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Relationships The formation of relationships

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1 Relationships The formation of relationships
The maintenance and breakdown of relationships The Social exchange theory

2 Explanations of Interpersonal Attraction
Physical attractiveness Similarity in personality Similarity in attitude

3 Physical attractiveness
Women Large, widely separated eyes, a small chin and wide narrow cheekbones. Men Square jaw, small eyes, thin lips and triangular upper body.

4 The hallo Effect Positive traits are associated with physical attractiveness Beautiful people are more Sociable Friendly Happy mature

5 Reward/Need Theory We associate people with positive and negative events/feeling Classical and operant conditioning

6 Reinforcement /Affect - Byrne
If someone is the source of a pleasant event we like them If we are in a good mood when we meet someone we like them Byme and Clore: state we need a balance in favour of positive events.

7 Cultural Differences: In many cultures women are expected to forgo any rewards and put their husbands and children’s needs first Cate found that receiving rewards was the most predominate in determining relationships However, Cate assumes that we are hedonistic. However Hays argues that giving can be just as satisfying as receiving rewards

8 Evaluation of reinforcement theory
It is scientific, as most research is done in a lab Biological: Dopamine levels are high at the beginning of intense relationships Evolutionary Aron explains that the brain chemistry would have evolved to speed up the reproductive success of early man Behavioural: covers ideas like association that is missed by the evolutionary theory.

9 Similarities: Byrne and Clore
Personality: Two people who are always positive about life will be more likely to hang out that one that is positive & one that is negative. Caspi and Herbener found married couples were happier if they had similar personalities

10 Similarity in attitudes
Attitudes: It is argued that within relationships “attitude alignments” often happen. We adapt our attitudes to fit in with our partners.

11 Evaluation of Similarities: AO2
Rosenbaum found support when he discovered that participant were attracted to each other because of similarities and became less attracted the more dissimilarities they found However, Yoshida points out there are more to similarities than just attitudes there is also physical attraction. Similarity is important as it validates our own views and strengthens our positive feeling about ourselves and is therefore rewarding.

12 The Matching Hypothesis
We don’t seek the most attractive person, but instead desire someone who matches us physically. Walster (1966) first study did not support this – At a dance he randomly put people together and discovered the most attractive were rated highest.

13 The Matching Hypothesis
Evaluation Towhey 1979 – people were scored on the macho scale and later asked to rate attractiveness of people from photos and biographical information. Those scoring high were more affected by physical attractiveness than others. So does Physical attractiveness only count at the beginning of a relationship? No, Murstein et al found that married people matched more closely.

14 The Matching Hypothesis
Repeated in 1969 Walster and Walster used the computer dance procedure. This time participants met before the dance and had more time to appraise one another. Murstein 1972 used photos of engages couples and found that independent judges did rate them as matching one another.

15 Maintenance of Relationships
Theories Exchange theory – Homans 1961 Equity theory – Messick, Walster and Berscheid. Interdependence theory – Thibaut & Kelley.

16 Maintenance strategies – Ayres (1983)
when people resist change and deny the other’s fears that something is wrong when a person puts more effort into the relationship. talking about the issues to maintain a status-quo.

17 Comparison level for alternatives:
Exchange Theory AO1: Outline Profit and Loss: Relationships are business transactions. We strive to get the best possible deal. Balancing sexual and companionship rewards, with time and resources used. Comparison level: A standard with which we judge possible relationships against. Using past relationships and general knowledge of what we want and expect. Comparison level for alternatives: The increase in rewards for a new partner against the cost of ending current relationship

18 AO2: Evaluation of Exchange
Profit and Loss: (Rusbult and Martz) Women have high investment (children), no money and no where to live = stay in abusive relationships It does not explain why people leave relationships to be on their own or how bad a relationship needs to be for someone to leave

19 AO2 Explains Individual Differences: as we all accept different
levels of profit and loss as we all have different comparison levels. Cultural Bias: It is mainly western cultures that are Hedonistic, more collective cultures value group success over personal profit. Support for Cultural differences: Gergen et al discovered that although American students preferred equity (a constant ratio of rewards to input). European students preferred equality.

