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Presentation on theme: "КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА ДЛЯ МЕЖДУНАРОДНИКОВ И РЕГИОНОВЕДОВ УРОВЕНЬ – БАКАЛАВРИАТ КОМПЕТЕНТНОСТНЫЙ ПОДХОД 1 год обучения Авторы: Е.Б.Ястребова, О.А.Кравцова,"— Presentation transcript:


2 Slide 1. Introducing and Greeting People (1). Formal
A: Ms. Blake,'let me intro'duce Mr. Jones. || 'may I intro'duce Mr. Jones. || Ms. Blake: 'How do you do? || Mr. Jones: 'How do you do? || 'Pleased to meet you. OR A: 'Let me intro duce myself. || I am 'John Thompson. || B: 'How do you do? || I am 'Kate Martin. || A: 'How do you do?

3 Slide 2. Introducing and Greeting People (2). Neutral
A: Jane, 'meet 'Tanya Smith. || B: He llo, Tanya. || 'Nice/'pleased to meet you. Informal A: Hi, I am Jack. ||  B: Hi, I am Sasha.

4 Slide 3. Unit 1. How Are You? neutral = inquiry about one’s health informal = How are things? (Как дела?) How are you doing? (Как поживаете?) COMPARE: 1. A: 'How are you? ||   B: I am fine, thank you. || And you? 2. A: 'How are things? B: 'Fine, thanks. || 'What about you? A: Fine./'Not too bad.

5 Slide 4. Пожалуйста: please, thank you, etc.
Situation 1. (At the table): You are offered something. Your answer: Yes, ●please. Or Thank you. 'No, thank you. Situation 2. (At the table, etc): You are asked to pass something. Your answer: Here you are. (American : There you are). Situation 3. Somebody says “thank you” for your service, etc. Your answer: You are welcome. 'Don’t mention it. 'That’s al right. My pleasure.'Not at all.

6 Slide 5. Saying Hello and Good-bye.
Formal: Good morning/ Morning. Good 'after noon.Good evening/ Evening. Good- bye. Neutral: He llo, Jack/everybody. Good night. Good luck. 'Have a nice/good day (evening, week-end, trip, etc.) Informal: Hi, Jane! See you (later). 'Take care. Bye bye. Bye.

7 Slide 6. General (Yes/No) Questions I
Structure Auxiliary Verb Subject + … ? Do Was 'Have you 'Moscow your 'family 'speak 'founded been French? in ? to London? BUT: Are a student?

8 Slide 7.General (Yes/No) Questions II
Intonation pattern: examples Are you a student? Yes, I am. Are you a high school student? No, I am not.

9 Slide 8. Unit 2. Special (Wh-) Questions.
Structure Question Word Subject Auxiliary Verb + + Verb + …? 'When 'Why 'Which places was do did Moscow Aust'ralians you founded? speak English? visit there?

10 Slide 9. Unit 2. Questions in which who/what is used as the subject.
Structure Who/ What Verb + … ? 'Who 'What discovered Aust ralia? is to the north of the USA?

The Basics PAST SIMPLE I read a book yesterday. Вчера я читал книгу. Факт PAST CONTINUOUS I was reading a book when you called. Когда ты позвонил, я читал книгу. Процесс PERFECT I realized I had read the book before. Я понял, что уже читал эту книгу. Предшествование I had been reading the book for two days when he asked me to return it. Я читал книгу два дня, когда он попросил вернуть ее. Процесс +

12 Slide 11. PAST SIMPLE. Законченное действие или состояние Ряд
Первый роман С. Моэма появился в 1897 году. Она проработала в этой компании двадцать лет. В конце XIX века Великобритания имела много колоний. S. Maugham’s first novel appeared in 1897. She worked for the company for twenty years. In the late 19th century, Great Britain had a lot of colonies. Ряд последовательных действий Они закончили завтрак и встали из-за стола. They finished breakfast and rose from the table. Регулярные или повторявшиеся действия Он ездил в Париж двенадцать раз в год. He travelled to Paris twelve times a year.

13 Slide 12. Unit 3. Making small talk (1).
Conversation starters. Talking about the weather: 'Isn’t it a 'lovely day? 'Beautiful day, isn’t it? What 'lovely/'nice weather, isn’t it? It 'looks like it’s 'going to rain/ snow. I 'hear they’re 'fore'casting thunderstorms/ showers all weekend.

14 Slide 13. Unit 3. Making small talk (2).
Talking about current events: Have you 'heard the news today/did you 'hear the news today? Have you 'heard/did you 'hear about the blackout/the floods…? I 'hear they have 'opened a 'new exhi bition hall at the Tretyakov Gallery. I 'read in the paper today they are 'going to 'build a 'new shopping mall. 'What do you 'think about the 'new 'Stephen Spielberg film?

15 Slide 14. Unit 3. Making small talk (3).
At a social event: Are you en joying yourself? 'Pretty 'nice place, isn’t it? Have you 'tried their sushi? It’s de licious! Have you 'known the 'Browns long? This 'dress 'suits you 'very well. Can I 'ask 'where you got it? How 'long have you been 'coming to this con vention (conference, workshop, etc.)?

16 Slide 15. Unit 3. Making small talk (4).
Exit lines: That’s my bus/ train/etc. Must be going. They’ve just an'nounced my flight. Must be going. There are a 'few 'people here I 'haven’t 'said he llo to yet. I have to 'say he llo to some people. Can I 'get you a/another drink? I 'skipped lunch today so I 'need to 'go to the buffet ([‘bVfeI]). Ex cuse me for a moment, I 'need to have a quick 'word with Mr Smith. Will you ex cuse me for a moment?

17 Slide 16. Unit 3. Извините: sorry, excuse me, I beg your pardon.
Situation 1. Извините, виноват(а). Formal: I 'beg your pardon Neutral: I am sorry.I am very/ awfully sorry. Ex cuse me. Informal: I am sorry Sorry. Situation 2. Извините, что вы сказали? Formal: I beg your pardon/ Pardon? Neutral : I am sorry? Ex cuse me? (Am.E) Informal: Sorry? Situation 3. Извините, не могли бы Вы … (attracting attention). Formal: Could I just trouble you for a moment? Neutral : Ex cuse me. I am sorry. Informal. Sorry.

18 Slide 17. Unit 3. Intonation and Stress (1).
A statement is normally pronounced with the falling tone on the Tonic. The Tonic is the syllable of the greatest stress. e.g. 'Most 'capitals are cosmo politan cities. Note: such words as articles, one syllable prepositions, auxiliaries, modal verbs, most pronouns, etc. are NOT normally stressed. e.g. I 'don’t 'know any French, but my English is good. The rhythm of an English sentence is such that stressed and unstressed syllables alternate. e.g.There are 'many 'ethnic 'groups in London.

19 Slide 18. Unit 3. Intonation and Stress (2).
The Tonic is usually the last stressed word in a sentence, but the speaker can put emphasis on a different word to change the meaning. COMPARE:  1. He 'went to Cali'fornia to 'get sup plies. 2. He 'went to Cali fornia to get supplies.   OR  1. I knew you would help me. (you did) 2. I 'thought you would help me. (you did not)

20 Slide 19. Unit 3. Intonation and Stress (3).
Read the poem:  And 'crossing the 'Channel one 'cannot say much || For the French or the Spanish, the Danish or Dutch ; The 'Germans are Germans ,the 'Russians are red And the 'Greeks and I'talians eat garlic in bed The 'English are moral, the 'English are good And clever and modest and ımisunder stood…  

21 Slide 20. Unit 3. Stating One’s Opinion.
Useful phrases:   I think … It’s my opinion that … I’m fairly certain… I feel … I believe … I’m pretty sure that … State your opinion using a phrase from above. Decide which word is the Tonic. e.g. I think 'Moscow is a nice city to live in. OR I believe 'Moscow is a difficult city to live in. 1. Moscow is a nice/difficult city to live in. 2. People in the county/small towns/large cities are much friendlier than …. 3. English people are cold and reserved/polite and friendly. 4. Young Europeans are more/less independent than young Russians. 5. University students have a lot more/less freedom than schoolchildren.

