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The Story of Filipinos Survival and Hope Lecture delivered in the class of Prof. Domingo, Asian Languages & Cultures Department, UCLA on May 15, 2012 1.

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Presentation on theme: "The Story of Filipinos Survival and Hope Lecture delivered in the class of Prof. Domingo, Asian Languages & Cultures Department, UCLA on May 15, 2012 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Story of Filipinos Survival and Hope Lecture delivered in the class of Prof. Domingo, Asian Languages & Cultures Department, UCLA on May 15, 2012 1

2 The context of the title How Poor are most Filipinos? What are the reasons for poverty? What makes the Philippines a natural disaster hotspot? 2

3 How poor are most Filipinos? 2006 statistics, National Statistics Office, 2007 A quarter of the Filipinos –more or less 20 million of our countrymen lived on a little over one $1 a day (Php 44.00) Nearly half of the Filipinos – about 44 % of the Filipinos survived on less than $2 a day (Php 88.00) Your café latte costs more than the amount it takes for half of our countrymen to survive. 3

4 Poorest Provinces in the Year 2010 ProvincePercent Sulu63.2 Masbate62.8 Tawi-tawi56.5 Ifugao55.6 Romblon55.2 Maguindanao55.1 Lanao del Sur55.0 Sultan Kudarat54.3 Camiguin53.1 Camarines Norte52.7 4

5 ARMM and Bicol Regions: The poorest of the Poor All four provinces of ARMM are among the 10 poorest provinces in the country Tawi-tawi Maguindanao Lanao del Sur Sultan Kudarat Two of the 6 provinces in Bicol Region Masbate Camarines Norte 5

6 ReasonPercentNo. of votes Corruption in government and society 68365 High prices of goods and low wages 630 Poor and inefficient tax collection 17 Our ballooning population1051 Other factors1583 6

7 Living Conditions of the Poor Experience food insecurity Struggle to pay housing costs Cannot afford health care Likely to drop out at Grade 4 Difficulty in managing their money More likely to smoke, gamble, and drink alcohol 7

8 Living Conditions of the Poor Have no capacity to buy in bulk, cannot take advantage of sales Supermarkets are not found in poor communities No bank account Live in a day to day basis Predatory lending practices (Bombay 5-6 interest) Do not have nest egg of cash or assets for emergency 8

9 Is it economic inequality? Gini coefficient The greater the number means that Wealth is not equally spread across the countrys population highest Nambia ranked 1 Philippines ranked 37 out of 134 countries Our Asian neighbors Thailand ranked 50th Indonesia ranked 66 th Vietnam ranked 78th 9

10 Poverty and Natural Calamities: Ingredients to an increase in Poverty 10

11 Philippines is a natural disaster hotspot The Philippine government estimates that between 2005 and 2010, the country needs some 3.8 million new homes (Habitat for Humanity, 2009). Disaster is one of the causes of homelessness in the country. 11

12 Typhoon Vulnerability Map of the Philippines Source: PAGASA-PCARDD, 2008 12

13 Introduction Nature of Disaster a disaster occurs when a natural phenomenon brings damage or loss to the major social, organizational and physical facilities of a community to the degree that the essential functions of the society are interrupted or destroyed resulting in individual stress and social disorganization of varying severity. Oliver-Smith, 1992:13 13

14 Mount Pinatubo eruption on June 15, 1991 14

15 The Lahar flow buried many Barangays 15

16 16 Residents wade in floodwater caused by typhoon Ketsana (Ondoy) Cainta, Rizal, Sept 30, 2009

17 Case Study Bicol Region: A Typhoon Prone Area During rainy season almost all typhoons (average of 20 annually) passes through the Bicol region and the surrounding areas of the scenic Mount Mayon Mount Mayon is one of the 22 active volcanoes in the country The places around Mount Mayon have always been most vulnerable to disaster 17

