Presentation on theme: "Modeling the Characteristics of Vocational Excellence"— Presentation transcript:
1 Modeling the Characteristics of Vocational Excellence Petri NokelainenSchool of EducationUniversity of TampereFinland
2 Acknowledgements Finnish research team: International research team: Prof. Dr. Petri Nokelainen, Prof. Dr. Pekka Ruohotie, Dr. Kari Korpelainen, MA Laura Pylväs, MA Mika Puukko, MA Reija Palttala.International research team:University of Oxford (UK): Prof. Dr. Ken Mayhew, Dr. Cathy Stasz, Dr. Susan James. RMIT University (Australia): Prof. Dr. Helen Smith, MA Mohammad Rahimi.
3 Acknowledgements Finnish supporters: International supporters: Veijo Hintsanen, Eija Alhojärvi, Hannu Immonen, Immo Pylvänen, Heikki Saarinen, Atte Airaksinen, Juha Minkkinen, Matti Kauppinen, Pekka Matikainen, Tuomas Eerola, Martti Majuri and Finnish Helsinki, Sitzuoka, Calgary and London competitors. The research was funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture.International supporters:Tjerk Dusseldorp, David Hoey, Simon Bartley
5 IntroductionInternational vocational competitions in different skill areas (e.g., plumbing, hair dressing) are gaining increasing interest around the world.What started in 1947 as a small regional competition in Spain has now become the WorldSkills Competition (WSC), a world-renowned event that draws competitors and visitors from all over the world.
7 IntroductionThe competition rules document define the resolutions and rules for the organisation and execution of the WorldSkills Competition incorporating all skill competitions.Each country may enter one competitor or team per skill.Competitors must not be older than 22 years (in some skill areas 25 years) in the year of the competition.
9 IntroductionInternational panel of judges assign a score ( points) for each competitor or team after four competition days.Three best competitors for each skill area are awarded with gold, silver and bronze medals.Other competitors who score 500 points or more are awarded with Medallion for Excellence.
12 IntroductionFinnish WSC teams have been studied since 2006 in three research projects:MoVE = Modelling Vocational Excellence ( )AVE = Actualizing Vocational Excellence ( )PaVE = Pathways to Vocational Excellence (2012- )Projects were funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture.
13 IntroductionMajor goal in these mixed-method studies is to investigate the role of WorldSkills competitors’ natural abilities, intrinsic characteristics, and extrinsic conditions to their talent development.
15 Theoretical Framework Bloom: Talent development taxonomy (1985).Ericsson: Development of expertise (1993, 2006).Gagné: Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (2004, 2010).Gardner: Multiple Intelligences (1983, 1993, 1999).Greenspan, Solomon & Gardner: Cognitive and social skills on talent development (2004).Pintrich: Intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations, control and efficacy beliefs (2000).Midgley et al.: Patterns of adaptive learning (2000).Zimmerman: Sociocognitive approach to self-regulation (1998, 2000).Weiner: Attributions for success and failure (1986).
16 Differentiated Model for Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) (Gagné, 2004)
17 C.GIPE - Causal order of components in DMGT (Gagné, 2004, see also Nokelainen, in press; Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2009; Tirri & Nokelainen, 2011)
18 Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1983, for operationalization, see Tirri & Nokelainen, 2011) (1) Linguistic intelligence(2) Logical-mathematical intelligence(3) Musical intelligence(4) Spatial intelligence(5) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence(6) Interpersonal intelligence(7) Intrapersonal intelligence(8) Spiritual intelligence(9) Environmental intelligence
19 Adaptation of Zimmerman’s Self-regulation Model (Zimmerman, 2000; Nokelainen, 2008)
28 First phase research questions (interviews) 1. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors?2. How do the characteristics of WSC competitors differ during the training period, competitions, and working life?3. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors' initial interest in the field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill, and mastery of that skill?4. What characteristics are specific to the employers of WSC competitors?
30 MethodFour Finnish WSC 2005 and four WSC 2007 competitors (n = 8) were interviewed.Six males (Mage=21 years) and two females (Mage=20 years).Also their trainers, working life representatives and parents (n = 22) were interviewed.
