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Manifest Destiny.

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Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manifest Destiny

2 John O’Sullivan used the term manifest destiny in the New York newspaper saying:
“it is manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us.”

3 Manifest Destiny What O’Sullivan meant by that is that the United States was clearly destined to expand it’s way of life all the way to the Pacific coast.

4 Can you see all the pieces of Propaganda in this painting of the idea of Manifest Destiny?
This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an symbolic representation of Manifest Destiny. Here Columbia, the feminine personification of the United States of America, leads civilization westward with American settlers.

5 1844 Presidential Election
James K. Polk Henry Clay Democratic candidate. Whig candidate. The slogan referred to the line of latitude that the democrats believed should be the nations border Did not take a strong position on the border. Used the slogan 54’40’ or fight. Results… Senator Henry Clay in a Daguerreotype taken in 1849 by Photographer Matthew Brady

6 Polk Wins!



9 The Oregon Country

10 Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country
In 1824, Russia surrenders claim to its land south of Alaska. Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country Russia Great Britain Secretary of State John Q Adams negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain in 1819 USA Spain

11 Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country
U.S. negotiates joint occupation of the area with Britain! (Convention of 1818) Great Britain USA

12 Fur traders were the first Americans to reach the Oregon territory.

13 Mountain men were people who spent most of their time on the Rocky Mountains
Mountain Man Mountain men met to trade once a year at a rendezvous where they could also help Oregon Trail travelers find their way and replenish supplies they needed.

14 Emigrants were pioneers that left the already established United States to go to Oregon!

15 The Oregon Trail was the easiest passage west

16 The Oregon Trail was the easiest passage west
The path started at Independence Missouri, Went across the great plains, Along the Platte River, Through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains and into the Oregon Territory.

17 Can you see how the Rocky Mountains influenced the path that became the Oregon Trail?

18 Can you imagine taking an entire wagon train through land like this?
On the Trail Can you imagine taking an entire wagon train through land like this? Men Drove Wagons, attended to the animals, and hunted. Women Cared for children, cooked, and watched fires.

19 Independence for Texas

20 Sound Familiar? How did Spanish land in Texas become Mexican Land?
In 1819, very few people were living in Spanish Texas. The people who did live there were called Tejanos (Mexicans that claimed Texas for settlement). In 1820, Spain was unable to defend its colony anymore. Mexico declared its independence from Spain, taking Texas with it (1821). Sound Familiar?

21 Steven F. Austin Organizes an American colony…

22 and settles along the Brazos River and…
the Colorado River.

23 More Americans would follow Austin's lead and live in Texas
Problems Anyone?

24 His group later becomes known as the Old 300
This map shows land claims from Notice that the Austin Colony is near Galveston Bay .

25 Texans were angered with Mexico’s government because the Mexican government stopped immigration with the U.S.

26 In October of 1835, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico) sent troops in to Gonzales, in Texas, to punish the rebels. Conflict begins at the town of Gonzales! (Mexicans tried to seize Texan cannons) "Come and take it" was a slogan used in the Texas Revolution in 1835. Remember… this is not what Texas looked like in 1835!

27 At the minor skirmish known as the Battle of Gonzales, a small group of Texans successfully resisted the Mexican forces who had orders to seize their cannon. As a symbol of defiance, the Texans had fashioned a flag containing the phrase along with a black star and an image of the cannon which they had received six years earlier from the hands of a Mexican official.

28 EARLY WAR... The Texans scored a important early victory at San Antonio. San Antonio brings confidence to the Texans similar to Concord and Bunker Hill in the Revolution .

29 Mad about the loss, Santa Anna marched his troops north where they found a small Texan force barricaded inside the Alamo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

30 Inside the Alamo was Davy Crockett, and 150 brave volunteers.

31 Outside the Alamo was Santa Anna and several thousand soldiers.

32 Davy Crockett and the tough Texan volunteers held Santa Anna off For 12 days, until final the Mexicans stormed the fortress and kill all the defenders leaving only a few women and children to tell the story.

33 But... Was the Alamo Really a Victory?
Much needed time to regroup and prepare A rallying cry for the rest of the war. "Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!" The Mexican constitution of 1824 gave the people of Texas rights similar to those enjoyed at the time by the citizens of the United States, but every new Mexican government attempted to increase control over Texas. To call attention to this, Texans removed the coat of arms from the center of a Mexican flag, and replaced it with the date of the constitution. It was this banner that flew from the walls of the Alamo.


35 End of the War… After the loss at the Alamo, Sam Houston lead an army of about 800 to fight a battle at San Jacinto (near present day Houston). Sam Houston at San Jacinto

36 Houston’s army had great success, killing 600 and capturing 700 more Mexican soldiers (including Santa Anna).

37 Santa Anna than signed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas
The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican strong-man surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston

38 Annexation = take over The original (or "Burnet") flag of Texas (1836–1839)

39 Once Independent Texas wanted to become part of the United States, but Andrew Jackson refused to let them. Jackson didn’t want to stir up the issue of adding a slave state or risk war with Mexico themselves!

