luna Park

16 Tramways Advertising Pty Ltd v Luna Park (NSW) Ltd
(1938) NSWLR 633 Associated Newspapers Limited v Bancks (1951) 83 CLR 322

17 Warranty Bettini v Gye (1876) 1QBD 183 per Blackburn J said at 188:
“[a condition is] a stipulation [which] goes to the root of the matter, so that a failure to perform it would render the performance of the rest of the contract a thing different in substance from what the defendant has stipulated for.”

18 Implied terms Terms may be implied by: Trade usage or custom Statute
Courts, based on facts and circumstances of contract

19 Austral Pacific Group Ltd (in liq) v Airservices Australia (2000) 203 CLR 136
“…statutorily created and take effect by legal fiction, namely that the parties make a contract including the relevant obligations.”

20 Terms implied by Statute

21 Revise: How to read a statute
E.g. TRADE PRACTICES ACT SECT 52 Misleading or deceptive conduct (1) A corporation shall not, in trade or commerce, engage in conduct that is misleading or deceptive or is likely to mislead or deceive.

22 Elements of a section: Corporation In trade or commerce
Engage in conduct Misleading or deceptive Defined by legislation (definitions section) or by courts (case law.)

23 Legislation Contract for the sale of goods (not services)
Sale of Goods Act 1923 (NSW) Contract for the sale of goods (not services) Trade Practices Act 1974(Cth) Contract for supply of goods or services by a corporation to a consumer

24 Sale of Goods Act 6 Sale and agreement to sell (1) A contract of sale of goods is a contract whereby the seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a money consideration called the price. There may be a contract of sale between one part owner and another.

25 Trade Practices Act – Part V Division 2 Conditions and Warranties in Consumer Transactions
e.g. - s 70 Supply by description (1) Where there is a contract for the supply (otherwise than by way of sale by auction) by a corporation in the course of a business of goods to a consumer …

26 Consumer s4B TPA     (1)  (a)  a person shall be …a consumer if, and only if:             (i)  the price of the goods did not exceed the prescribed amount; [$40,000]or            (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount-- the goods were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption or the goods consisted of a commercial road vehicle;              and the person did not acquire the goods, or hold himself or herself out as acquiring the goods, for the purpose of re‑supply or for the purpose of using them up or transforming them, in trade or commerce, in the course of a process of production or manufacture or of repairing or treating other goods or fixtures on land; …                                                                                                              

27 Corporation – extended definition
s6 TPA Corporation foreign, trading or financial corporation Persons in trade or commerce between either of the States or territories or between Australia and places outside Australia using post or telephonic services active within a territory Be careful when using this section

28 s18 Sale of Goods Act 1923 (NSW)
Where there is a contract for the sale of goods by description, there is an implied condition that the goods shall correspond with the description; and if the sale be by sample as well as by description, it is not sufficient that the bulk of the goods corresponds with the sample if the goods do not also correspond with the description.

29 TRADE PRACTICES ACT 1974(Cth)- s 70 Supply by description
(1) Where there is a contract for the supply (otherwise than by way of sale by auction) by a corporation in the course of a business of goods to a consumer by description, there is an implied condition that the goods will correspond with the description, …

30 Correspondence with description
SGA s18: Sale by description Where there is a contract for the sale of goods by description, there is an implied condition that the goods shall correspond with the description; …

31 Sale by description? Ashington Piggeries v Christopher Hill
[1971] 1AllER847 Grant v Australian Knitting Mills (1936) 54 CLR 49

32 Ashington Piggeries case:
Viscount Dilhorne: “Did the presence of DMNA merely affect the quality of the herring meal or did it make a difference in kind? If the former, then there was no failure to deliver in accordance with the description. If the latter, there was.”

33 Fitness for purpose SGA s19(1) Fitness for purpose
Where the buyer expressly or by implication makes known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods are required so as to show that the buyer relies on the seller’s skill or judgment, and the goods are of a description which it is in the course of the seller’s business to supply (whether the seller be the manufacturer or not), there is an implied condition that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose: Provided that in the case of a contract for the sale of a specified article under its patent or other trade name there is no implied condition as to its fitness for any particular purpose.

34 Trade Practices Act s71(2)
      Where a corporation supplies … goods to a consumer in the course of a business and the consumer, expressly or by implication, makes known to the corporation or to the person by whom any antecedent negotiations are conducted any particular purpose for which the goods are being acquired, there is an implied condition that the goods supplied under the contract for the supply of the goods are reasonably fit for that purpose, whether or not that is a purpose for which such goods are commonly supplied, except where the circumstances show that the consumer does not rely, or that it is unreasonable for him or her to rely, on the skill or judgment of the corporation or of that person.

35 Reliance on seller’s judgement?
Purpose made known? Obvious purpose? Underpants – Grant v Australian Knitting Mills Reliance on seller’s judgement? Ashington Piggeries v Christopher Hill.

36 Course of seller’s business?
David Jones Ltd v Willis (1934) 52 CLR 110 Ashington Piggeries v Christopher Hill Not trade name? Reliance, not reputation

37 TPA s71 Similar to s18 Consumer requirement
Purchase by trade name not a bar E v Australian Red Cross Society (1992) Provision of services – not supply of goods.