22 Slide 21. Unit 3. Tag Questions: Asking for Opinion/Information.
Tag questions are little questions at the end of a sentence. e.g. You are from Moscow, aren’t you? If the speaker is not sure of the truth of the statement, he/she makes they are asking a question using the rising tone at the end. e.g. You 'didn’t 'take my book, did you? || – 'No, I didn’t. – 'Yes, I did. The 'Dutch can 'win the World Cup, can’t they? || – 'Yes, they can. – 'No, they can’t.  Aust'ralia is a 'member of the Commonwealth, isn’t it? || – 'Yes, it is.

23 Slide 22. Unit 3. Tag Questions: Making a Statement.
If the speaker makes a statement he/she believes to be true and expects an agreement, the falling tone is used at the end. e.g. You are students, aren’t you? || – 'Yes, we are.  'Traffic on' Monday mornings is awful, isn’t it? || – 'Yes, it is.  'People haven’t landed on Mars yet, have they? || – 'No, they haven’t.

24 Slide 23. Unit 4. Asking for information: Indirect Questions.
Opening Phrase Question Word Subject + Verb + + …? Do you 'know I’d 'like to 'know when if/whether 'Great 'Britain 'Russia be'came an empire? had 'links with England in the 16th century.

25 Slide 24. Unit 5. Suggesting, Requesting, Instructing.
I 'wonder if it is 'possible to use your laptop? Would you 'mind if I 'used your phone? Do you 'think I could 'use your dictionary?* Do you 'mind if I 'use your phone? Could you help us? I 'don’t sup'pose you’ll be 'able to help us? / I sup 'pose you 'won’t be 'able to help us? 'Will you 'wait for him in the lobby? 'Why don’t you 'wait for him in the lobby? 'Is it all 'right if I 'use your dictionary? Can I 'use your phone? Formal Neutral Informal

26 Slide 25. Unit 5. Конечно: Certainly vs Of course.
Situation 1. A: Can you give me his address? B: Certainly!/ Of course I can. Situation 2. A: Is 10 Downing Street the Prime Minister’s address? B: It certainly is. NOT: Of course, it is. OR A: Do you speak German? B: Yes, I do.  “Of course” is not an appropriate answer if you are asked for information. “Of course” in this case implies that the answer is so evident that you shouldn’t have asked about it!

27 Slide 26. Unit 5. Asking for Opinion.
You can ask someone’s opinion in the following way: Question Word Subject do you think + + Verb + …? 'When 'Why 'Who do you think they the 'Dean will 'start winning? said it? will win the match?

28 Slide 27. Unit 5. Asking and answering negative questions.
1. 'Don’t you 'like the concert? 'Yes, I do.(= нет, нравится) 'No, I don’t. (= да, не нравится) 2. You 'didn’t know the man, did you? 'Yes, I did. (= нет, знал) 'No, I didn’t. (да, не знал) 3. I sup'pose he 'hasn’t bought the tickets? 'Yes, he has. (= нет, купил) 'No, he hasn’t. (= да, не купил)

29 Slide 28. Unit 6. Asking about one’s plans.
Are you 'going to the party tomorrow? (implying that a decision would be welcome) Will you 'take 'part in ….? (requesting/insisting) Will you be at the party tomorrow? Will I 'see you at the party tomorrow?

30 Slide 29. Unit 6. Giving and Accepting Compliments.
Compliment formula 1 (really) Noun Phrase Is/looks Adjective + + + Your'dress Your 'hair is 'looks 'really beautiful. great!

31 Slide 30. Unit 6. Giving and Accepting Compliments.
Compliment formula 2 (really) like/love Noun Phrase I + + + I 'really 'like love your hairstyle. your new apartment.

32 Slide 31. Unit 6. Giving and Accepting Compliments.
Compliment formula 3 (really) Adjective Noun Phrase Pronoun + is + + + carpet. car. 'nice 'looking a 'really a 'great That’s AND: You 'handled it marvelously! You ('really) 'did a 'good job. You 'did great! 'Nice game.

33 Slide 32. Unit 6. Compliment Response Formulas.
1. adding extra information I bought it at Marks and Spencer 2. playing it down I’ve had this dress for years. 3. shifting credit Ann did a lot to help me with it. 4. asking a question Do you really think so? 5. returning a compliment A:Your presentation was really good. B: Thank you. So was yours! Thank you/Thanks +

34 Slide 33. Unit 6. Giving and Accepting Congratulations.
Occasion Congratulations Response Birthday Congratulations! Happy birthday! / Many happy returns! / All the best. /Lots of good wishes. Thank you!/Thanks a lot!/ Thanks. Wedding (Many) congratulations to you both (you and your bride/groom)./ We/I wish you every happiness /all the best for the future/I hope you’ll be very very happy together. Thank you! Nice of you to say so. Getting a new job Graduating from college/etc. Congratulations! I hope it goes well for you in your new job.  Congratulations! That was well deserved! Thank you.

35 Slide 33a. Unit 6. Giving and Accepting Congratulations.
Occasion Congratulations Response New Year Happy New Year! / A very Happy New Year to you all/everyone! All the best for a happy and healthy New Year! Health and happiness in New Year! Happy New Year to you too! / All the very best to you, too. Christmas Merry Christmas! Have a happy white Christmas! Thank you. Merry Christmas to you, too! Thanksgiving Happy Thanksgiving! Have a happy Thanksgiving! Thank you! Have a happy Thanksgiving, too.

36 Slide 34. Unit 7. Agreeing and Disagreeing
Slide 34. Unit 7. Agreeing and Disagreeing. Useful phrases to agree and disagree with someone’s opinions Agreeing strongly Agreeing partly Disagreeing Disagreeing strongly That’s ('very) true. I ag ree with you there. Yes, I know e'xactly what you mean. You are 'absolutely right. Yes, but 'don’t you 'think … I ag ree with you, but… I am a'fraid I 'don’t quite ag ree with you. I 'don’t think so. I 'don’t see it quite like that. 'That’s just 'not true! 'Oh, 'come on! (infml)

37 Slide 34a. Unit 7. Agreeing and Disagreeing
Slide 34a. Unit 7. Agreeing and Disagreeing. Useful phrases to agree and disagree with facts Agreeing strongly Agreeing partly Disagreeing You are 'absolutely right. I 'quite ag ree. That’s right. Right. Yes. E xactly I ag'ree 'up to a point, but 'that’s 'not the 'whole picture. I am af'raid not. 'Not quite. That’s 'not the' whole

38 Slide 35. Unit 7. Я тоже: So do I/ Neither do I.
Situation 1. 1) A: I hate large parties! B: 'So do I. 2) A: I can 'speak 'English fluently. B: 'So can I. Situation 2. 1) A: I wouldn’t 'like to 'join the army. B: 'Neither would I. 2) A: I have 'never been to the 'Middle East. B: 'Neither have I.

39 Slide 36. Unit 7. Showing Interest.
Useful words to show interest: Right. Aha! OK. Really? Yes?  Another way of saying Really? is to repeat the auxiliary verb the other speaker has used. e.g. A: I was the 'last to 'leave the party. B: Were you? A: I 'didn’t return 'home until 'four in the morning! B: Didn’t you?

40 Slide 37. Unit 8. Using Fillers.
Formal Neutral Informal So to speak If I may .. Actually, Well, In a sense, I mean You know Sort of… Like… Er… e.g. A: Do you think we should throw a party for our girls on the 8th of March? After all, it is their day. Or flowers might be a better idea? B: Well, I am not really sure. I mean if it is a surprise party we may find they have planned something else for the day.

41 Slide 38. Unit 8. Using Hedges.
Hedges are used to protect the speaker from the risk of seeming to be wrong,impolite, etc. They can also act as fillers The most common hedges are: Generally speaking, If I may say so, Personally Correct me if I am wrong, …. To be honest Sorry to interrupt but …. I think/ I guess/ I believe/ I feel. If you know what I mean. e.g. A: Strictly speaking, I haven’t got much experience of learning a foreign language but I think that attending a summer language school will do you a world of good. In an English-speaking environment, your English will definitely improve. B: Correct me if I am wrong, but you did go to a summer school in Brighton last year but it wasn’t much help. Was it?

42 Slide 39. Unit 9. Expressing Conviction. Useful phrases:
Formal Less Formal I am convinced that … I strongly/firmly believe that … I firmly believe that … I honestly feel that … I’m a strong/firm believer in … Without a doubt … I do think/believe that… I really do feel/believe that … My view is that …. Definitely!