20 Limitations Are we really that selfish? It ignores fairness
of exchange and focuses on seeking a profit. Focuses too much on the individual’s perspective and not the social aspect of relationships.

21 AO1: Equity theory This theory suggests that we will continue with a
relationship if we perceive it as fair. A fair relationship is a stable one because it is balanced. People strive for fairness rather than what they can get out of the relationship.

22 AO1: Ratio of Input and Output
The equation: One person’s Benefits minus their costs equals their partner’s benefits minus Their costs. Restoring Balance: We change our 1/ demands from the relationship 2/ input behaviour 3/ compare our relationship to that of others to see if it is Worth continuing

23 AO2: Exchange theory Clark and Mills (1979): We are motivated by the
needs of others. Friendships as well as lovers believe and trust that Things will in the end balance out. Contrived Methodology: Brandau-Brown (2007) Too reductionist, they argue there is more to marriage. Especially in todays society where there are so many different forms of relationships. It is argued that many of the studies have low ecological validity.

24 AO2: Exchange theory DeMaris (2007): Found that it was only women’s feeling of inequality that resulted in correlating with divorce. Gender differences: no equality Weltman found men earning more than their wives had more important careers However, women earning more than men did not. This was rated by both husband and wife

25 Relationship Breakdown
Activity: List as many reasons as you can for why a relationship might fail.

26 Typical reasons for relationships ending
Conflict Breaking rules Boredom Lack of novelty Falling out of love Saving face Problems of abuse Perceived changes Change in self or other An attractive alternative Costs outweighing rewards Interference from other relationships

27 Main Reasons (Duck) Lack of Skills: Poor social skills can lead to misunderstanding. People lacking social skill are seen as boring or unrewarding. Lack of stimulation: People expect relationships to grow and if they feel there is no stimulation they move on. Maintenance difficulties: Lack of time due to commitment or location difficulties

28 AO1: Duck’s Four-Phase Model
The intra-psychic Phase Internal thoughts that the relationship is going wrong. Brooding on partners faults The Dyadic Phase Discussions, anger, anxiety, reassessment of the relationship The Social Phase Going public. Seeking support from others The grave-dressing Phase Tell the world the relationship was not their fault

29 AO2: Evaluation of Duck Support: Social Skills:
Cina et al found couples relationships improved after they had Coping Enhancement Training Support: Marital affairs: Boekhout Correlated lack of skills and/ or stimulation with affairs Critisism: Maintenance: Rohlfing argued that long distance relationship were fairly common and didn’t affect breakdowns.

30 AO2: Evaluation of Duck Support for The grave-dressing Phase was found by Tashiro and Frazier (2003) students said they grew in self awareness during relationship breakdowns and were able to move on. Ethical Issues: As divorce and break ups can be a sensitive subject, especially in women experiencing abuse, the experimenter has to be very sensitive.

31 Three essay titles 1: A local dating agency is conducting research into the formation of relationships. Explain (using psychological research) why some relationships form. [8 marks + 16 marks] 2: Outline and evaluate theories of relationship maintenance. [ marks] 3: Discuss research into the breakdown of romantic relationships. [ marks]

32 The Evolutionary Perspective
Reproductive Success. This is when an organism reproduces successfully. Any feature that evolves to aid reproduction in a competitive environment helps increases reproductive success.

33 Evolutionary explanation of relationship breakdown
If men can not offer good resources women may look elsewhere. If women refuse to produce children or are no longer able to reproduce men will look elsewhere.

34 Evolutionary explanation of relationship breakdown
Cost related to emotional investment: Need the commitment to share resources Increasing commitment: Men threatened with breakdown in relationship more likely to give added commitment Infidelity: Sexual variety is something men like, it may also help them to secure another mate if the relationship looks like it is about to break up.

