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Presentation on theme: "MODERNISM."— Presentation transcript:


2 “Modernism released us from the constraints of everything that had gone before with a euphoric sense of freedom. ” Arthur Erickson “War is the highest form of modern art.” Tommaso Marinetti, founder of Futurism “In general, modern art... has been inspired by a natural desire to chart the uncharted.” Herbert Read “On or about December 1910, human character changed….” Virginia Woolf “Modern music is as dangerous as cocaine.” Pietro Mascagni “The impulse of modern art is the desire to destroy beauty. ” Barnett Newman “And yet what is Modernism? It is undefined. ” John C. Ransom

3 Science: An Indeterminate Universe
Quantum Physics – Max Planck Energy is not continuous, but comes in small but discrete units.  The elementary particles behave both like particles and like waves.  The movement of these particles is inherently random. 3 Principle of Uncertainty – Werner Heisenberg It is physically impossible to know both the position and the momentum of a particle at the same time. Theory of Relativity – Albert Einstein E=mc2 Energy = mass x speed of light squared

4 Psychology: Whither the Self?
Sigmund Freud Karl Jung Psychoanalysis and Dream Analysis – the Unconscious Mind Psyche: Id Ego Superego Oedipal Complex Repression and Sublimation Civilization and Its Discontents Collective Unconscious Psyche: Persona Animus/Anima Shadow Archetypes: primal patterns The Hero The Trickster The Great Mother The Sage Myth, dreams, folklore

5 Motifs and Movements Fragmentation: Cubism Precision: Imagism
Speed: Futurism Alienation/Angst: Expressionism Color: Fauvism Technology: Constructivism Functionalism: Bauhaus/International Style Protest/Propaganda: Social Realism Chaos/Irrationality: Dadaism The Subconscious: Surrealism Form: Abstraction

6 Fragmentation: C U B I S M Georges Bracque Woman with a Guitar, 1913
Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919

7 Poetry: Imagism Abstract Open Verse Imagists: Ezra Pound Amy Lowell
Discordant Abstract Open Verse Imagists: Ezra Pound Amy Lowell H.D. Heat by H. D. O wind, rend open the heat, cut apart the heat, rend it to tatters. Fruit cannot drop through this thick air– fruit cannot fall into heat that presses up and blunts the points of pears and rounds the grapes. Cut the heat– plough through it, turning it on either side of your path.

Imagism “It is essential to prove that beauty may be in small, dry things. The great aim is accurate, precise and definite description.” – T.E. Hulme IN A STATION OF THE METRO The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet black bough. Ezra Pound

9 William Carlos Williams “The Great Figure”
Among the rain and lights I saw the figure 5 in gold on a red fire truck moving tense unheeded to gong clangs siren howls and wheels rumbling through the dark city Charles Henry Demuth ( ), I Saw the Figure Five in Gold

10 Speed: Futurism Umberto Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913 “The cry of rebellion which we utter associates our ideals with those of the Futurist poets. These ideas were not invented by some aesthetic clique. They are an expression of a violent desire, which burns in the veins of every creative artist today. ... We will fight with all our might the fanatical, senseless and snobbish religion of the past, a religion encouraged by the vicious existence of museums. We rebel against that spineless worshipping of old canvases, old statues and old bric-a-brac, against everything which is filthy and worm-ridden and corroded by time. We consider the habitual contempt for everything which is young, new and burning with life to be unjust and even criminal.” Filippo Tomaso Marinetti, The Futurist Manifesto, 1909

11 Vorticism The cover of the first edition of BLAST, 1914.
The cover of the second edition of  BLAST, 1915.

12 Alienation Angst Expressionism
Emil Nolde Maskenstilleben (Masks Still Life) 1911

13 La femme au grand chapeau (Woman with large hat) by Kees van Dongen, 1906
Color: Fauvism Woman with a Hat by Henri Matisse, 1905

14 Fiction: Stream-of-Consciousness
“Let us record the atoms as they fall upon the mind in the order in which they fall, let us trace the pattern, however disconnected and incoherent in appearance, which each sight or incident scores upon the consciousness. Let us not take it for granted that life exists more fully in what is commonly thought big than in what is small” – Virginia Woolf “Modern Fiction”

15 Stream of Consciousness
James Joyce William Faulkner Dorothy Richardson Virginia Woolf

16 Technology: Constructivism
Ilya Golosov, Zuyev Workers' Club, 1927 Moscow Constructivist architecture emerged from the wider constructivist art movement, which grew out of Russian Futurism. Constructivist art had attempted to apply a three-dimensional cubist vision to wholly abstract non-objective 'constructions' with a kinetic element. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 it turned its attentions to the new social demands and industrial tasks required of the new regime. Two distinct threads emerged, the first was encapsulated in Antoine Pevsner's and Naum Gabo's Realist manifesto which was concerned with space and rhythm, the second represented a struggle within the Commissariat for Enlightenment between those who argued for pure art and the Productivists such as Alexander Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova and Vladimir Tatlin, a more socially-oriented group who wanted this art to be absorbed in industrial production.[1] (wikipedia)

17 Functionalism: Bauhaus/International Style
Walter Gropius, The Bauhaus Building in Dessau, Germany

18 Commentary/Propaganda: Social Realism
Isabel Bishop, Office Girls, 1938 Aaron Douglas, God’s Trombones, 1926

19 Photography Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother

20 Chaos/Irrationality: Dadaism
Photograph of Marcel Duchamp's "Fountain“. ready-mades Chaos/Irrationality: Dadaism Marcel Janco recalled, We had lost confidence in our culture. Everything had to be demolished. We would begin again after the "tabula rasa". At the Cabaret Voltaire we began by shocking common sense, public opinion, education, institutions, museums, good taste, in short, the whole prevailing order. Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism. -Marc Lowenthal Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922.[1] The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature—poetry, art manifestoes, art theory—theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism, Nouveau Réalisme, pop art, Fluxus and punk rock. For many participants, the movement was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist and colonialist interests which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, and against the cultural and intellectual conformity — in art and more broadly in society — that corresponded to the war.

21 The Subconscious: Surrealism
Rene Magritte, Attempting the Impossible, 1928

22 Form: Abstraction Piet Mondrian, Broadway Boogie Woogie, 1942-43

23 Abstraction Cycladic Influence on Modern Art
The simplicity of the figures' forms has influenced modern artists, such as Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani, and Constantin Brancusi, but has also attracted collectors, who over the years have encouraged secret or illegal excavations and have exported Cycladic art to private collections. Many figurines have been found in graves and were probably associated with funeral rites, but some of larger size likely came from settlements or shrines. The predominant female characteristics on the majority of the figures suggest that they represent a divinity related to the Mother Goddess, the Cycladic goddess thought to be a guardian of the dead. Constantin Brancusi Cycladic Statue Amedeo Modigliani

24 Music Sound Experimentation Ragtime, Blues and Jazz Arnold Schoenberg:
Atonality 12-tone system: serialism Song cycles: Sprechstimme Igor Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps: dissonance and heavy rhythm Eric Satie: Incorporation of “work” sounds Alban Berg Operas: Wozzeck and Lulu Roots in African-American work songs, gospel, drumming, parade music Moved from New Orleans up the Mississippi to St. Louis and Kansas City on to Chicago, NYC and LA – wildy popular in Europe Ragtime: Scott Joplin Opera: Treemonisha Blues – emotive lamentation using blues scale Jazz – improvisational, ensemble

25 Theatre

26 Film: Shadow Magic

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