31 MethodWSC competitors in this study represent four skill categories, which are linked to the Multiple Intelligence theory (Gardner, 1983):IT/Software Applications (logical-mathematical).Web Design (spatial, logical-mathematical).Plumbing (bodily-kinesthetic, spatial).Beauty Therapy (interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial).
33 Results: Interview1. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors?VOCATIONALTALENTCHARACTERISTICSMOTIVATIONIntrinsicExtrinsicVOLITIONPerseveranceTime managementSELF-REFLECTIONStress toleranceINTRINSICINTELLECTUALSOCIOAFFECTIVESENSORIMOTORNATURAL ABILITIES
34 Results: Interview Self-reflection (stress tolerance) Mental training Volition (perseverance, time management)Total mastery of work skillsCognitive skills (development potential)Shift from uncontrollable to controllable attributionsExtrinsic goal-orientation (competitiveness, ambition)Promotion of advances of competitions for future careerIntrinsic goal-orientation (interest towards work)Meaningful training tasks, interesting artifacts, home/teacher supportSocial skillsCollaborative tasks during trainingVOCATIONALTALENTCHARACTERISTICSMOTIVATIONIntrinsicExtrinsicVOLITIONPerseveranceTime managementSELF-REFLECTIONStress toleranceINTRINSICINTELLECTUALSOCIOAFFECTIVESENSORIMOTORNATURAL ABILITIES
35 Results: Interview2. How do the characteristics of WSC competitors differ during the training period, competitions, and working life?VOCATIONALTALENTDEVELOPMENTTraining/studiesMOTIVATIONIntrinsicExtrinsicVOLITIONPerseveranceTime managementSELF-REFLECTIONStress toleranceINTRINSICCHARACTERISTICSINTELLECTUALSOCIOAFFECTIVESENSORIMOTORNATURAL ABILITIESMOTIVATIONIntrinsicExtrinsicVOLITIONPerseveranceTime managementSELF-REFLECTIONStress toleranceINTRINSICCHARACTERISTICSINTELLECTUALSENSORIMOTORNATURAL ABILITIESSOCIOAFFECTIVEVOCATIONALTALENTDEVELOPMENTCompetitionsVOCATIONALTALENTDEVELOPMENTWorking lifeMOTIVATIONIntrinsicExtrinsicVOLITIONPerseveranceTime managementSELF-REFLECTIONStress toleranceINTRINSICCHARACTERISTICSINTELLECTUALSOCIOAFFECTIVESENSORIMOTORNATURAL ABILITIES
36 Results: Interview1. Perseverance and self-reflection alongside with intellectual and sensorimotorical abilities were important in all three career stages.The role of social skills was strongest in working life.Results showed only minor differences between intrinsic and extrinsic goal-orientations.
37 Results: Interview3. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors' initial interest in the field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill, and mastery of that skill?
38 Results: Interview1. Institutional and trainers’ support are important throughout the three skill acquisition stages.Intrinsic goal-orientation is more important at the initial stage than extrinsic goal-orientation, but the roles change during training process (perseverance).
39 Results: InterviewImportance of future work security and possibilities increase towards the mastery level.Role of social motivation (importance of friends and WSC team members) stay quite small and stable throughout the process.
40 Results: Interview4. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ employer?Challenging work tasksFreedom and responsibilityLogical and fair leadershipAcknowledgement of life long learningCompetitive salary
44 Second phase research questions (survey) 5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities?6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?7. What is the influence of domain-specific and non-domain-specific factors on the talent development of WSC competitors?
45 Design A vs. C 2. PHASE 1. PHASE 3. PHASE . . . Finnish WSC team selectionFinnish WSC team trainingWorldSkills competitionWorking lifeINTERVIEWS1. PHASE3. PHASEINTERVIEWSWSC SUCCESSSURVEYDATAANLYSE. . .A vs. C
46 MethodA combined sample of 2007 (Shizuoka, Japan), 2009 (Calgary, Canada) and 2011 (London, UK) teams contain 110 competitors.The response rate was 75 per cent of the total target population (N = 147).The sample consists of 76 male (69%) and 34 female (31%) competitors.Male respondents’ age average was 20.9 years (SD = 1.676) and female respondents 20.8 years (SD = 1.735).
