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07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 091 Cultural authenticity portrayed in picture books: A systematic approach toward diversity education for children.

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Presentation on theme: "07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 091 Cultural authenticity portrayed in picture books: A systematic approach toward diversity education for children."— Presentation transcript:

1 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 091 Cultural authenticity portrayed in picture books: A systematic approach toward diversity education for children Eun-Young Yoo Pauletta Bracy North Carolina Central University

2 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 092 Problem Statement Examines the issue of cultural authenticity reflected in multicultural picture books in order to provide a new direction for diversity education for children. Conducts a systematic and empirical analysis of picture books that represent four different ethnic groups including African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Hispanic- Americans and Native-Americans. Proposes cultural authenticity in multicultural picture books as a pedagogical construct.

3 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 093 Objectives To what extent do childrens picture books depict cultural authenticity via literary content and illustrations? What are the differences and similarities of cultural authenticity, non-stereotyping, and cultural accuracy among ethnic groups? Why does cultural authenticity matter? What are the implications of cultural authenticity analysis for librarians and educators?

4 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 094 Method Selection of Books Coders Coding Scheme & Content Analysis

5 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 095 Selection of Books 15 picture books for each ethnic group African American Asian American Hispanic American Native American Total: 60 picture books selected All published after 2000 All available from local public or academic libraries

6 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 096 Selection of Books (cont.) Selection tools NoveList An electronic readers advisory resource for fiction for children and teens A division of EBSCO host Search: subject search, limit publication year, sort by popularity CCBC (Cooperative Childrens Book Center) Choices, 2000-2008 Understanding diversity through novels and picture books (Knowles & Smith, 2007)

7 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 097 African-American List Title AuthorYear Dear Mr. RosenwaldCarole Boston Weatherford2006 Hot cityBarbara Joosse2004 Hot day on Abbott AvenueKaren English2004 Jackie's batMarybeth Lorbiecki2006 Mim's Christmas jamAndrea David Pinkney2001 Night boat to freedomMargot Theis Raven2006 One of the problems of Everett AndersonLucille Clifton2001 Squashed in the middleElizabeth Winthrop2005 SubwayAnastasia Suen2004 The escape of Oney JudgeEmily Arnold McCully2007 The hard-times jarEthel Footman Smothers2003 The journey of Oliver K. WoodmanDarcy Pattison2003 Visiting dayJacqueline Woodson2002 Wind flyersAngela Johnson2007 Yo, Jo!Rachel Isadora2007

8 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 098 Asian-American List Title AuthorYear Apple pie 4th of JulyJanet S. Wong2002 Bee-bim bopLinda Sue Park2005 Behind the maskYangsook Choi2006 Bringing in the New YearGrace Lin2008 Cooper's lessonSun Yung Shin2004 Every year on your birthdayRose Lewis2007 Grandfather countsAndrea Cheng2000 Just add one Chinese sisterPatricia MacMahon2005 LandedMilly Lee2006 My mei meiEd Young2006 Red is a dragonRoseanne Thong2001 Round is a mooncakeRoseanne Thong2000 Sixteen years in sixteen secondsPaula Yoo2005 Uncle Peter's amazing Chinese weddingLenore Look2004 Yoko writes her nameRosemary Wells2008

9 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 099 Hispanic-American List Title AuthorYear A box full of kittensSonia Manzano2007 FeatherlessJuan Felipe Herrera2004 If the shoe fitsGary Soto2002 Let's eat!Pat Mora2008 Little mama forgetsRobin Cruise2006 My feet are laughingLissette Norman2006 My grandmaGinger Foglesong Guy2007 My little carGary Soto2006 Nana's big surpriseAmada Irma Perez2007 No dogs allowed!Sonia Manzano2004 Oh, brother!Nikki Grimes2008 Quinito's neighborhoodIna Cumpiano2005 Roberto ClementeJonah Winter2005 Sparky's barkMimi Chapra2006 The bakery ladyPat Mora2001

10 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0910 Native-American List Title AuthorYear Bad River boysVirginia Driving Hawk Sneve2005 Coyote ChristmasS.D. Nelson2007 First SalmonRoxane Beauclair Salonen2005 Jingle dancerCynthia L. Smith2000 Kiki's journeyKristy Orona-Ramirez2006 Malian's songMarge Bruchac2006 Ribbon rescueRobert Munsch2002 SacagaweaLise Erdrich2003 SequoyahJames Rumford2004 Sky dancersConnie Ann Kirk2004 Solomon's treeAndrea Spalding2002 The frog princess: a Tlingit legend from AlaskaErick A. Kimmel2006 The rattlesnake who went to schoolCraig Kee Strete2004 The song within my heartDavid Bouchard2002 Yetsa's sweaterSylvia Olsen2006

11 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0911 Coders : Selection Criteria Two coders per ethnic group Intercoder reliability Insiders of the culture Assessing cultural authenticity Gender Professions Librarians LIS students/graduates

12 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0912 Data Collection : Scope of Coding Major character Name, demographics (gender, age), social roles (occupation, relationship with other characters) Minor character Name, demographics (gender, age), social roles (occupation, relationship with other characters) Setting Context, location, environment, place, etc. Stereotypical features Whether stereotypical features are depicted in terms of text & illustration; if yes, to what extent Cultural authenticity To what extent the book portrays cultural authenticity of the ethnic group in terms of text & illustration

13 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0913 Definition : Stereotype A stereotype is a preconceived idea that attributes certain characteristics (in general) to all the members of class or set. The term is often used with a negative connotation when referring to an oversimplified, exaggerated, or demeaning assumption that a particular individual possesses the characteristics associated with the class due to his or her membership in it. Stereotypes can be used to deny individuals respect or legitimacy based on their membership in that group. (Wikipedia)