18 The Scenic Mount Mayon Photp courtesy Of Evasco,K Bicol University 18

19 The Typhoon Reming (November 2006) : The Event that Changed their Lives 19

20 How Typhoon Reming became a Disaster Total cost of damage Php 4,817,070,173.00 709 persons dead 2,190 injured 753 missing persons 2,895,464 population affected 203,498 families rendered homeless 3,130 families or 16,649 persons sought refuge to evacuation centers Source: UNHCDR and NDCC Oct. 2007 20

21 How Typhoon Reming became a Disaster Two typhoons brought about continuous heavy rain in the towns of Guinobatan, Camalig,Daraga, and Legaspi City in Albay, Bicol Milenyo (Xangse) Reming (Durian) The Mayon Volcano area was submerged with knee deep mud that made the roads not passable Triggered a combination of mud, volcanic ash, boulders from the slopes of Mt. Mayon Reming had a maximum sustained winds of 190 kph and gust of up to 225 kph 21

22 Lost of Lives Photo courtesy Of Evasco,K Bicol University 22

23 Damage Infrastructure Photo courtesy by Evasco,K 23

24 Lost of livelihood Barangay Binitayin 24

25 Locale of the study Anislag resettlement Site,Daraga, Albay 25

26 Note on the methodology The use of narrative analysis is relevant for it captures the event that changed the lives of the people and how they continue to find meanings on the common experiences they have had and how they rebuild the community through combination of their resiliency to hardship, their adaptation to unfamiliar circumstances and their resistance to change. 26

27 On the methodology The narratives are complemented with observations and interviews to shed light on the reality in the resettlement area. The purpose of which is to give a voice to resettled individuals, families and the members of the communities who otherwise might not be heard. The output is a written record of the lives of the resettlers from their perspectives and from their own words. 27

28 On Methodology Demography without Numbers (Scheper-Hughes, 1997) Anthropologically informed demography Instead of counting the homeless victims of natural disaster, their traumatic experiences were recounted Instead of counting the resettled families, their support system (network) were documented Research findings have application to public policy and everyday life. 28

29 The In-0ut Seeker-Provider (IOSP) Framework (Varda,et al 2007) 29

30 The Vulnerability Perspective ( Donner and Rodriguez, 2008) Assumes that a real disaster occurs when it strikes an under privileged population Characteristics of a person or group and their situation that influences their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist, and recover from the impact of a natural hazard 30

31 Results and Discussion The Affected residents have common experiences after typhoon Reming All were homeless Livelihoods were disrupted Everyone panic with rising floodwater and strong current The flight after the panic was to move to neighbors houses with second floor Schooling of children were disrupted Schools serve as evacuation centers Relief goods were donated regularly by various agencies GOs and NGO Became home beneficiaries in the Anislag Resettlement Area Everyone assisted in building homes 31

32 Life Before Typhoon Reming: The Beginning of the Story Men were farmers Husband of Gina was a Cement factory worker Some were tricycle drivers Family of Danilo owned a sari-sari store Women were vegetable gardeners, cloth and basket weavers Jennifer was in buy and sell Felicitas was a dressmaker Mylene was peanut vendor Gina was a laundrywoman 32

33 But each has their own stories to tell about their experiences with disaster (Differential Vulnerability) Different populations face different levels of risk and vulnerability Some were worse hit than others Some recovered faster than others Some were more satisfied in the resettlement area than others Some enjoyed better housing conditions than others 33

34 Mercuria lost her husband and 5 children Only 1 child (11 year old boy)of her 6 children survived Husband, a pastor also perished House is near the river, suffered temporary amnesia One of the 61 DSWD beneficiary 34

35 Gina : A Compassionate Beneficiary An entrepreneur makes rice cake (puto) Son is a member of Compassion- receive Php1,500.00 worth of school supplies and uniforms Live in tents from March to August 2007 Perceived the resettlement area as safe 35

36 Jennifer no previous experience with Disaster No past experience with flashflood Suffered from hunger One year old child was place in a basin for safety during the flood No government warnings received Neighbors rescued them 36