35 Support In many hunter-gatherer societies, the !Kung San or the Ache in Paraguay, people have many romantic relationships before settling down Buss: Found there are various differences in the cost perceived and they way to deal with relationship breakdowns between the sexes. Women often go shopping while men look for another women. However; questionnaires = Social desirability

36 Sexual Selection: Darwin
Males often develop colourful ways of attracting a mate

37 Intrasexual selection
Males compete with other males Winner gets the mate Intersexual selection Females get to choose what trait is selected as these are the traits that will be passed on and males have to compete for.

38 Short-term mating Men want sex early = low long term costs + more opportunity to impregnate more women Men are less choosy and less committed after sex. Women can only produce one baby so are more selective.

39 Long term mating Both women and men are coming together to reproduce and therefore both must be more choosy Men are looking for a woman who is healthy, young and show signs of fertility. Older men always prefer younger women

40 Long term relationships
Women want men who Invest in resources for her and the children Who can protect them Show good parenting skills Are not too demanding

41 AO2: Evaluation of Evolution
Support: Buss et al found men were more stressed at the thought of women’s sexual infidelity Waynforth and Dunbar found women advertise attractiveness and men advertise their economic status

42 Evaluation of Evolution
Animals Reproduction. Humans are more cognitive than animals and more conscious of their behaviour. Post Hoc: Look back over time to give explanations for our behaviour. No empirical evidence to support the theory.

43 Parental Investment Men invest in gaining a mate
Women invest in keeping a mate Babies brains are very big. In order for mother to give birth must be born when brain is still growing. Baby needs feeding and Protection until fully grown

44 Maternal Investment Women stay to breastfeed.
Men give very little investment after conception Women need to be careful about mate choice

45 Parental Investment Women only have a few offspring and need men who will provide resources to help offspring survive Look for men with money who are humorous kind and generous

46 Paternal Investment Cuckoldry: Women can trick men into investing in another man’s children Sexual Jealousy Men are more jealous of sexual infidelity Women are more jealous of emotional infidelity

47 AO1:Parental Investment
Men can have as many children as they can find women to procreate with. Quantity rather than Quality Their women must be fit and faithful (so their Not bringing up someone else's child).

48 AO2: Evaluation Geher et al looked at University students and asked them how ready they were for children. Both male and females answered the same. When the ANS was measured in response to parenting conditions male arousal was always higher, therefore men has a higher stress response to parenting

49 AO2: Evaluation It is argued that evolutionary theory along with social disrespect may help to undermine family values. Gove argues its important for both partners to feel responsible for the upbringing of their children

50 AO2: Cross Cultural Studies
Margaret Mead: Wahiba found a society where the men shared the work equally with the women. The Tchambuli tribe traded Their children as hostages to Another tribe for peace Investigator Bias: Margaret was too close to the tribes, living with them often asking leading questions.

51 AO2: Criticism Historical Validity: Doesn’t take into
account today’s society State Benefits Childcare Working women Gay marriages Social Psychological reasons for staying together: Some people choose not to have children. Evolutionary theory too reductionist.

52 AO1: Parent-offspring conflict
Conflict before birth: Foetus secretes a hormone that damages the mother to gain more nutrition. Conflict after birth: Parents often need to take their attention from older children when they have a new offspring. Sibling rivalry: This then leads to fighting between siblings for access to parents.

53 Decreased Investment Trivers: states children use temper tantrums to obtain parental investment Young Oranguans often whine at their mothers when being weaned Auche tribe in South America’s children also through tantrums during weaning

54 AO2: Evaluation Support: Mothers with higher blood pressure have fewer miscarriages and larger babies at birth Salmon and Daly: Young children learn to co-operate with non-relatives to get extra resources, rather than fighting with siblings. Parent strategies: Encourage offspring to develop their own talents and to allow them to have different interests and friends.

55 AO1: Childhood experiences
Attachment: Internal working Model The Caregiving System: Primary care-giver becomes the model for how to care for others The Sexuality System: Securely attached people look for sex with love, however avoidance insecure adults may prefer sex without love.

56 AO1: Attachment Disorders
Children who find it difficult to become close to others. Happens from abuse or neglect Lack of support during stress They either have a lack of responsiveness or over familiarity

57 AO1: Interaction with peers
Quinn and Munn believe children also develop from interacting with other children Good friends during childhood gives you a sense of trust, support and being understood and accepted.