43 Slide 40. Unit 9. Expressing Conviction. Examples of Use:
1. I am con'vinced that 'fast 'food 'poses a 'danger to 'human health. 2. I 'firmly be'lieve that we are 'not a lone in this vast universe I 'honestly 'feel that I've 'spent 'more 'time in my car this month than I 'have 'sitting on my sofa. 4. I am 'positive that 'change is good. ... 5. - Are you 'going to 'watch the game tonight? - Wi'thout a doubt! 6. I 'really 'feel 'mothers should 'stay at 'home with their 'young children.

44 Slide 41. Unit 9. Complaining. Useful phrases:
I am 'sorry to 'have to say this, but … I’ve 'got a 'bit of a problem here, you see… Look, I am 'sorry to trouble you, but … I 'wonder if you could help me… (e.g., there are no towels in my room) I 'don't 'want to 'make it of ficial, but... I 'don't 'want to 'take it any further/to of ficial channels, but….

45 Slide 42. Unit 9. Making and Accepting an Apology. Useful phrases:
I am ('ever so) sorry. I am ('most) 'awfully sorry. I 'can’t 'say how sorry I am. I just 'don’t 'know 'what to say. I’m 'so Oh, 'that’s al right, 'don’t worry. Oh, 'that’s al right, these 'things happen. Oh, 'never mind,it 'really 'doesn’t matter.

46 Slide 43. Unit 10. Being Enthusiastic. Useful words and phrases:
Lovely! Oh, 'that’s lovely! Great! 'That’s great! Fan tastic! Oh, 'that’s fan tastic! Marvellous! How marvellous! Wonderful! How wonderful! Ter rific! (infml.) e.g. A: Mary has 'finally 'won in a lottery! B: Oh, great!/ 'That’s fan tastic!/How wonderful!

47 Slide 44. Unit 10. Being Sympathetic. Useful phrases:
LESS SERIOUS NEWS VERY SAD NEWS 'Oh, no! 'How awful! 'What a pity! 'How terrible! 'What a shame! That 'must have been awful! 'Poor you! I am 'really 'sorry to hear that. e.g. I. A: I have 'failed in Maths. B: 'What a pity!/ 'Oh, no! II. A: Their 'airplane 'crashed when landing. B: Oh, 'how terrible/ awful.

48 Slide 46. Unit 11. Changing the Subject. Useful phrases
Talking of… That reminds me… Oh, before I forget… By the way…. Slide 46. Unit 11. Changing the Subject. Useful phrases e.g. A: I 'watched a rather 'interesting programme on T V the other day. They 'talked about the dec'lining birth rate… B: 'Talking of T V, I 'bought a 'new flat-'screen 'T V yesterday. C: Oh, it 'must have 'cost you a fortune! B: 'Not really, 'though it was quite expensive. D: Oh, 'that re minds me. 'That restaurant 'John 'chose for his wedding celebration That’s what I ● call ex ●pensive.

49 Slide 47. Unit 11. Interrupting and Returning to the Topic
Slide 47. Unit 11. Interrupting and Returning to the Topic. Useful phrases: (1) Interrupting (2) Returning to the topic Ex'cuse me for inter rupting, but … 'Can I add something? 'Could I just 'come in here? 'Could I ask something? Sorry but …. 'Any way… In any case… To 'get 'back to 'what I was saying… 'Where was I? To re 'turn to… Going 'back to what I was saying…

50 Slide 48. Unit 11. Making Yourself Clear. Useful phrases:
What I (really) mean is … What I am saying is … What I meant was … What I am trying to say is … Sorry, let me explain … Don’t misunderstand me … Don’t get me wrong, what I meant to say was … e.g. A: Com'puters are 'turning us into addicts. B: 'What/'How do you mean? A: 'What I mean/am 'trying to say is that 'many 'people 'stay 'glued to their P Cs in'stead of 'going 'out with friends….

51 Slide 49. Unit 12. Talking of Likes and Dislikes
Slide 49. Unit 12. Talking of Likes and Dislikes. Useful phrases (neutral): I (really) like I (really) love I (really) adore I (‘d) prefer It’s my all-time favourite. I am (well) into (infml) I am mad about (infml) I am a fan of I don’t like/love I dislike I hate I can’t stand … is rubbish e.g. 1. I adore Mariah Carey! I hate how she dresses sometimes, though. But I have been a fan of hers since I was little! 2. I am well into salsa this year. 3. Elton John really really hates photographers. 4. Now I'd prefer Richard Gere to Harrison Ford.

52 Slide 50. Unit 12. Talking of Likes and Dislikes: Giving a reason
Slide 50. Unit 12. Talking of Likes and Dislikes: Giving a reason. Useful phrases: really (really, really) good great/amazing/fantastic/superb He, She, They, It is/are/was/were + + e.g. 1. She [Anna Netrebko] is fantastic. Her beautiful soprano voice is a joy to listen to. 2. Johnny Depp is by far the best actor ever. He plays so many different characters ...

53 Slide 51. PAST CONTINUOUS. Действие в развитии в определенный момент или период в прошлом В одиннадцать часов я работал в саду. Когда я окончил школу, всё ещё спорили о том, следует ли разрешить пользоваться калькулятором на экзаменах. At eleven o’clock, I was working in the garden. When I left school,* they were still arguing about whether they should allow calculators in exams. * The particular time or period of time in the past when a certain action was in progress can be indicated in the sentence with the help of another action expressed in the Past Simple.

Uses Past Perfect Past Simple Makes a sequence of events clear Describes the earlier action.  When we reached the airport, the plane had taken off. (The plane took off before our arrival.) Describes past events in the order they happened.  When we reached the airport, the plane took off. (The plane took off immediately after we reached the airport.) In time clauses after when, after, as soon as Shows that the second action took place only after the first one was completed.  After he had given the police his name and address, he was allowed to go. Soon after he returned to Japan, he began to write a mathematical textbook for advanced learners.

Действие, которое продолжалось в течение некоторого времени вплоть до определенного момента в прошлом Они шли более часа, когда начался дождь. They had been walking for over an hour when it began to rain. Действие, которое продолжалось в течение некоторого времени и закончилось незадолго до определенного момента в прошлом. Глаза у нее покраснели, он понял, что она плакала. Her eyes were red, he could tell that she had been crying.

The Past Perfect Continuous shows that the action had been going on for some time before a particular past moment. The Past Continuous emphasizes that the action was in progress at that past moment. His shoes were full of mud. It was clear that he had been digging in the garden. She couldn’t answer the phone because she was digging in the garden.

57 Slide 55. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. Basic patterns
Degree Pattern Examples Positive as … as not as/so … as Revolution is as old as humanity. He is not so tall as his brother. Comparative -er/more … than less … than Their old place was smaller than my flat. Business is more exciting than any game. TV advertising is less effective than it was two years ago. Superlative the –est/most … of/in/ever    the least … of/in/ever Locating specific information is the easiest of all the reading strategies. Canterbury is one of the most attractive towns in Great Britain. What is the least popular pop group?

Verb + ing Verb + ed describes what somebody or something is like (active meaning) describes how someone feels (passive meaning) Lily’s doctor has just given her some frightening news. (= the news frightened her) The frightened children were silent and pale. (= the children were frightened)

59 Slide 57. Modifiers used with comparatives.
Comparatives can be modified, that is made stronger or weaker with the help of certain words and phrases. The most commonly used modifiers are given in the table below. Style Modifiers Examples Russian Neutral much / far a little much/far more successful a little more successful намного успешнее (более успешный) немного успешнее (более успешный) Informal a lot a bit a lot more successful a bit more successful гораздо успешнее чуть успешнее

The Basics PRESENT SIMPLE She always/usually/ sometimes does the dishes after dinner. Она всегда/ обычно/иногдa моет посуду после обеда. Регулярное / постоянное действие / cостояние CONTINUOUS She is doing the dishes at the moment. Она сейчас моет посуду. Действие в развитии PERFECT She has already/just done the dishes. Она уже/только что помыла посуду. Действие в прошлом (точное время не указано) She has been washing the dishes for fifteen minutes/ since 2 o’clock. Она моет посуду пятнадцать минут/с двух часов. Действие, продолжавшееся в течение некоторого времени до момента речи

61 Slide 59. PRESENT SIMPLE. Повторяющееся/ регулярное действие
Я плаваю в озере каждое утро. Они ездят в Италию раз в год. Он никогда меня не слушает. I swim in the lake every morning. They go to Italy once a year.  He never listens to what I say. Постоянное действие/ состояние Мой брат Генри живет В Йорке. Он ненавидит ходить по магазинам в субботу My brother Henry lives in York. He hates shopping on a Saturday.