47 MethodThe participants of the survey study represent 23 WSC categories covering most of the MI theory’s intelligence areas.The concepts of expertise and excellence were operationalized as follows:World Skills competitors were considered to be vocational experts and they were coded into group B (positions 8 – 11 in international competitions) or group C (positions 12 – ).Only the most successful competitors were coded into group A (positions 1 – 7), representing vocational excellence in the study.
49 Vocational studies GPA Results: SurveySuccess in middle school did not predict vocational skill competition success.Success in vocational studies did predict vocational skill competition success.+Middle school GPAWSC successVocational studies GPA
50 Results: Survey5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities?Multiple Intelligences theory’s relation to skill areas:(1) Linguistic (e.g., Caring, Hair Dressing)(2) Logical-mathematical (e.g., IT/Programming, Web Design)(3) Musical(4) Spatial (e.g., Web Design, Beauty Therapy)(5) Bodily-kinesthetic (e.g., Plumbing and Heating, Caring)(6) Interpersonal (e.g., Beauty Therapy, Catering)(7) Intrapersonal(8) Spiritual(9) Environmental
51 Results: Survey5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities?Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence- Dominant in most skill areas.Mathematical-logical intelligenceInterpersonal intelligenceSpatial intelligenceIntrapersonal intelligenceWhere the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group:Linguistic intelligence (‘A’ higher)Interpersonal intelligence (‘A’ higher)
52 Results: Survey6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?Motivational factors:(1) Internal goal orientation,(2) External goal orientation,(3) Meaningfulness of studies,(4) Control beliefs,(5) Efficacy beliefs,(6) Test anxiety.Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales:(1) Mastery Goal Orientation,(2) Performance-Approach Goal Orientation,(3) Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation.Attributions for success and failure
53 Results: Survey6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?1. Meaningfulness of studies (studies will benefit future work career)2. Extrinsic goal orientation (need for positive feedback from others, ambition)3. Intrinsic goal orientation (mastery of a skill is a satisfying experience)4. Efficacy beliefs (success due ability)5. Control beliefs (success due effort)
54 Results: Survey6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?Where the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group:All motivational factors, except test anxiety, were higher in the ‘A’ group.’A’ group preferred effort over ability as an explanation for their success.Test anxiety was higher in the ’C’ group.Predictive modeling showed ”meaningfulness of studies” to be the most important predictor for success in skills competitions.
55 Results: Survey6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?1. Mastery Goal Orientation (development of competence is important, learning is interesting, focus is on the task)2. Performance-Approach Goal Orientation (show others, focus is on the self)3. Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation (avoidance of embarrassment, focus is on the self)Where the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group:The ’A’ group was more performance- approach oriented than the ’C’ group.The ‘C‘ group was clearly more performance-avoidance oriented than the ‘A’ group.
56 Results: Survey6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?Volitional aspects of talent development were investigated through two dimensions, perseverance and time management.PerseveranceTime managementWhere the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group:The ’A’ group had better time management skills.
57 Results: Survey7. What is the influence of domain and non-domain specific factors to the WSC competitors’ talent development?
58 Results: Survey7. What is the influence of domain and non-domain specific factors to the WSC competitors’ talent development?1. Conducive home atmosphere (non-domain specific factor)2. Interest towards work field (domain specific intrinsic motivation)3. Interest in competing with others in vocational skills (domain specific extrinsic motivation)All these factors were positively connected with international skills competition success.
59 Measurement model of Vocational Talent Development INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICSVOLITIONPerseveranceTime managementMOTIVATIONSELF-REFLECTIONEffortAbilityIntrinsicExtrinsicNATURAL ABILITIESMAPCREATIVYINTELLECTUALPAPLinguisticPAVLogical-mathematicalVOCATIONALTALENTDEVELOPMENTSpatialIntrapersonalSpiritualMusicalSOCIOAFFECTIVEInterpersonalEnvironmentalSENSORIMOTORHomeTeachersBodily-kinestheticFriendsTrainersArtefactsWork/empl.Team matesNON-DOMAIN DOMAINSPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
60 Outcome model of Vocational Talent Development (expertise vs Outcome model of Vocational Talent Development (expertise vs. excellence)
62 Third phase research questions (interview) 8. What characteristics specify WSC competitors in the working life?9. What life management skills specify WSC competitors in the working life?10. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ employer?
