Presentation on theme: "OM PROCESS SELECTION, DESIGN, AND ANALYSIS CHAPTER 7 DAVID A. COLLIER"— Presentation transcript:
1 OM PROCESS SELECTION, DESIGN, AND ANALYSIS CHAPTER 7 DAVID A. COLLIER JAMES R. EVANS
2 Three Types of Goods and Services Chapter 7 Process Choice DecisionsThree Types of Goods and ServicesCustom, or make-to-order, goods and services are generally produced and delivered as one-of-a-kind or in small quantities, and are designed to meet specific customers’ specifications.Examples include ships, weddings, certain jewelry, estate plans, buildings, and surgery.
3 Three Types of Goods and Services Chapter 7 Process ChoiceThree Types of Goods and ServicesOption, or assemble-to-order, goods and services are configurations of standard parts, subassemblies, or services that can be selected by customers from a limited set.Examples are Dell computers, Subway sandwiches, machine tools, and travel agent services.
4 Three Types of Goods and Services Chapter 7 Process ChoiceThree Types of Goods and ServicesStandard, or make-to-stock, goods and services are made according to a fixed design, and the customer has no options from which to choose.Examples: appliances, shoes, sporting goods, credit cards, online Web-based courses, and bus service.
5 Four Types of Processes Chapter 7 Process TypesFour Types of ProcessesProjects are large-scale, customized initiatives that consist of many smaller tasks and activities that must be coordinated and completed to finish on time and within budget.Characteristics: one-of-a-kind, large scale, complex, resources brought to site; wide variation in specs and tasks.Examples of projects: legal defense preparation, construction, customer jewelry, consulting, and software development.
6 Four Types of Processes Chapter 7 Process TypesFour Types of ProcessesJob shop processes are organized around particular types of general-purpose equipment that are flexible and capable of customizing work for individual customers.Characteristics: Significant setup and/or changeover time, batching, low to moderate volume, many routes, many different products, high work-force skills, and customized to customer’s specs.Examples: Many small manufacturing companies are set up as job shops, as are hospitals, legal services, and some restaurants.
7 Four Types of Processes Chapter 7 Process TypesFour Types of ProcessesFlow shop processes are organized around a fixed sequence of activities and process steps, such as an assembly line, to produce a limited variety of similar goods or services.Characteristics: Little or no setup time, dedicated to small range of goods or services that are similar, similar sequence of process steps, moderate to high volume.
8 Four Types of Processes Chapter 7 Process TypesFour Types of ProcessesFlowshops continuedAn assembly line is a common example of a flow shop process. Many option-oriented and standard goods and services are produced in flow-shop settings.Examples: automobiles, appliances, insurance policies, checking account statements, and hospital laboratory work.
9 Four Types of Processes Chapter 7 Process TypesFour Types of ProcessesA continuous flow process creates highly standardized goods or services, usually around the clock in very high volumes.Characteristics: not made from discrete parts, very high volumes in a fixed processing sequence, high investment in system, 24-hour/7-day continuous operation, automated, dedicated to a small range of goods or services.Examples: chemical, gasoline, paint, toy, steel factories; electronic funds transfer, credit card authorizations, and automated car wash.
11 Process Choice in Services Chapter 7 Process Choice in ServicesProcess Choice in ServicesA pathway is a unique route through a service system. Pathways can be customer- or provider-driven, depending on the level of control that the service firm wants to ensure.The service encounter activity sequence consists of all the process steps and associated service encounters necessary to complete a service transaction and fulfill customer’s wants and needs.
12 Service Positioning Matrix Chapter 7 Process Choice in ServicesService Positioning MatrixCustomer-routed services are those that offer customers broad freedom to select the pathways that are best suited for their immediate needs and wants, from many possible pathways through the service delivery system.The customer decides what path to take through the service delivery system with only minimal guidance from management.Examples include searching the Internet, museums, health clubs, and amusement parks.
13 Service Positioning Matrix Chapter 7 Process Choice in ServicesService Positioning MatrixProvider-routed services constrain customers to follow a very small number of possible and predefined pathways through the service system.A newspaper dispenser is an extreme example of a service system design with only one pathway, thus allowing a single service encounter activity sequence.Logging on to your secure online bank account is provider-routed.
14 Exhibit 7.3 The Service Positioning Matrix Source: Adapted from D. A. Collier and S. M. Meyer, “A Service Positioning Matrix,” International Journal of Production and Operations Management, 18, no. 12, 1998, pp. 1123–1244. Also see D. A. Collier and S. Meyer, “An Empirical Comparison of Service Matrices,” International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 2000 (no. 5–6), pp. 705–729.