Действие в развитии в момент речи Я не знаю, о чем ты говоришь. I don’t know what you are speaking about. Действие в развитии в настоящий период времени Что ты делаешь в Вашингтоне? What are you doing in Washington? Note: The Present Continuous can be used with the time expressions always, constantly and forever to show that the speaker is annoyed. Remember that when no emotional colouring is implied, the Present Simple is used for repeated actions. Compare: Little Billy always tells lies to his mother, but she never believes him. (neutral) He is always telling lies. (annoyance)

Describes an action at an indefinite time in the past and shows the connection between past and present. Tom has caught a cold. He is sneezing and coughing. I have just seen him. Jack has been to France several times since he joined the sailing club. Describes an action at the exact time in the past and has no connection with present. Tom caught a cold three weeks ago and had to stay in bed for a couple of days. I saw him yesterday. Jack went to France last year.

The Present Perfect is used to say how long the situation has continued up to now. The Present Simple is never used in this meaning. e.g.I have always liked English people. BUT: I like English people.

Длительное действие, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается вплоть до настоящего момента —Сколько времени идёт дождь? — Он идёт уже два часа. Я звоню по этому номеру всё утро, но он всё время занят. —How long has it been raining? —It has been raining for two hours already. I have been ringing that number all morning but it's always engaged. Длительное действие, которое продолжалось какое-то время и имеет видимый результат в момент речи —    Ну и беспорядок! —    Я искал своё водительское удостоверение. — What a mess! —    I've been looking for my driving licence.

RECENT ACTIVITY I've been watching a lot of soap operas (lately). The guests have been arriving since 5 o'clock (probably unfinished activity). Have you been sunbathing? You're like a tomato! ACTIVITY AT AN INDEFINITE TIME IN THE PAST I've watched a lot of soap operas (at an indefinite time before now). Ted and Edna have just arrived (completed action). You look great! You've lost at least ten kilos. NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING With such verbs as live, sit, stand, study, wait, work etc. Most families in Swindon have been living there for one year/ for some generations. Most families in Swindon have lived there for one year/ for some generations. __________________________________ With state verbs be, like, own, belong, etc. The castle has always belonged to our family.

67 Slide 65. A lot of – many – much.
Countables Uncountables Examples Positive a lot (of)/ lots of, a great number of, a great many, plenty of a lot of/lots of, a great deal of, plenty of There were a lot of cars at the farm. He’s read a great number of press reports. Kids today are under a great deal of stress. Negative many much There were not many visitors in the office. He doesn’t have much time to rest. Interrogative Do you know many people you can actually rely on? Did he do much research for the commentaries?

68 Slide 66. A few/few and a little/little.
meaning positive meaning: ‘some’, ‘not many/much, but better than nothing’ negative meaning: ‘not enough’, ‘not as many/much as necessary, or expected’ countables a few There were a few books on the stand. few The audience showed few signs of pleasure. uncountables a little He was having a little rest after the hard work. little She had little knowledge of the working world. Notes: 1. The quantifiers few and little are chiefly used in written English. In an informal style they are normally replaced by not many/much, hardly any, only a few/ a little. e.g. There are hardly any girls of Middle Eastern or Asian appearance in advertisements or magazines. When she woke again, only a little time had passed. 2. Quite a few in an informal style means ‘a considerable number’.

69 Slide 67. Comparison of quantifiers.
positive comparative superlative countables many many books few few books more more books fewer fewer books the most the most books the fewest the fewest book uncountables much much time little little time more time less less time the most time the least the least time Note: In modern English, there is a tendency to use less and the least with plural countable nouns both in spoken and written contexts. The locals feel there are less chances of trouble with Mr. R. heading the police. The film I liked best had the least chances of winning the Academy Award.

70 Slide 68. Modifiers used with the comparatives of quantifiers.
examples countables many/far/a lot far/a lot more fewer We need many/far/a lot more people to help us. Far/a lot fewer articles in magazines are written by women than men. uncountables much/far/a lot less I have much/far/a lot more experience now. He’s spending much/far/a lot less time with his family. Note that far and a lot can be used with the comparatives of quantifiers of both countable and uncountable nouns.

Form Future Simple Be going to Use Predictions based on the speaker’s opinion or past experience. This form can refer to any time in the future. Predictions based on some evidence in the present that something will definitely happen. It is normally used to speak about the near future. Examples In a few years laptop computers will be as common as telephones. (Aboard a plane) “This is your captain speaking. I’m afraid we’re going to be a bit late. We’re running into headwinds.”

72 Future Perfect Continuous
Slide 70. FUTURE CONTINUOUS, FUTURE PERFECT, FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS. Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous Describes an action in progress at a particular moment or period of time in the future.  This time tomorrow we’ll be walking around San Francisco! In a few years’ time many more employees will be working from home. 1. Describes an action which we expect will be completed by a particular time in the future.  By the time we come to the office, they will have left. 2. Describes a state that will last for some time by a particular time in the future.  Tom and Sally will have been married for five years in November. Describes an action in progress which will last for some time by a particular time in the future.  They will have been having talks for a week on Monday.  The council will have been debating for six hours by 5 p.m.

Describes spontaneous decisions made at the moment of speaking. I think I'll take the children to the park on the river. Describes intentions, i.e. actions which have already been decided on by the time of speaking. Mr. Parker is going to take Kitty and Amy off to Scotland tonight. Describes arrangements made by the time of speaking. Mr. Parker is taking Kitty and Amy off to Scotland tonight. (He’s booked tickets.)

Describes future events that will happen according to the timetable or plan. (Things that are NOT under our control.)  The boat leaves Dublin at 10 a.m. and sails one hundred and fifty kilometres... Tomorrow, I take part in four graduation ceremonies as Vice Chancellor of the University of Dundee. (According to my working timetable.) Describes arrangements and plans made by the speaker.  My wife and I are leaving Venice next week. Next week I'm taking part in a music quiz. (It’s my personal decision.) Can be used as a tactful way of asking about someone’s plans or refusing an invitation. How long will you be staying, Mr. Grimes? I’m sorry I can’t come to the party as I’ll be working nightshift. Note: The Future Continuous can also be used to talk about events that are a result of an arrangement. There is little difference between this form and the Present Continuous. CBS announces Dan Rather will be leaving/is leaving CBS News for good.

He’ll start his own business (WHEN?) when he returns to India. I’ll forgive him (ON WHAT CONDITION?) if he convinces me he meant no harm. I want to give my friends tickets to the show but I'm not sure (ABOUT WHAT?) when they’ll be able to attend. I don’t know (WHAT?) if he’ll cause conflict.

76 Slide 74. ADVERBS. The Basics.
Adverbs are normally used to modify verbs (1), adjectives (2), other adverbs (3) or whole clauses (4): 1. Adv + V Shakespeare’s later texts occasionally show signs of carelessness. 2. Adv + Adj London’s awfully expensive for shopping. 3. Adv + Adv We learn extremely slowly to trust each other rather than be enemies. 4. Adv + Clause Not surprisingly, only 24 per cent of the respondents thought that the company ‘treats employees well’. Note that the verb BE is always followed by an adjective, NOT an adverb.

77 Slide 75. Adverbs with two forms and differences in meaning (I).
Direct meaning Figurative meaning deep (= a long way down) The boy took a very big breath and dived deep into the pool. deeply (= greatly/thoroughly) Anna was a strong woman, deeply religious and intelligent. high (= to a great height) Peter felt so happy that he jumped high. highly (= extremely) He was highly respected both as a musician and as a man with a gracious personality. wide (= opening or spreading as much as possible) Mrs. Williams opened the door wide and stepped aside. widely (= in a lot of places or by a lot of people) He became widely known and respected as a writer of adventure stories.

78 Slide 76. Adverbs with two forms and differences in meaning (II).
direct (= without stopping) He went direct to Camp Lewis, and soon from there to France. directly (= a) with no one in between b)exactly) I got that directly from someone who is in a position to know. The professor looked directly at us. free (= without paying) Greek politicians and their families travelled free on the airline. freely (= as much as you like and in what-ever way you like) We like to believe that people in this country can speak freely. hard (= with a lot of effort/a lot) The students were polite, reserved and studied hard to graduate. I laughed so hard I had tears in my eyes! hardly (= scarcely, almost not) You hardly know the depth of her character and the strength of her love. late (= not on time/not early) John arrived late and missed the train. lately (= recently) Have I told you lately that I love you?