40 Texas operates as it’s own country for 9 years! (1836 – 1845)
The First Flag Of Republic!

41 Texas became a state during James K
Texas became a state during James K. Polk’s presidency (election promise). On December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States.

42 December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States
December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States. This was their state flag they used!

43 New Mexico Territory In the early 1800’s New Mexico was the vast territory between Texas and California William Becknell Went to trade Took the Santa Fe Trail Others followed in his footsteps. William Becknell was able to make a 2000% profit trading! He could buy something for $1 and sell it for $21!

44 The Oregon trail assisted the movement in to California!

45 California In 1821, California became a state in the Mexican nation.
The first Americans were there to trade and go whaling Americans wanted to add California as a state because of its mild climate, scenic beauty, and abundant resources. President Polk offered to buy California and New Mexico twice, but Mexico refused.

46 The Mexican-American War
After Mexico Refuses Polk’s offer, General Zachary Taylor marches his soldiers across the disputed border. (the Rio Grande River) The Mexican-American War

47 Between the Nueces and Rio Grande R
Between the Nueces and Rio Grande R., troops build a fort that later gets attacked by Mexican soldiers And the War Begins...


49 California became a republic after a small group of farmers seized the town of Sonoma and started the republic of California ! (1846)

50 The farmers new country was called the Bear Flag Republic because their flag showed a bear on it!

51 As the fighting in California was winding down, the advancement on the southern portions of Mexico heated up!

52 Troops ready to leave Texas to fight in the southern portions of Mexico.

53 Was given the task of capturing Mexico City.
Winfield Scott Was given the task of capturing Mexico City. Scott devised a brilliant campaign that would bring the war to a speedy conclusion.

54 Zachary Taylor – Known as "Old Rough and Ready," Taylor had a forty-year military career in the United States Army, serving in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War, and the Second Seminole War. He achieved fame leading American troops to victory in the Battle of Palo Alto and the Battle of Monterrey during the Mexican–American War. As president, Taylor angered many Southerners by taking a moderate stance on the issue of slavery.

55 By March 1847 Scott’s Troops reached Mexico City.

56 By 1847 ,they had reached Mexico City and by mid- September taken it!

57 Mexico gave up it’s claims to Texas.
After the U.S. had taken Mexico City, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in February 1848. The Treaty Said… Mexico gave up it’s claims to Texas. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande border between Texas and Mexico

58 The Mexican Cession said that Mexico ceded its provinces of California and New Mexico

59 Can you describe what areas we gained as a result of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?

You know the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo… Add the Gadsden Purchase!

While the transcontinental railroad eventually was built on the green route on this map, you can see from the red path that this space was vital to the Southern Pacific Railroad. What mountain range is north of the Gadsden Purchase that would have forced the United States to buy land highlighted here so they could build a railroad that could pass through?

62 Was Manifest Destiny Achieved at this point?
What do you think?

63 Settlers in California
Want more on the gold rush? Go to…

64 California population increased tremendously in 1849.
Because of… The Gold Rush

65 The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California. News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Maybe they will name a football team after this some day! Although the total number of migrants during the gold rush years is uncertain, the non-Indian population in California increased from 14,000 in 1848 to 223,856 by 1852.

66 Settlers who came to California during this time were called

67 They came by sea and through the Sierra Nevada mountain range, building new communities called boomtowns almost overnight. San Francisco (1851) grew fast and stayed strong even after the gold rush ended .

68 Port cities, such as San Francisco grew from tiny villages to large cities very rapidly!

69 The vigilantes where people that took the law into their own hands!
“Courage is being scared to death but saddling up anyway” - John Wayne

70 Many people who had come looking for gold stayed in the area to farm or run a business.
Levi Strauss Some of the towns didn’t survive and turned into Ghost towns like Sierra Nevada, California.

71 New Settlers in Utah -

72 Brigham Young lead the Mormons west to the Great Salt Lake in Utah.
The violent death of Joseph Smith (left) caused Mormons to want to leave Illinois and head west. Brigham Young In 1844 Joseph Smith was killed by a mob while in custody in the city of Carthage, Illinois. In 1846, religious tension reached their peak, and in 1848 mobs burned the Latter-day Saint temple in Nauvoo.

73 12,000 Mormons made the largest single migration in U.S. history.

74 12,000 Mormons made the largest single migration in U.S. history.

75 The Mormons made desert (Salt Lake City) flourish with hard work and determination.

76 Utah would not become a state until 1896 after war almost broke out between the Mormons and United States Army.

77 How does this painting show Manifest Destiny in a positive light?
Emanuel Leutze painting: Westward the Course of Empire takes its Way, 1860

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