14 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0914 Definition : Cultural Authenticity Cultural authenticity is not just accuracy or the avoidance of stereotypes, but involves cultural values, facts, and attitudes that members of the culture as a whole consider worthy of acceptance and belief (Mo, W. & Shen, W., 1997 )

15 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0915 Preliminary Findings Profiles of major characters Settings Cultural authenticity Stereotypes, cultural authenticity & cultural accuracy

16 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0916 GenderAgeSocial roles & others African Americans Girl (47%), Boy (33 %) Mostly school years/ preteens Some names associated with the culture Well described social roles Asian Americans Girl (47%), Boy (33 %) Mostly school years/ preteens Mostly American names Well described social roles Hispanic Americans Girl (53%) Boy (33%) Mostly school years/ preteens, some adults Mostly Hispanic names Countries identified (over 50%) Native Americans Girl (47%) Boy (47%) Children and adults, half and half Mostly Native American names Tribes identified (over 50%) Profiles of Major Characters

17 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0917 Settings African Americans Inner city/ urban (about 50%) Special places: jail, pro baseball locker room, slave plantation, subway Asian Americans Mostly neighborhood (some Asian neighborhood) Special places: Asian grocery/ restaurant Special events: 4 th of July, Halloween, Chinese wedding, Chinese New Year Hispanic Americans Inner city/ urban (about 70%) Some in USA and countries of the culture (Country names identified in some stories) Mostly current Native Americans Mostly in isolated places (Native reservation or inter- tribal places) Names of cities or states identified (about 50%) Historic times/ events (about 50%)

18 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0918 Cultural Authenticity : African American Coders agree that most books depict the culture authentically although some are overlapping or conflicting with negative stereotypical features of the culture Positive aspects: Importance of family & tradition Perseverance/ resilience Appearance in illustrations Negative aspects: Singe family home none of my business mentality

19 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0919 Cultural Authenticity : Asian American Coders agree that majority of the books depicted the culture authentically, even though some cultural details (e.g., cooking process and wedding ceremony) lacked authentic descriptions. Most books tried to portray important parts of Asian Americans culture such as inter generation conflicts/gaps, historical/cultural details (i.e, food, Chinese New Year, Chinese wedding), and immigrants adaptation process (i.e. languages, food, cultural differences). Adoption stories (3 out of 15)

20 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0920 Cultural Authenticity : Hispanic American Coders agree that majority of the books depicted the culture authentically. Positive aspects: Correct translation of Spanish words Extended family; Family closeness Hard working Hispanics Family-centered business Use of bright colors in illustrations Diverse Hispanic descents Negative aspects: Incorrect translation of Spanish words Single parent home

21 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0921 Cultural Authenticity : Native American Coders agree that majority of the books depicted the culture authentically, but they also mentioned that stories/illustrations were rather contemporary than traditional in order to avoid stereotypical features of the culture. Problems: lack of accuracy in some books (e.g., The frog princess, Solomons tree). A few books were too universal, and not depicted Native culture specifically. One of the coders studied whether authors/illustrators were Natives. If not, how they got to create the work of the culture.

22 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0922 Stereotypes, Cultural Authenticity and Cultural Accuracy Cultural authenticity = Non stereotyping (?) Cultural authenticity = Cultural accuracy (?)

23 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0923 Stereotypes, Cultural Authenticity and Cultural Accuracy Presence of some types stereotypical features via text and images in books of all groups. Presence of inaccuracy in some historic stories and cultural issues in Asian Americans and Native Americans. Need to examine how presence of stereotypical features and inaccuracy affect the overall cultural authenticity of the story.

24 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0924 Excerpts from coding: Visiting Day (African American) Stereotypical features: Criminal, Dysfunctional family, Poor The main characters father is in prison… Cultural authenticity: Family Loyalty: I do not agree that this is a stereotypical attribute within African American culture. The significance of family and the unspoken belief that no matter what happens the family must remain together and strong are elements that appear in this story that are authentic to African American culture. Additional comments: Although Visiting Day revolves around a story of a father who is incarcerated and his daughter and grandma who visit him regularly, I do not feel that the story attempts to portray all African Americans as criminals.

25 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0925 Excerpts from coding : Bad River Boys : A Meeting… (Native American) Stereotypical features: Wearing feathers, headless with arms, etc. Indian style broken English The illustrations are historical, depicting the people wearing what is now considered stereotypical clothes and living in tee-pees. Cultural authenticity: The text seems to be based on the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Though the story is supposed to show the incident through the eyes the Indian boys, the text is a mixture of Indian talk (short sentences), contemporary American talk, and facts pulled from the journals of the expedition. There is probably very little, if not nothing, to dispute about the authenticity of this event. Illustrations: Again, this is a historical story and portrays this Plains tribe wearing clothing of the era. Additional comments: The author is a member of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and grew up on their reservation. The illustrator is not Native American but enjoys doing extensive research on his subjects (according to a note on the book jacket).

26 07/12/2009Diversity Research Grant. ALA 0926 Future Plan Further analyses on cultural authenticity in multicultural picture books beyond nonstereotypes or cultural accuracy. Information on to what extent the multicultural picture books that have widely been selected and read by librarians, educators and readers depict cultural authenticity of four different ethnic groups. Implications for authors, illustrators, librarians, educators, parents, readers and researchers on multicultural picture books as a pedagogical construct for our rapidly changing diverse education.

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