79 Slide 77. Comparison of adverbs.
Positive Comparative Superlative Adverbs having the same form as adjectives soon fast near sooner faster nearer the soonest the fastest the nearest Two syllable or compound adverbs quietly slowly often more quietly more slowly* more often the most quietly the most slowly the most often Irregular adverbs badly well much/many/a lot little far worse better more less farther/further the worst the best the most the least the farthest/ furthest * The adverbs which in spoken English have the same form as adjectives (cheap, loud, slow, quick) can form their comparatives and superlatives in two ways: I walked more slowly, looking at the trees now. They walked slower, silently, past the library and into the park.

80 Slide 78. Position of adverbs in sentences.
Adverbs can go in three different positions in a sentence: front position Sometimes he tells the truth. mid position I’ve always been a quick reader. end position He bought the house cheaply. NB Certain types of adverbs go mainly in mid position, i.e. before the main verb but after the verb ‘be’ in simple tenses; after the first auxiliary verb in compound tenses.

81 Slide 79. Mid-position adverbs.
Adverbs of frequency always, ever, never, often, rarely, seldom He is often late for classes. They never miss a chance to have fun. Adverbs of time already, just, no longer, now, soon, still, then They are still working on the album. He will no longer have any doubt. Adverbs of certainty certainly, definitely, probably She will probably need painkillers after the operation. The musicians have definitely developed their own style and sound. Note:The adverbs of certainty and the adverbs sometimes and still go before a negative auxiliary. E.g. He probably won’t recognize you.They still haven't found what they're looking for. The adverbs of frequency and time OTHER THAN mentioned above can go in all the three positions. e.g.Occasionally he took her out to lunch.Philip occasionally went to London during the season. He went there occasionally to visit his brother.

82 Slide 80. Position of adverbs of manner.
Adverbs of manner (which describe how something is done) usually go in end position, i.e. after the verb they modify or its object. Tourism is developing fast in the area. Adverbs ending in –ly (except badly) can also go in mid position. Marty got all his plumbing tools out and arranged them carefully on the floor. (end position) He carefully arranged the jacket, so the collar was right. (mid position)

83 Slide 81. Passive verb forms.
BE (in the necessary tense form) + DONE The Internet This matter He The information was launched Is being discussed has been called will be published in 1969. right now in the US Senate. a born politician. in the scientific literature. Notes: 1. The Passive can be used with modal verbs (modal + be + done) e.g. The work can be divided into a few stages. People’s cultural beliefs should be respected. 2. Future Continuous Passives (will be being done) and Perfect Continuous Passives (has/had been being done) are unusual and should be avoided.

84 Slide 82. Passives. The particulars: Prepositional verbs in the Passive.
accuse of approve of call in comment on deal with discriminate against laugh at listen to look after look at look for look into look upon mock at operate on rely on shout at talk about think of NB Verbs followed by a preposition in passive structures take the preposition immediately after them. The patient was operated on yesterday. Every detail will be looked into. This book is being much talked about.

85 Slide 83. Verbs with two objects that can be used in two passive structures.
ask give grant lend offer pay promise refuse send show teach tell Verbs which take two objects, direct and indirect, can be used in two passive structures. Active: His brother has given him (1) money (2) to help him get married.* Passive: (1) He has been given money to help him get married. (2) Money has been given to him to help him get married. * (1) is an indirect object; (2) is a direct object NB 1. The first passive structure is more common. 2. In the second passive structure, the preposition ‘to’ is often used before the indirect object.

86 Slide 84. Verbs with two objects that can be used in one passive structure.
announce devote describe dictate explain point out propose suggest Verbs which take two objects, direct and prepositional, can only be used in one passive structure. Active: The teacher explained the rule (1) to the students (2).* Passive: (1) The rule was explained to the students. (2) Impossible! * (1) is a direct object; (2) is a prepositional object

87 Slide 85. The definite article. The Particulars (I). THE+ADJECTIVE.
We use the definite article with adjectives (without a noun) when we talk about groups of people the same way we talk about some nationalities: the British the French the Spanish the Dutch the young the rich the unemployed the sick the old the poor the homeless the dead The meaning is always plural: the disabled = disabled people (in general), but a disabled person.

88 Slide 86. Common verbs used to introduce Reported Speech.
Statements say, tell, explain, add, continue, answer, reply, admit, complain, mention, remark, warn, state, stress to report ideas: think, decide, imagine She said she knew what she was doing. We never imagined that the forest would be destroyed. Questions ask, want to know, enquire (formal), wonder (спросить себя) They asked why I did not want to go back. I wondered what she was doing there. a) Commands b) Requests a) tell, order, command, forbid b) ask, beg (умолять), urge (настоятельно просить, настаивать) The judge ordered them to learn to speak English. I begged him to do me this favour.

Direct Speech Reported Speech 1. “Clothes are important to me,” said Max.  2. She said, “I’m dating James now.” 3. The minister said, “I have recently raised the question with the government.” 4. Mary said, “I didn’t sleep at all last night.” 5. May said, “I was taking myself too seriously five years ago.” 6. “I had finished all that was required of me by yesterday,” he said. 7. She told me, “I’ll call you tomorrow.” 1. Max remarked that clothes were important to him. 2. She said she was dating James at that time. 3. The minister stated that he had recently raised the subject with the government. 4. Mary explained she hadn’t slept at all the previous night. 5. May admitted she had been taking herself too seriously five years before. 6. He said (that) he had finished all that was required of him by the previous day. 7. She told me she would call me the following day.

Direct Speech Reported Speech General (yes/no) questions “Do you have any questions, comments, or suggestions?” asked the chairman. The chairman asked if we had any questions, comments, or suggestions. Special questions “Why did Max wear this strange outfit ?” she asked. She wanted to know why Max had worn that strange outfit.

Direct Speech Reported Speech Commands “Play quietly,” she said to the children. “Don’t ask any questions,” said the man. She told the children to play quietly. The man forbade me to ask any questions. Requests “Please wait outside,” the secretary said to me. “Please don’t mention this to anyone,” said Mary. The secretary asked me to wait outside. Mary begged me not to mention that to anyone.

92 Slide 90. REPORTED SPEECH. The Particulars. Pattern 1.
Verb + clause admit, agree, announce, believe, boast, comment, complain, conclude, confess, decide, doubt, exclaim, insist, observe, point out, predict, repeat, report, respond etc. “I’m not sure security is good.” → He doubted that security was good. “Significant progress has been achieved on key issues.” → The Minister announced that significant progress had been achieved on key issues.

93 Slide 91. REPORTED SPEECH. The Particulars. Pattern 2.
Verb + object + clause assure, inform, reassure, remind, warn “The school will be conducting a leadership training camp.” → The letter informed the students that the school will be conducting a leadership training camp.

94 Slide 92. REPORTED SPEECH. The Particulars. Pattern 3.
Verb + infinitive agree, guarantee, offer, promise, refuse, threaten “I’m ready to resign.” → The chairman of the board offered to resign.

95 Slide 93. REPORTED SPEECH. The Particulars. Pattern 4.
Verb + object + infinitive advise, allow, ask, beg, encourage, forbid, force, instruct, invite, order, permit, persuade, remind, request, tell, urge, warn “Always think for yourselves.” → Their father encouraged them to think for themselves. “Be careful with the motor-bike!” → She warned him to be careful with the motorbike.

96 Slide 94. REPORTED SPEECH. The Particulars. Pattern 5.
Verb + -ing form admit, apologise for smth (to smb), decide on, deny, mention, recommend, regret, report, suggest “Sorry, I told a lie,” he said. → He apologised for telling a lie. “Let’s go out for lunch.” → She suggested going out for lunch.

97 Slide 95. REPORTED SPEECH. The Particulars. Pattern 6.
Verb + object + preposition + ing-form accuse smb of, blame smb for, congratulate smb on, thank smb for “It's your fault that you aren't succeeding in sales.” → The manager blamed me for not succeeding in sales.

