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Information Processing

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Presentation on theme: "Information Processing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Processing
Module 20

2 What is Memory? Process of encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Learning that persists over time. Encoding Get info in Storage Retain the info Retrieval Getting the information out

3 In-Class Activity—A Look Into Memory
Take out a sheet of paper Write down, in order, all responses that come to mind Ready?

4 What are the names of the seven dwarfs in the story of Snow White?
Don’t ask a friend!

5 What are the names of the seven dwarfs in the story of Snow White?
Difficult? Why? Never learned the names (encoding) Length of time (storage) Distractions (retrieval)

6 What if you had a list to choose from?
Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Lazy Pop Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach Shorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby

7 What are the names of the seven dwarfs in the story of Snow White?
Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc & Bashful Get more names correct with list? Why? Recall vs. Recognition

8 What are the names of the seven dwarfs in the Disney movie Snow White?
Feel like you knew a name but couldn’t recall it? Why? Tip of the tongue phenomenon Retrieval failure

9 In-Class Activity – Part 2…
Turn your paper over or fold in half Write down the names of the seven dwarfs Easier than before? Short term memory vs. long term memory

10 Encoding: Getting Information In
Automatic Processing Time Space Frequency Well-learned material Effortful Processing

11 Encoding: Getting Information In
Effortful Processing Ebbinghaus: Rehearsal & Overlearning

12 Serial Position Effect
How do we encode? Serial Position Effect

13 Spacing Effect Distributed vs. Cramming Rehearsal Primacy & Recency
How do we encode? Spacing Effect Distributed vs. Cramming Rehearsal Primacy & Recency Cramming creates speedy short-term memory But distributed time produces better long-term memory Role of rehearsal: you are rehearsing more when spacing studying out you rehearse what you learned last time If you space studying, always start by reviewing last times info Role of primacy and Recency If studying is spaces then different things will be first and last

14 What do we encode? Meaningful Information Encoded Images
Personally meaningful Related to previously learned info Encoded Images Mental “pictures” Mnemonics Kids Please Close Our Front Gate Slowly

15 What do we encode? Organized Information Chunking Hierarchies
ROY G BIV Phone numbers… Hierarchies

16 This might help you study…

17 Let’s test your encoding! iclicker question
According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty remembering those: A) at the beginning of the list B) at the end of the list C) in the middle of the list D) at the beginning and the end of the list

18 iclicker question You are most likely to automatically encode information about: A) Politicians names B) New phone numbers C) What you did before and after you ate breakfast D) What we learn today

19 Storage: Retaining the Information
Working/ Short-term Memory Sensory Memory Long-term Memory Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval

20 Storage- Retaining the Information
Sensory Memory Fleeting representation unless we attend Lasts for ~ second Iconic & Echoic

21 Working/Short-Term Memory
Storage Working/Short-Term Memory 20 secs – couple minutes “Hold” a limited amount of info (7 +/- 2) No active processing = no short-term memories disappear

22 Storage Long-Term Memory Info stored; can be retrieved
Lasts indefinitely Can hold billions of pieces of info

23 Storage- How do we do it? Synaptic Changes
Pathway of neural activation creates a stored memory Path reinforced with use

24 Storage Stress Hormones Heightened emotions = stronger memories
Boosts activity in memory-forming brain areas More replay= stronger connections Can we take a pill for this?

25 Storage Implicit Memory Explicit Memory
Memory for procedures & skill acquisition Ex: Driving a car Cerebellum Explicit Memory Memory for facts & experiences Ex: Who was your first kiss? Hippocampus-temporary storage site Cortex

26 Retrieval- Getting Information Out
3 Retrieval Types Recall: generate information Recognition: identify items Relearning: learn material for a second time

27 Retrieval Cues: Anchor points used to access the info later

28 Remember better if cues present at encoding are present at retrieval
Context Effects Remember better if cues present at encoding are present at retrieval

29 Mood-Congruent Memory Recall experiences consistent with current mood
Retrieval Mood-Congruent Memory Recall experiences consistent with current mood

30 Déjà Vu Familiar situation can trigger feelings of “I’ve been here before”

31 Another Activity… 2 volunteers
1 with musical knowledge (majors, private lessons) 1 with little musical knowledge

32 Expertise Development
Retrieval & Expertise Expertise Development Central concepts become increasingly elaborated, organized & interconnected

33 Iclicker Question When 80-year-old Ida looked at her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of the early years of her marriage, which she had not thought about in decades. The pictures served as powerful: A) Encoding cues B) Iconic memories C) Implicit memories D) Retrieval cues

34 Iclicker Question Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. A) Brainstem; Hippocampus B) Explicit Memory; Implicit Memory C) Automatic Processing; Effortful Processing D) Short-term Memory; Long-term Memory

35 So could our memory ever be too good?
The women who can’t forget…

36 Mini-writing #9 You have a friend who is struggling in a class. Now that you know so much about memory, identify 2 effects that we have learned about in class that pertain to memory that could help him. Explain each effect and how each effect would improve his test performance. Effortful processing Rehearsal Overlearning Serial position effect Spacing Effect Imagery Meaningfulness Mnemonics Chunking Retrieval Cues Hierarchies Context Effects Sleep

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