64 Method16 interviews were conducted in six Finnish small to medium size enterprises.Three participants were selected from each workplace:(W) Finnish WSC medalist from 2005 Helsinki or 2007 Calgary, who has more than two year work experience after the competition.(C) Control group member with similar age and work experience but no skills competition training (not available in all work places).(E) Employer representative.
65 Results: Interview8. What characteristics specify WSC competitors in the working life?
66 Results: Interview Self-reflection (stress tolerance) W C E W = WorldSkills competitorC = Control group memberE = EmployerSelf-reflection (stress tolerance)W C EVolition (perseverance, time management skills)W C ECognitive skills (development potential)W C E
67 Results: Interview9. What life management skills specify WSC competitors in the working life?
68 Results: Interview Do team work W C E Bounce back from failures W C E W = WorldSkills competitorC = Control group memberE = EmployerDo team workW C EBounce back from failuresW C EManage conflict situationsW C EBounce back from injusticesW C EBounce back from successW C E
69 Results: Interview10. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ employer?
70 Results: Interview Freedom and responsibility W C E W = WorldSkills competitorC = Control group memberE = EmployerFreedom and responsibilityW C EChallenging work tasksW C ELogical and fair leadershipW C E
72 ConclusionsThis mixed-method study investigated the role of Finnish WorldSkills Competition (WSC) participants' natural abilities, intrinsic characteristics, and extrinsic conditions to their talent development with qualitative and quantitative samples.
73 ConclusionsThe results of the semi-structured interviews with competitors, their parents, trainers, and working life representatives showed that self-reflection (stress tolerance), volition (perseverance, time management skills), cognitive skills (development potential), and motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic) were considered the most important characteristics.
74 ConclusionsCharacteristics related to volition, self-reflection, and cognitive skills played an important role in all three developmental stages of vocational talent (initial interest, perseverance, and mastery of the skill).The role of both teachers and trainers was deemed important to the stages of vocational talent development.
75 ConclusionsThe results of the survey showed that the most successful competitors were characterized by their linguistic and interpersonal abilities.They also believed that effort was more important to their success than ability.The most successful competitors were more performance-approach goal oriented and less performance-avoidance oriented than were their less successful peers.
76 ConclusionsA supportive home and school atmosphere positively affected the development of vocational talent.Future research directions regarding competitors’ characteristics should include examination of their mindsets, health (lifestyle), hobbies, safety, and media skills, and also focus more on those WSC skill areas requiring teamwork.
78 DiscussionOne key to success is to encourage vocational training institutions to participate in skill competitions.This will inevitably lead teachers in participating organizations to seek higher competence in their field (professional development) through different roles (trainers, experts) in the process.
79 DiscussionTheir knowledge of new innovations in vocational training and skill-specific working methods would not only benefit the WSC competitors and non-participating students in vocational institutions, but would also challenge participating teachers’ colleagues to update their professional knowledge and, thus, create a more forceful transfer of knowledge.
80 DiscussionVocational education students and their teachers in various institutions around the world will also benefit from new ideas and support for their professional self-esteem by visiting both national and international competitions.
81 DiscussionFurther, I would like to emphasize the fact that all the characteristics of vocational expertise and excellence discussed in this presentation, except for natural abilities, are controllable, at least to some extent, and, thus, are manageable through educational policies.
82 DiscussionSince the development of vocational talent is a life-long learning process, any of the competitors in low achieving group (C) may achieve the level of vocational excellence later in their work careers.The recognition of hindering factors to talent development in the early stages of formal education will help the future work force to fulfill its development potential.
83 Discussion Examples of such factors appeared in this presentation: 1) attributing success mainly to uncontrollable instead of controllable factors,2) using maladaptive instead of adaptive patterns of learning, and3) focusing on the self instead of focusing on the task.
86 MoVE InternationalAn international research team was established to investigate London WorldSkills competitors and experts:University of Tampere, FinlandSKOPE, Oxford University, UKRMIT University, AustraliaResearch was funded by the WorldSkills Foundation.Report is available at:
87 WorldSkills London 2011 Data from 38 countries (n=409) Team Finland Shizuoka, Calgary, London (n=110)
88 WorldSkills London 2011 Data from 38 countries (n=409) Team Finland Shizuoka, Calgary, London (n=110)