98 Slide 96. INFINITIVE. Forms.
Active Passive Simple To do To be done Perfect To have done To have been done Continuous To be doing ____________ Perfect Continuous To have been doing

99 Slide 97. Common Structures with the Infinitive.
Pattern 1: Infinitive phrase after the adjectives expressing someone's feelings. delighted happy proud fortunate (un)lucky sorry glad (dis)pleased surprised, etc. You can use a to-infinitive if the subject is the same in both clauses. If the subjects are different, you must use a that-clause. To-infinitive: He is glad to have been invited to the party. Он рад, что его пригласили на вечеринку. That-clause: He is glad that his girlfriend was invited to the party. Он рад, что его девушку пригласили на вечеринку. Note: The most common infinitives used in this pattern are: find, learn, hear, see, say, tell, inform. e.g. I was pleased to hear/see/learn that I'd passed my exam.

100 Slide 98. Common Structures with the Infinitive.
Pattern 2: 'Of-phrase' with the Infinitive expressing praise or criticism. You use the structure 'of someone + to-infinitive' after the following adjectives: clever /sensible kind silly/stupid good nice typical/characteristic generous (im)polite wrong/bad, etc. e.g. It’s very kind of you to help us. Очень мило с вашей стороны помочь нам. It was typical of him to be late for classes Ему было свойственно (для него типично) опаздывать на занятия.

101 Slide 99. Common Structures with the Infinitive.
Pattern 3: Infinitive used after adjectives describing personal opinions. When you want to express an opinion about someone or something, you often use an adjective followed by 'to'-infivitive. easy hard (un)pleasant difficult interesting (un)safe , etc. dangerous (im)possible e.g. The problem is hard to solve. She was interesting to talk to. Note: In this function you always use the Active Infinitive. (to solve, to talk, etc. NOT ‘to be talked, to be solved, etc.’) NB

102 Slide 100. Common Structures with the Infinitive.
Pattern 5: Infinitive used to express purpose. The infinitive in this function is always used with to. e.g. We must make every effort to find a diplomatic solution to the crisis. To keep warm at night, you should buy an electric blanket.   In a more formal style you can use 'in order to' or 'so as to' e.g. She started to cry in order to arouse pity from her parents. We are doing a research so as to keep up with the market needs. In negative sentences, 'so as not to' is usually used. (NOT 'not to' alone) e.g. We left early so as not to be late.

103 Slide 101. Common Structures with the Infinitive.
Pattern 6: Infinitive used to express result. Adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive too + adjective/adverb + infinitive She’s old enough to do some work. NB He was driving slowly enough to enjoy the view. She’s too old to do any work. He was driving too fast to enjoy the view. Note: It is important not to put an object after the infinitive in this structure. Compare: The bag is too heavy (for me) to carry. → (NOT ‘to carry it’) The bag is very heavy. I can't carry it. The bag is so heavy that I can't carry it. The bag is light enough (for me) to carry. → (NOT ‘to carry it’) The bag is quite light. I can carry it. The bag is so light that I can carry it.

104 1. Verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (with to)
Slide 102. COMPLEX OBJECT. 1. Verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (with to) You can use this verb pattern after some verbs of wanting and liking: want, wish, expect, (would) like, (would) love, (would) prefer, (would) hate. I'd like you to come back soon. He didn’t want his son to study abroad. Did you expect this to happen? I would hate anyone to think I'm a liar. Я бы хотел, чтобы ты поскорее вернулся. Он не хотел, чтобы его сын учился за границей. Вы ожидали, что это произойдёт? Мне бы ужасно не понравилось, если бы кто-нибудь считал меня лжецом.

105 2. Perception verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (without to)/ -ing form
Slide 103. COMPLEX OBJECT. 2. Perception verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (without to)/ -ing form The verbs of perception see, hear, watch, notice, feel, observe can be followed either by an infinitive without 'to' or present participle (-ing form). Complete action (infinitive without ‘to’) Action in progress (-ing form) Succession of actions ( infinitive without ‘to’) I saw him lock the door. I saw him coming up the stairs. I saw her wash the dishes and put them in the cupboard. Я видел, как/что он закрыл дверь. Я видел, как он поднимался по лестнице. Я видел, как/что она вымыла посуду и положила её в буфет. Notes: 1. The verb smell is usually used with an -ing form. 2. The -ing form is not usual for very short actions. e.g. I heard him cough. (once) I heard him coughing. (repeatedly)

106 Slide 104. COMPLEX OBJECT. The verbs of perception see, hear, observe are often used in the passive followed by an –ing form or an infinitive with ‘to’. e.g. They were seen to enter the building. They were seen unlocking the door. (complete action) (action in progress)

107 Slide 105. COMPLEX OBJECT. You CANNOT use the Complex Object if the verbs see, hear, notice, feel change their lexical meaning and are no longer verbs of perception. You must use a that-clause. e.g. I see (=think, understand) I’ve heard/hear*(=have learnt) He noticed (=realized) She felt (=believed) you're going out tonight. he donates a lot of money to charity. that she was in a bad mood. that he no longer loved her. * I hear = I've heard, I heard The Present Simple often replaces the Past Simple or Present Perfect in expressions like ‘I see/I hear’ used to talk about things one has found out.

108 Slide 106. Mustn't versus Not have to.
Absence of necessity Prohibition Emphatic Advice You don't have to tell her. She knows the news already. You mustn't * tell her. /You can't tell her. The news may upset her. You mustn't get upset. Вам не нужно (нет необходимости) сообщать ей новость. Она её уже знает. Нельзя сообщать ей новость. Она её может расстроить. Ну не расстраивайся! * Note: In spoken English must not is usually avoided when you speak to or about another adult. Can't is normally used instead. e.g. You can't leave until I say so.

109 Slide 107. ABSENCE of NECESSITY: Present.
Modals Uses Examples Needn’t 1. The speaker expresses his personal opinion that something is not necessary. We needn't hurry. We have plenty of time. 2. The speaker gives permission not to do something. You needn't come if you are busy. Don’t need to The speaker talks about a general necessity. You don't need to have a visa to go to Turkey. He does not need to pay the fare.– He is an old age pensioner.

110 Slide 108. ABSENCE of NECESSITY: Past.
Didn't need to Needn’t have done Something was not necessary and usually it was not done Someone did something which was not necessary I didn't need to cook any food. I was leaving that night. I needn't have cooked so much food. My friends called and said they were not coming. Мне не надо было (не было необходимости) готовить еду. Вечером того дня я уезжал. Напрасно (зря) я приготовил столько еды. Друзья позвонили мне и сказали, что не придут.

111 Slide 109. BE + ‘to’-infinitive.
Uses Example Translation Arrangements for the future A seminar is to be held in October. They were to get married in June. Семинар должен состояться в октябре. Они должны были пожениться в июне. Orders and instructions This form is to be filled in and returned within 10 days. Анкету нужно заполнить и сдать в течение 10 дней.

She says that such people are not to be trusted. (strict prohibition ) I was to destroy the document as soon as I’d read it. Она говорит, что таким людям нельзя доверять. Я должен был (был проинструктирован) уничтожить документ сразу же после прочтения.

113 Slide 111. Common Structures with the Infinitive
Slide 111. Common Structures with the Infinitive. Pattern 4: Infinitive used as Attribute to replace Relative clauses. After ordinal numbers the first, the second, etc. He was the first to leave/ to be given a prize. After the next, the last, the only She was the last (guest) to arrive at the party. He was the only person/ one to complain. After the superlatives the best, the most suitable, etc. The best place to see is Stanley Park. You are the most suitable man to carry out the task. After nouns George is just the man to vote for. There’s some work to do/ to be done. I have letters to write. After pronouns something/anything/nothing; someone/anyone/no one; a lot, much, little, etc. I’ll have something to dream about. We’ve got so much to learn.

114 Slide 112. COMPLEX OBJECT after Causative Verbs.
Causative verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (with or without ‘to’) Verb + infinitive without 'to' Equivalents make I made him do his homework. (заставлять, принуждать) -force Jane has her son clean his room on Sundays. (велеть, поручить, распорядиться) – tell, order, instruct have We had them postpone the discussion. (добиться) -persuade I won't have you say such things in my presence. (не позволять, не допускать) -won’t allow/let let Let him go home. (позволить, пусть) I'm letting you stay up late just this once. (позволять, разрешать) Let's go out to dinner, shall we? (Давайте/Что если ...) Let's not argue. –suggest/Why not... /How about...