15 The hierarchy of work is defined as: Chapter 7 Process Design -- Hierarchy of WorkThe hierarchy of work is defined as:(1) Task(2) Activity(3) Process(4) Value ChainA task is a specific unit of work required to create an output. An example is drilling a hole in a steel part or completing an invoice.An activity is a group of tasks (sometimes called a workstation) needed to create and deliver an intermediate or final output. Workstations might be a position on an assembly line, a manufacturing cell, or an office cubicle.Value chain and process have been previously defined.
16 Chapter 7 Process Design and Flowcharting A process map (flowchart) describes the sequence of all process activities and tasks necessary to create and deliver a desired output or outcome.A process map can include the flow of goods, people, information, or other entities, as well as decisions that must be made and tasks that are performed.Process maps document how work either is, or should be, accomplished, and how the transformation process creates value.Process maps delineate the boundaries of a process. A process boundary is the beginning or end of a process.
17 Chapter 7 Process Design and Flowcharting A process flowchart is the basis for value stream mapping, service blueprinting, and service maps.Service blueprints add a “line of visibility” that separates the back and front office (rooms) as shown in Exhibit 7.5.Many names are used for the analysis and development of process flowcharts, so don’t let corporate fads and buzzwords confuse you—the basics of process analysis don’t change, just the buzzwords and consultant’s sales pitch!
19 Chapter 7 Value Stream Mapping & Flowcharting The value stream refers to all value-added activities involved in designing, producing, and delivering goods and services to customers.A value stream map (VSM) shows the process flows in a manner similar to a traditional process flowchart or service blueprint.Traditional flowcharting, service blueprinting, and value stream mapping all try to analyze wait and process times, bottleneck work stations, process throughput, and so on.
20 Chapter 7 Value Stream Mapping & Flowcharting However, the difference between VSM and these other flowcharting and analysis approaches lies in that value stream maps highlight value-added versus non-value-added activities, and include costs associated with work activities for both value- and non-value added activities.That is, VSM tries to include the economics of the process on the flowcharts.There are many formats for VSM.
21 Examples of non-value-added activities include: Chapter 7 Value Stream MappingExamples of non-value-added activities include:transferring materials between two nonadjacent workstationsoverproducingwaiting for service or work to donot doing work correctly the first timerequiring multiple approvals for a low cost electronic transactionEliminating non-value-added activities in a process design is one of the most important responsibilities of operations managers.
22 Define the purpose and objectives of the process. Chapter 7 Steps to Analyze a ProcessDefine the purpose and objectives of the process.Create a detailed process or value stream map that describes how the process is currently performed.Evaluate alternative process designs. Identify and define appropriate performance measures for the process.Select the appropriate equipment and technology.Develop an implementation plan to introduce the new or revised process design.22
23 Process Analysis and Improvement Chapter 7 Process Improvement ObjectivesProcess Analysis and ImprovementFew processes are designed from scratch. Many process design activities involve redesigning an existing process to improve performance. Management strategies to improve process designs usually focus on one or more of the following:Increasing revenue by improving process efficiency in creating goods and services and delivery of the customer benefit package.Increasing agility by improving flexibility and response to changes in demand and customer expectations.
24 Process Analysis and Improvement (continued) Chapter 7 Process Improvement ObjectivesProcess Analysis and Improvement (continued)Increasing product and/or service quality by reducing defects, mistakes, failures, or service upsets.Decreasing costs through better technology or elimination of non-value-added activities.Decreasing process flow time by reducing waiting time or speeding up movement through the process and value chain.
25 Reengineering and Creative Destruction Chapter 7 Process Improvement ObjectivesReengineering and Creative DestructionReengineering has been defined as “the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.”
26 Process Design and Resource Utilization Chapter 7 Process Analysis & Resource UtilizationProcess Design and Resource UtilizationUtilization is the fraction of time a workstation or individual is busy over the long run.Understanding resource utilization is an important aspect of process design and improvement.Utilization (U) = Resources Demanded [7.1]Resource Availability
27 Where’s the bottleneck work activity in Exhibit 7.11? Chapter 7 Process Analysis & Resource UtilizationThe average number of entities completed per unit time—the output rate—from a process is called throughput.Throughput might be measured as parts per day, transactions per minute, or customers per hour, depending on the context.A bottleneck is the work activity that effectively limits throughput of the entire process.Where’s the bottleneck work activity in Exhibit 7.11?
28 Exhibit 7.11Simplified Restaurant Fulfillment Process
29 WORK-IN-PROCESS = THROUGHPUT × FLOW TIME Chapter 7 Little’s LawLittle’s Law is a simple formula that explains the relationship among flow time (T), throughput (R) and work-in-process (WIP).WORK-IN-PROCESS = THROUGHPUT × FLOW TIMEorWIP = R × T [7.3]Flow time, or cycle time, is the average time it takes to complete one cycle of a process.Little’s Law provides a simple way of evaluating average process performance.If we know any two of the three variables, we can compute the third using Little's Law.