37 House made of Stone, saves many families in the neighborhood 37

38 Felicitas, the dressmaker Water was already chest high when she was rescued Stayed for 5 months in Bagumbayan elementary school Relocated in tents for I year Friends dug her sewing machine and was repaired Thankful that the flashflood occurred in the morning 38

39 Mylenes husband was not home when their house was swept away by water current At home with her 5 children Husband was away attending a town fiesta Children held on to cable wire to prevent from drowning Grateful to the following organizations: Red Cross, ABS- CBN and government officials, governor, congressman and mayor of Legaspi 39

40 Relief Goods: Sardinas, Noodles, Bigas (SNB) 40

41 Marites, the pregnant woman Was 2 months pregnant when they home was washed away by the current Sought refuge to the neighbors house and later moved to Tuazon building Swore to never return to the old village 41

42 Rebeccas story Happy reunion with husband after the chaos and panic Husband took her and children to the neighbors house Husband panic when he did not find his family in the house where he left them Tricycle was buried under mud debris and recovered a week after A child is a Compassion beneficiary and their house was built by Compassion 42

43 Irma and the wedding feast Lost six pigs intended for the wedding of her husbands younger sister estimated cost of properties that were destroyed was Php30,000.00 to Php 40,000.00 Sought shelter at their neighbors house Walked shoulder to shoulder in chest high water where it took them an hour to walk to the school house which was only a five minute walk 43

44 The stories of the Farmers; Flaviano, Rodolfo and Edmundo Rodolfo, farms a 2 hectare farm lot for 35 years Built canals around his rice field to let the rainwater carry the sand downstream The old folks belief that typhoons do not always occur in succession was not always true Today he buys rice whereas in the past he was self sufficient with rice 44

45 The stories of the Farmers; Flaviano, Rodolfo and Edmundo Edmundo is a 45 year old high school graduate Worked as construction worker during off-farm season heard rumors that the govt. Is no longer interested in rehabilitating their farms or their community But plans to convert it to a ecotourism area Flaviano is 41 year old with BS accountancy degree Farming his.44ha land since he was 20 years old A bachelor No plans to live elsewhere 45

46 Name /sex/age Village of destination/Village of origin Househol d size Number and age range of children Highest Educational attainment and place of birth 1.Jennifer Rodriguez/F/23 COPE/Binitayan42 (3-4) High school graduate/Binitayan 2.Felicitas Himor/F/66 Gawad Kalinga/Binitayan 2 Grandchild (7) Elem. Graduate 3.Gina Almares/F/33 St.Benedict Village/ Tagas 31 (3) Grae 4 (Tagas) 4.Marites Encinas/F/31 Compassion Village/Binitayan 5 3 (11-2) College Graduate 5.Rebecca Loncaros/F/37 Compassion Village/Binitayan 4 2 (13-8)High school graduate/ Mindanao 6.Mercuria Basas/F/30DSWD/ Binitayan2 1 (5 children drowned including husband) 7.Eduardo Lisay/M/45 St Vincentian Family Village Malobago 42 High School graduate Alcala, Daraga 8..Rodolfo Llemeneses/M/59 St Vincentian Family Village Malobago 53Malobago 46

47 BehaviorPercentage Evacuated80.77 Stayed at Home5.77 Was Stranded1.92 Helped by other People1.92 Warned Neighbors1.92 Observed Water Level0.96 Not at Home5.77 None0.96 Total100 Behavior of Respondents During Disaster in Daraga, Albay, Philippines, 2008. 47

48 ResponsePercentage Neighbors50.5 Barangay Officials20.79 Relatives14.85 None4.95 Acquaintance3.96 Church People3.96 Friends0.99 Total100 Responses of Disaster-stricken Individuals in Daraga, Albay, Philippines, 2008. 48

49 SourcePercentage None34.17 Neighbors25.83 Friends14.17 Radio10.83 Relatives8.33 Church5.83 Newspaper0.83 Total99.99 Sources of Warning, Daraga, Albay, Philippines, 2008. 49