115 Slide 113. COMPLEX OBJECT after Causative Verbs.
Causative verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (with or without ‘to’) Verb + infinitive with 'to' Equivalents get I must get John to help me with the computer. (попросить) -ask You'll never get me to do scuba diving. (убедить) – persuade

116 Slide 114. Modals. ABILITY: can, could, be able to
Time reference + meaning Affirmative Negative Present ability/inability can = am/is/are able He can run fast. = He is able to run fast cannot (can’t) = am/is/are not able =am/is/are not able = am/is/are unable He cannot (can't) run fast. = He is not able (is unable) to run fast. Past could He could run fast. = He was able to run fast. could not (couldn’t) =was/were not able = was/were unable He couldn't stop laughing. = He was not able (was unable) to stop laughing. Past ability + successful performance of an action on one occasion was/were able He was finally able to set a record. = could and did set a record __________________________

117 Slide 115. Modals. Permission.
Asking for Permission Can/Could/May I please use your cell phone? Do you think I could possibly leave early today?  Would it be all right if I bring/brought my bike inside? I wonder if I could/ might borrow this book? Asking for Assistance Can / Could / Will/ Would you please open the window for me? I’m sorry to trouble you, but could you please lend me some money? Would you mind taking a photo of us?

118 Slide 116. Modals. OBLIGATION: must, have to/have got to
uses examples must 1. obligation that comes from the speaker 2. public notices and documents expressing commands (written and formal English) 3. strong recommendation, emphatic advice I must give up smoking. (I want to) Application forms must be returned to the office within 15 days. You must see the Picasso exhibition. have to obligation that comes from 'outside' I have to give up smoking. (My doctor wants me to) have got to single actions! (informal English) I've got to see a doctor. Have you got to leave now? I haven't got to work tomorrow.

119 Slide 117. PAST PERFECT. Действие или ряд действий, которые совершились: 1. раньше другого действия в прошлом, выраженного формой Past Simple 2. к определённому моменту в прошлом Когда я позвонил, он уже ушел.  К июню (к тому времени и т.д.) я уже закончил это исследование. When I called, he had already left.    By June ( that time, etc.) I had completed the research. Состояние, длившееся некоторое время до определенного момента или другого действия в прошлом Её звонок не удивил его. Он знал Лори более четырех лет по совместной работе. The call didn’t surprise him. He had known Laurie for more than four years as a colleague.

120 Slide 118. The use of tenses with by the time … expressions
Examples Past Simple state By that time, he knew he wanted to be a geologist. Past Continuous action in progress By the time he put the key into the lock, his heart was thumping in his chest. Past Perfect completed action By the time he reached his hotel, Craig had caught a chill. Past Perfect Continuous action which had been going on for some time By the time he reached harbour, he had been sailing for two nights without sleep.

121 Slide 119. ARTICLES. The Basics.
“0” “the” The indefinite article is used to speak about somebody or something the speaker sees as unknown or indefinite. There is a man to see you. You can buy a newspaper here. The zero article is used to speak about people or things the speaker sees as unknown or indefinite.  There are _0_ men to see you. You can buy _0_ newspapers here. The definite article is used to speak about somebody or something already known to the speakers or definite in their minds. The man who wants to see you is our customer. The men who want to see… I read the newspaper(s) with great interest.

122 Slide 120. Meanings conveyed by the articles.
one of many, some/any = некий, какой-то They went to a party. A Mr. Smith phoned you. He is a journalist with the BBC. this/that = тот самый. these/those= те самые They enjoyed the party (they went to). The Smith from the BBC phoned you. The flowers in your garden look pretty. one = один We’ve got an apple tree and many strawberry beds in our garden. the only = единственный Our life depends on the sun. Russia is the largest country in the world. any = любой, каждый A child can do it. Books can be borrowed from a library. Choose a career you like. his/her/its/their/etc = чей-то конкретно She lived alone and she never left the house. He took her by the hand.

123 Slide 121. The use of articles with geographical names (I)
Slide 121. The use of articles with geographical names (I). The article “the” is used with the names of: oceans seas rivers channels canals gulfs the Arctic Ocean the Black Sea the Volga the English Channel the Suez Canal the Gulf of California groups of lakes groups of islands peninsulas mountain ranges deserts the Great Lakes the British Isles the Cola Peninsula the Urals the Sahara Desert

124 Slide 122. The use of articles with geographical names (II)
Slide 122. The use of articles with geographical names (II). The zero article is used with the names of: planets continents countries* states, provinces and counties cities Mars, Venus Australia BUT the Americas Great Britain BUT the Russian Federation Texas, Alberta, Sussex Moscow, New Orleans BUT the Hague bays an island (singular) a lake (singular) a mountain capes Hudson Bay Sicily Lake Baikal Mount Everest Cape Cod, The Cape (= The Cape of Good Hope)

125 Slide 123. The article with uncountable nouns. The basics.
“0” “the” Material Food and drink Abstract idea Activity Area of Study/Language Disease The zero article is used to speak about the substance, idea, or thing in general. e.g. _0_ Coffee keeps one awake. _0_ Life is impossible without _0_ water . _0_ Hunting was the main occupation of prehistoric men. The definite article is used to speak about a particular amount of the substance, a particular idea or thing The coffee was horrible. The life of survivors was hard. The water found on the island was undrinkable. The Hunting of the President has become a bestseller.

126 Slide 124. The use of articles with proper nouns.
The zero article is used with the names of: streets roads squares avenues boulevards lanes parks bridges Oxford Street but the Strand, the Mall Charing Cross Road Washington Square Fifth Avenue Sunset Boulevard Park Lane Green Park Tower bridge but the Brooklyn Bridge (and many others!) airports stations universities Heathrow Airport Paddington Station Columbia University

127 Slide 125. The use of articles with proper nouns.
The zero article is also used: In two-word names if the first word is the name of a person or place Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle With a possessive noun before the name St Paul’s Cathedral if the names of hotels, banks, shops, etc. begin with the name of their founder and end in -s or –‘s Tailors Hotel, Lloyds Bank, Selfridges, Igg’s

128 Slide 126. The use of articles with proper nouns.
The article “the” is usually used with the names of: motorways/freeways hotels theatres cinemas museums, galleries buildings the A 11 the Hilton the Palladium the Odeon The Natural History Museum, the National Gallery The White House, the Millennium Dome Note: All names which include of are used with the definite article e.g. the University of York, the Palace of Westminster NB

129 Slide 127. The definite article. Revision. The Basics.
The definite article is used to speak about somebody or something already known to the speakers or definite in their minds. e.g. The man who wants to see you is our customer. The men who want to see… I read the newspaper(s) with great interest. a particular amount of the substance, a particular idea or thing The coffee was horrible. The life of survivors was hard. The water found on the island was undrinkable. The Hunting of the President has become a bestseller.

130 Slide 128. The definite article. The Particulars (II).
We usually use the definite article with the following nouns (countable and uncountable) when we use them in a general way : the country(side), the earth ( = the world we live in), the environment, the future,* the ground, the past, the public*, the sea*, the seaside, the sky, the weather, the world, etc.

131 Slide 129. The definite article. The Particulars (III).
We also say, the cinema, the theatre, the radio (BUT television) unless we mean a particular thing e.g. 1. Most people prefer to go to the cinema in company rather than alone. 2. Every Greek town had a theatre.

132 Slide 130. The definite article. The Particulars (IV).
The definite article is used with nouns which are followed by a limiting, defining phrase (ограничивающее определение) such as of- phrase or which-phrase. e.g. She married the son of a butcher. He pointed at the map which was hanging on the wall.

133 Slide 131. TILL/UNTIL & UNLESS.
NB Slide 131. TILL/UNTIL & UNLESS. Note: Remember that till/until and unless have a negative meaning and avoid double negation. Until you make a decision you really won't know if it is a good one or a bad one. Пока вы не примете решение, вы не узнаете, хорошее оно или плохое. Unless she works hard, she won’t get a promotion. Если она не будет много работать, она не получит повышения по службе.

134 Slide 132. Many and much in positive sentences.
Many and much are often used in positive sentences: a) in a formal style Many features of the early American cultures were based on maize. Much of Britain is densely populated and intensively farmed. b) when they are modified by so/too/very I’ve got so many problems at the moment. I’m afraid I spend too much time on my research.

135 Slide 133. Modal Verbs in Reported Speech (I).
can → could “I can’t make a decision without knowing the facts.” → He said he couldn’t make a decision without knowing the facts. can → would be able “I can fix the problems next week.” → She said she would be able to fix the problems the following week. may → might (possibility) “We may choose not to have children at all.” → A fifth of the women surveyed said they might choose not to have children at all. shall → should “Where shall I sign up?” → She asked where she should sign up.