38 Merchantable quality Sale of Goods Act s19(2) (2) Where goods are
bought by description from a seller who deals in goods of that description (whether the seller be the manufacturer or not), there is an implied condition that the goods shall be of merchantable quality…

39 Trade Practices Act s71 supplies… goods to a consumer
(1)  Where a corporation supplies… goods to a consumer in the course of a business, there is an implied condition that the goods supplied under the contract for the supply of the goods are of merchantable quality,…

40 Merchantable quality?   66(2)  Goods of any kind are of merchantable quality within the meaning of this Division if they are as fit for the purpose or purposes for which goods of that kind are commonly bought as it is reasonable to expect having regard to any description applied to them, the price (if relevant) and all the other relevant circumstances.

41 Merchantable quality? Carpet Call Pty Ltd v Chan (1987) ATPR 41-025
Rasell v. Garden City Vinyl and Carpet Centre Pty Ltd (1991) ATPR

42 Flooring: Mavis was particularly interested in flooring as she had difficulties keeping her slate tiles clean. She searched for low maintenance flooring and after extensive shopping decided on single sheet vinyl flooring. She saw just the thing at Discount Lino Barn, close to Kylie’s home. Kylie indicated that she didn’t share her mother’s preference for vinyl flooring as it was cold underfoot and had suggested kitchen carpet. Kylie and Mavis spoke to Mike at Discount Lino Barn who suggested under-floor heating could address Kylie’s temperature issues. Kylie provided details of the under floor heating options while her mother left the conference room to offer slices of her coffee cake to the other staff….

43 She is also angry about the flooring she has had installed
She is also angry about the flooring she has had installed. Despite Kylie’s protests she went with the single sheet vinyl, and did not have under floor heating installed. The vinyl, while easier to clean than the slate, is marking and scuffing badly however. She has only had it down 6 months, and already there are a number of wear marks. Her cupcake classes – which she runs 5 times a week and more often in school holidays – are now so popular that she has at least 20 students per class. Because of her renovations she has room for them all around her lovely new island bench, but the vinyl around the island bench almost looks like a race track.

44 It is as if her students have worn a path around the bench – and in only 6 months.
The vinyl was quite expensive – as she had heavy grade domestic installed – but Mavis is very unhappy. She hasn’t yet paid the bill for the vinyl as she has been arguing with the company. They are, according to Mavis, now getting nasty, and want their $45,000 immediately.

45 Fridge She also advised that her mother was having problems with Whitegoods World from which she had bought her fridge. Kylie advised that her mother required a “French door” fridge with freezer drawers underneath to accommodate the large baking trays she used for her cakes. She had ordered the fridge she needed from Whitegoods World but had experienced delivery problems.

46 Her oven purchase was much more successful than her fridge which, on the very day it was due to be delivered – not only did not arrive, but the shop called her to advise that delivery was delayed for one month. Mavis said to the shop keeper: “Well that’s no good to me. I ordered that fridge for today. I need that fridge today. I told you when I needed the fridge. The only reason I ordered from you was that you told me I could have it today. If you can’t give it to me today, you can just keep your fridge!! I don’t want it anymore.” Mavis then rang Quick Fridge and ordered and received another fridge that afternoon– suitable for her requirements.

47 However, one month later, Whitegoods World delivered the fridge originally ordered and demanded payment. Mavis refused to accept the fridge or to pay, and advised them that the order had been cancelled. They are threatening to sue Mavis for the price of the fridge - $5,500.

48 Oven Mavis returned to the conference room. She advised that she had had to make a large coffee cake that morning, even though her preference would have been to make cup-cakes. In fact, one of her legal problems was her cup-cake oven. Cake Cookers is a specialist retailer which sells products designed for those who like to cook cakes. It retails a number of specialist pans and other baking utensils – many imported from America and not readily available in Australia - as well as a special range of cake ovens.

49 They are located in Broome – and Mavis lives in NSW, but Cake Cookers sells throughout Australia by catalogue. Mavis wanted a special cake oven in her new kitchen. She saw an oven that looked perfect for her in their catalogue – the picture showed 8 slide out patty pan trays instead of oven trays – exactly what she wanted.

50 She rang the store and spoke to Cathy
She rang the store and spoke to Cathy. She told Cathy all about her cupcakes, her favourite recipes, and her interest in the patty pan oven in their catalogue. Cathy told her that the patty pan oven had eight slide out patty pan holders – instead of oven racks – and that each patty pan holder would take one dozen patty pans. Even better, they came with self cleaning silicone inserts. Mavis was delighted about the self cleaning but concerned that each tray would only take one dozen patty pans. Although after discussion with Cathy, she was convinced that the overall capacity of the oven was appropriate, and so she placed an order….

51 Mavis advised that even if she had known about the cake order she would have had difficulty fulfilling it because of problems with her newly installed cake oven. When the oven arrived she saw that instead of Australian sized delicate patty pan holders, the cake trays were American size muffin holders – and two trays were even jumbo sized Texas muffin size holders. This is not what Mavis wanted at all. Mavis rang Cathy and told her the oven was not what she had wanted at all, and not suitable for the cakes in which she specialised. Cathy said she was sorry that Mavis was disappointed, but there is nothing that they can do about it now. Mavis wants to know if she still has to pay the $8,000 for the special cake oven.

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