50 Sandy Farmlands Photp courtesy Of Evasco,K Bicol University 50

51 Flooded Farms 51

52 Frequently experienced emotionPercentage Anxiety84 Worry84 Fear81 Sadness78 Self-pity73 Hopelessness56 Emotions Experienced by Respondents in Daraga, Albay, Philippines, 2008. 52

53 Life After Typhoon Reming Reming left many damage properties, caused lost of lives and lost livelihood in short period of time But the recovery of the affected residents from the typhoon is slower and took longer time 53

54 The 300 core houses built by the Daughter of Charity in Anislag Resettlement Site 54

55 Number of Relocated Families by Barangay, Anislag, Albay BarangayNumber of Families Malobago360 Lower Binitayan580 Tagas, Biscara, Mayon193 Total 1133 Source: Municipal Social Welfare, Daraga, Albay, 2008 55

56 Life After Typhoon Reming Since the threat of flashflood and mudslides becomes a regular destructive feature in their community of origin, farmers in particular have evolved certain adaptations with regard to Crops they plant. Farmers have discovered that rice do not grow well in sandy soil, instead they planted kankong (water spinach), sitaw (string beans),okra eggplant and sweet potatoes. Maintaining two residences. Farmers go to the old community during the weekends to tend to their crops and stay in the resettlement areas during weekdays 56

57 On the IOSP Framework 57

58 Furthermore, Social network (attachments) is a cause of differential responses to disaster Quadrant 1: In Seeker -Family members who are themselves disaster victims seeking post-disaster assistance for their families Quadrant 2: Out Seeker-The Municipal Social Welfare and Development (MSWD) and the Office of the Municipal Mayor are two government offices seeking assistance to provide resources for disaster evacuees. 58

59 Quadrant 3: In Provider- Network members who are in the disaster area providing something to the other network members. This Includes neighbors and barangay officials who immediately assist the disaster victims even if they are victims themselves. Quadrant 4:Out Provider - Those who are out of the disaster area who are providing something to the other network members. This includes local and internal non- government organizations and foundations: CARE, Daughters of Charity, WFP, ABS CBN, GMA, Red Cross and OxFam 59

60 4 ways for which social networks change over the course of disaster 1. Pre-disaster network very strong community ties close proximity in the houses (no physical boundary between houses) Mostly farmers –existence of social networks 2. Ad hoc social network Victims got to know each other in evacuation centers. sharing of common experiences about the disaster sharing of common need, concerns, fears and anxieties by evacuees 60

61 3. The emergent network Albay Mabuhay (created to address the needs of the disaster victims) Anislag Livelihood Center (established to train victims so that they will have new sources of income) The organizations and sponsors also helped the victims by providing them houses. 4. Stationary ties- unaffected by disasters and relocations. Family members and kins that supported one another Preservation of the neighborhood system in the whole barangay 61

62 On the Vulnerability Perspective Population growth and distribution The population structure changes as the size of the population remains high in spite of the declining growth rate due to displacement. Social diversity Poverty is the primary factor that affects how individuals perceive risk Women may not have enough resources to confront disaster due to low education and limited skills Farmers : soil becomes infertile, non- transferrable skills especially the aging farmers 62

63 Disaster as social status leveler The occurrence of disaster diminishes social distances among social classes or blurred the boundaries that may be existing among social classes before the disaster Disaster Response Risk perception, responding on the basis of interacting with other people (i.e. observing people evacuate), information seeking (i.e. warning received), and observation of social cues of reinforcement (i.e. Theres serious danger). 63

64 New norms emerge; more aware of their social ties and commitments (Turner,1957 and Miller, 2000 Join organizations to be informed and to enjoy benefits Neighborhood system is important There is formation of new order and regularity after the chaos 64

65 More Poor People after the disaster But…….. 65

66 Bayanihan (cooperation) Spirit at Work 66

67 Houses on stilts in Bacolor, Pampanga,Phil.1998 Post Disaster resilience and resettlement 67

68 Perpetual smiles of the Filipinos 68

69 Is it more fun in the PHILIPPINES? Something for you to Ponder…. 69

70 Salamat and Mabuhay! For your kind attention and I can now take your questions. 70

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