136 Slide 134. Modal Verbs in Reported Speech (II).
must → must/had to (obligation) “You must have surgery as soon as possible.” → The doctor said I must/ had to have surgery as soon as possible. must → must (должно быть) “You must be mistaken.” → He said I must be mistaken. needn’t → didn’t need to/didn’t have to “You needn’t worry about cooking any more.” → He said I didn’t need to/didn’t have to worry about cooking any more. Note: ought to, should, could, might, had better do not change when reported. NB

137 Slide 135. The Indefinite Article. The Basics. Revision (II).
Meanings conveyed by the indefinite article one of many, some/any = некий, какой-то one = один any = любой, каждый e.g. They went to a party. A Mr. Smith phoned you. He is a journalist with the BBC. e.g. We’ve got an apple tree and many strawberry beds in our garden. e.g. A child can do it Books can be borrowed from a library. Choose a career you like.

138 Slide 136. SAY AND TELL. Patterns Examples SAY TELL 1. SAY THAT
2. SAY TO SMB (THAT) 3. SAY a word/a name/ a sentence/a phrase 1. She says that someone is waiting for you. 2. And do you know what they said to us? 3. The next day at school, Sam didn't say a word to Mel. TELL 1. TELL SMB (THAT) 2. TELL SMB TO DO SMTH 3. TELL the truth/a lie/ a story/a joke 1. You never told me that you don’t like football. 2. He told the students to work hard and revise for the exams. 3. Do you think he told the truth?

139 Slide 137. SPEAK AND TALK. Uses Examples SPEAK
1. physical ability to speak 2. knowledge and use of languages 3. one-way communication 4. formal lectures (to speak on a subject) 5. on the phone 1. He hasn't been able to speak for about a week now. 2. California alone has 5.5 million people who speak Spanish at home. 3. I feel embarrassed when I have to speak to my boss. 4. Today we are welcoming the Premier of Ontario, who is going to speak to us on Canada and the Constitution. 5. Hello. Could I speak to John Martin, please? TALK 1. conversational exchanges 2. informal situations 3. informal lectures (to talk about a subject) 4. talk sense/nonsense 1. Everybody was talking and laughing and telling stories of their youth. 2. Valerie, could I talk to you in the kitchen? 3. This is Mr John Nolan, who is going to talk to us about the upcoming holiday season. 4. Now you're talking sense! That's a good boy.

140 Slide 138. EVERY, EACH, ALL. Uses Examples EVERY
(Shows that 3 or more objects are considered together as a group.) 1. with singular nouns 2. with plural nouns EVERY individual is responsible for their* actions. A Polish proverb suggests that EVERY error has its excuse. Stop changing television channels EVERY five minutes!** EACH (Shows that 2 or more objects are considered separately.) 2. with plural pronouns EACH student will demonstrate their skills during the contest. EACH plan has its advantages. We EACH*** know when we're free and when we're not. EACH of us knows the lyrics to a thousand pop songs. ALL 1. with plural nouns 2. with uncountable nouns ALL (the)**** girls are lovely. ALL of my/these/the/etc. CDs are from my elder brother. ALL money has been stolen. ALL of the champagne we have is from France.

141 Slide 139. ELSE, OTHER and ANOTHER.
Pattern Examples ELSE 1. what (who, where, when, how) else 2. something (anything, nothing, etc.) else 1. What else did he tell you? How else can you explain all this? 2. I didn't see anything else that caught my interest at the store. Some of these species are found nowhere else on earth. OTHER 1. what other + noun 2. some (any, no) other What other benefits can credit cards offer? Sorry, I’ve got no other ideas. ANOTHER another few (two, five, etc.) + plural noun He’s coming back in another few days. Follow this road for another five miles or so.

142 Slide 140. ANOTHER, the OTHER, (the) OTHERS.
Number Indefinite pronouns Russian Examples singular another* the other 1) еще один 2) (какой-нибудь) другой другой (из двух) 1. Could I have another look at the map? 2. Could I have another test instead of an x-ray? When Eric heard Sam on the other end of the line, he hung up. plural others / other + pl N the others / the other + pl N другие    остальные Some college students prefer to live alone. Others / other students prefer to live with roommates in a dormitory. One of the young men is played by a real actor; the others / the other actors are non-professionals.

143 Slide 141. DO vs MAKE. 1. Activity vs result.
Use Examples DO 1. indefinite activities (with something, anything, nothing, everything, thing, what) 2. repeated or regular activities (work, job, hobbies) 3. in the structure do + some/the …ing 1. Have you ever disliked anyone who has done nothing to you? 2. The firm has been doing the work for more than 15 years. 3. Most travelers go to Fiji to do some swimming, snorkeling or diving. Janett did all the talking. I mostly listened to her talk. MAKE Emphasizes the end product, or result, of an action rather than the activity itself. I’d be happy to make you a cup of tea or coffee. He plans to set up a small workshop to make carpets. At that time the workers were making a fire to cook their dinner.

144 Slide 142. DO vs MAKE. 2. Common fixed expressions.
one’s best business one’s duty (an) exercise a favour good one’s hair harm homework housework research sport an attempt arrangements a decision an effort an exception a fire a fortune a fuss a mistake money a noise peace a plan a profit progress a suggestion

145 Slide 143. Saying “NO”. Use V+Noun V+Infinitive DECLINE (fml)
to refuse politely decline smth (an offer, an invitation, a request, etc.) отклонить decline to do (= be unwilling to do) отказаться REFUSE* in a decisive, or even rude way refuse smth (an invitation, an offer, a drink, etc.) refuse to do REJECT to refuse strongly reject smth (an argument, an idea, a plan,etc.) отвергнуть _________ Note: Chris refused an offer (NOT Chris refused from an offer).

146 Slide 144. THIS/THESE and THAT/THOSE (I).
people and things close to the speaker in time and space Do you know this little boy? I love these shoes! They felt great right out of the box. more distant from the speaker in time and space Who's that little boy that's looking at me? It would be interesting indeed to look back on all those shoes we have worn over time. attitudes interest, positive attitude Well, I would certainly like to meet these friends of yours sometime. dislike, critical attitude Now, tell those friends of yours to empty out their pockets too.

147 Slide 145. THIS/THESE and THAT/THOSE (II).
situations and experiences which are going on or are about to start I like this music! I’m so sad that I won’t be at this party. which have just finished or are more distant in the past Do you remember that festival in Copenhagen? I wonder what happened at that party. on the telephone to identify yourself Hello, this is Jim Rockford. At the tone, leave your name and message. to ask about the hearer’s identity Hello? Is that the pizza delivery service?

148 Slide 146. AS and LIKE. Meaning Pattern Examples AS LIKE
‘in the role of’ (в качестве) as + noun Now, as your elder brother, I advise you to go to bed! (I am your brother.) LIKE ‘similar to’, ‘in the same way as’ (подобно) like + noun/pronoun Like your brother, I think you should go to bed. (I am not your brother, but I have a similar attitude.) NOTE: As is also used in comparisons in the following patterns: as + clause Nicholas will spend those two weeks, as he does every summer, in Brighton. as + prepositional phrase In 2004, as in 2000, The Republicans won the elections in the US.

149 Slide 147. FIRST and AT FIRST.
Use Examples FIRST 1. first item or point on the list 2. before anything or anyone else 3. for the first time First I went to New York City for a day, and then to Atlanta, Georgia. John arrived there first and waited outside. He first saw Philip in 1998. AT FIRST to contrast two different situations in time (often followed by but) At first Max didn’t realize what had happened, but when he did he started to cry.

150 Slide 148. OFFER and SUGGEST.
Russian Pattern Examples OFFER 1. предлагать = давать что-л. 2. предлагать = вызываться сделать что-л. 1. offer sth 2. offer to do sth 1. They offered me some money for the work. 2. He offered to help me with the translation. SUGGEST 1. предлагать = подавать идею 2. предлагать что-л. сделать кому-л. (a) или вместе (b) 1. suggest sth 2. a) suggest that sb should do sth b) suggest doing sth 1. The Minister suggested a programme of economic reform. Someone suggested the Hotel Bernardi. 2. a) My friend suggested that I should complain to the manager of the hotel. b) Tom suggested eating out.


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