58 Adolescent experiences
The child combines experiences with parents with experiences with other people and evaluates objectively if their needs are being met. Child dating helps children separate from parents and develop independent intimate relationships. Some dating is good between however too much can become maladaptive

59 AO2: Support The Love Quiz
Hazan and Shaver printed a questionnaire in a newspaper asking about early childhood and attitudes to romance Correlation, so no causal statements. Volunteer sampling Questionnaires, social desirability Attachment type Secure Insecure avoidance Insecure resistance Current love Relationships are positive Fearful of closeness Preoccupied by love Attitudes to love Trust others and believe in love Love is not necessary or lasting Fall easily but it never lasts

60 AO2: Further Support Simpson et al, longitudinal study where they discovered securely attached children developed better friendships and later better romantic relationships Methodological problems: attrition, participants lost over time

61 Synopticity: Gender Differences
Girls often develop closer relationships while boys are more competitive. Low Population validity: Many studies have been done in small groups from certain school, in particularly areas.

62 AO2: Adolescent Connectedness: It is better for the child if the parent remains closely involved with their child’s life, while they are developing relationships with others. Support was found by Larson when he discovered that adolescent relationships compliment parent relationships rather than replacing them

63 AO2: Peer relationships in Adolescence
Although some relationship in adolescence are beneficial it is argued that too many are detrimental; loss of academic success However, Roisman found no effect from romantic experiences at age 20 on romantic relationships at 30

64 Synoptic tool kit Determinism: This theory seems to suggest if we have insecure relationships with our parents we will have negative/difficult romantic relationships Research has shown that lots of people who have had difficult childhood relationships with their caregivers are able to go on and develop health adult relationships

65 Categorizing Cultures
Individualistic: Where the Individual is always more important than the group. People are encouraged to be Independent Collectivism: People are encouraged to be Inter-dependent in relationships as the group/ family is more important than the individual

66 Voluntary or Non Voluntary
Western Societies: Have Mobility, thus lots of opportunities to meet lots of different people Non western cultures: Have less mobility and less opportunity to meet lots of different people

67 Arranged Marriages The Planned type: Parents choose the family and bride and groom don’t meet until the wedding Chaperoned interaction: Male tells his family he wants a wife and they find one. The joint venture type: Everyone has some say, where dating is allowed

68 Marring for Love Moore and Leung found that in Australia Chinese
students were as romantic as Anglo-Australians. Jankowiak and Fischer argue that all humans crave romantic love regardless of culture However Allgeiert and Wiedman found that while Japanese and American were less likely to marry without love in collectivist cultures like Thailand, Indian and Pakistan student were more likley to compromise.

69 Divorce Western Societies: Change is something that is celebrated, divorce is acceptable more now than it was 50 years ago Collectivist Cultures: Divorce is frowned upon as the extended family unit will be split. Although today things are changing

70 AO2: Arranged Marriages
Epstein found around half of arranged marriages had fallen in love Myers found no difference in marital satisfaction between love and arranged marriages. However, in China in % of people had arranged marriages today only 10% In Chengdu women who had married for love felt better about their marriages

71 AO2: It is argued Parents are older wiser and not blinded by love and therefore may be in a better position to choose your partner However Xiaohe and Whyte found freedom of choice promoted marital stability

72 AO2: Divorce In 1960 divorce was very low in Europe, divorce has risen as we shifted from an non-urban to urban culture. = more mobility May not be love or arranged marriages that correlate with divorce but opportunities for meeting more people.

73 Methodology In the West we are fixed with doing scientific
research in a lab and therefore miss research rich in ecological validity. It is argued that psychologists must get out and visit other cultures in their natural setting However, Western psychologists bring their own ideology with them and superimpose their ideas on the new culture

74 Evolutionary adaptation
Lower Mortality: a happy relationship decreases stress Improve survival if we were in love Jankowiak and Fischer found love in over 90% of the 166 cultures studied Bartel and Zeki claim to have discovered areas of the brain (MRI scan) that light up if person is in love

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