Presentation on theme: "The Dimensions of Experience & Meaning"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Dimensions of Experience & Meaning <course name here>
2 Why experiences?Why are experiences important? Why should companies care about the experiences they create for their customers and other stakeholders?
3 From: The Experience Economy, Pine and Gilmore Price/ValueThis is graph from the book, The Experience Economy, by Pine & Gilmore. According to their perspective, organizations can derive more value, profit margin, and customer interaction as they move from delivering commodities (such as generic coffee beans) to products (such as brewed coffee) to services (such as coffee service on an airplane) to experiences (such as a well-designed coffee shop where people want to spend time). The more that we support experience, the more value we provide (often), the more customers will pay, and the more satisfaction they usually get. For companies, great experiences are more lucrative, more profitable, and generate more loyal customers.ExperienceFrom: The Experience Economy, Pine and Gilmore
4 Price/Value Experience Event/Environment However, there is one issue with their model and that is that Experience is present across the entire spectrum. It isn’t something that happens after products and services. Every product and service is an experience. So, this last category must be something else. Staying true to the book’s examples, it is events and environments (places) that are really the last step across this spectrum. All of these create experiences and, therefore, companies should carefully create these experiences no matter what they offer.Event/Environment
5 Experiences are designable There is still sometimes controversy over whether experiences are even designable. Some say you can’t design an experience for others (because you need to know them too intimately and know too much about them to have their experience match, perfectly, what you intend). Yet, we seem to do it every day. The point isn’t to control the experience exactly, but to come as close as possible and take into account multiple senses, multiple media, time, story, and consistency.
6 Everything we create is an experience We can look at everything we create as having an experience, or a potential one, surrounding it. Therefore, if we choose, what experience do we want it to be?
7 We recognize some experiences easily We recognize many experiences because we have to pay for them. For example, we know that places like Disneyland are experiences.
8 We recognize some experiences easily We also recognize events, like Cirque du Soleil as experiences.
9 We recognize some experiences easily We recognize, seek, and create experiences throughout our lives that have nothing to do with commerce, of course. Births, weddings, parties, etc. are some of the most meaningful in our lives.
10 However, we don’t always see the other experiences in our lives However, we don’t always see the other experiences in our lives. We see products...
12 But these are also experiences because of how we use them But these are also experiences because of how we use them. Products and services enable experiences. For the iPod, the interface has a great deal to do with the experience but the experience of an iPod goes beyond downloading or selecting music. It enables portable music in our lives and this is how we experience most of our time with iPods and other music players (not controlling them).
13 People don’t just travel to see things For examples, most people don’t merely travel to see sights (though they may still phrase travel in this way).
14 They travel to experience Usually, people travel for wonderful experiences, maybe unique, maybe educational, but always experiential. An emerging category of travelers, in fact, (experience travelers) cuts across traditional demographic segments. These travelers are conscious of experience and go out of their way to experience unique experiences wherever they travel. They are just as likely to eat at the best restaurant in a city one night, and from a street vendor the next. They seek what’s unique to a place and often try to look like a local, eschewing traditional tourist traps. They are just as likely to visit a museum for that one, rare highlight piece that interests them, and then surf, mountain bike, hike, or simply walk later that same day in a part of town not frequented by tourists. When they shop, they aren’t interested in stores they can find at home, but boutiques with things they didn’t know to look for.
15 Design is the process of making experiences The act of design isn’t just about making things (electronics, food, clothes, jewelry, environments, etc.). It’s about creating experiences around these things. Every event planner, wedding planner, theater director, and renowned restauranteur already knows this. It’s time that designers, marketers, business people, service providers, meeting planners, bosses, husbands, wives, mothers, fathers, etc. learn to better shape experiences so we can create more satisfying experiences for each other.
16 But what, exactly, is an experience? That brings us to an important question, if most everything is an experience what are the boundaries or dimensions of experiences?
17 EXPERIENCE SIGNIFICANCE DURATION TRIGGERS BREADTH INTENSITY This represents a new model of experience, consisting of six dimensions.INTENSITYINTERACTION
18 EXPERIENCE BREADTH Product Service Brand Name(s) Channel/Environment(Space)PromotionPriceBreadth is about consistency, throughout all media, channels, and touch-points. We don’t usually trust people who aren’t consistent, incoherent, reliable, or exhibit multiple personality. And, the reality is that we don’t trust products, services, companies, or other experiences like this either.
19 Example: Apple. Store, Devices, knowledgable staff (especially the Apple Geniuses at the Genius Bar), the website, etc. All of these contribute to an overall consistency of experience even though the experiences differ greatly from medium to medium.Breadth
20 EXPERIENCE TRIGGERS BREADTH Sight Product Sound Service Smell Brand TasteTouchConceptsSymbolsBREADTHProductServiceBrandName(s)Channel/Environment(Space)PromotionPriceTriggers are about all of our senses and the colors, sounds, surfaces, textures, materials, symbols, tastes, aromas, animations, visuals, shapes, etc. that trigger meaning for us. Does it look or sound expensive? fun? youthful? cool? traditional? reliable? etc. Every choice we make when crafting experiences support or erode meaning and success. These, of course, are all culturally-influenced, not just across national boundaries but across age, gender, and other cultural distinctions. They ebb and flow over time and are constantly changing, responding to and influencing styles, tastes, and trends.
21 Every sensorial decision is a trigger: color, texture, smell, taste, typeface, sound, music, voice, pattern, icon, symbol, interaction, layout, concept, temperature, expression, etc...Triggers are about all of our senses and the colors, sounds, surfaces, textures, materials, symbols, tastes, aromas, animations, visuals, shapes, etc. that trigger meaning for us. Does it look or sound expensive? fun? youthful? cool? traditional? reliable? etc. Every choice we make when crafting experiences support or erode meaning and success. These, of course, are all culturally-influenced, not just across national boundaries but across age, gender, and other cultural distinctions. They ebb and flow over time and are constantly changing, responding to and influencing styles, tastes, and trends.
22 For example, in the USA, wedding invitations are often white because the color signifies (or triggers) meanings of purity, elegance, and specialness. However, in South Korea, white is the color of death and triggers very different associations.
23 Some find the gold on this shoe elegant, expensive, and fashionable Some find the gold on this shoe elegant, expensive, and fashionable. To others, however, it signifies opulence, insecurity, and ego. A designer’s job isn’t to pick and choose design details based on their personal preferences or favorite typefaces, colors, materials, etc. Instead, it’s to make these choices carefully understanding how they trigger associations in their customers’ minds. This is the opposite approach to how design is often taught.
24 EXPERIENCE TRIGGERS BREADTH INTENSITY Sight Product Sound Service SmellTasteTouchConceptsSymbolsBREADTHProductServiceBrandName(s)Channel/Environment(Space)PromotionPriceIntensity is all about appropriateness and opportunity. Rreflexes happen too quickly, and habits occur when we’re not truly engaged or aware, But, when the experience is more engaging already, that’s when we can create effects. We can also look for opportunities to take habits and make them more engaging.INTENSITYReflexHabitEngagement
25 This is one example. Toothbrushes used to be simple and straightforward. We used them habitually and didn’t give them much consideration, either when purchasing them or using them.Intensity
26 Then, the started getting more elaborate and they became more engaging Then, the started getting more elaborate and they became more engaging. This allows early innovative companies to differentiate their toothbrushes from the rest.Intensity
27 Now, some toothbrushes are fully engaging experiences--for better and worse. They contain microchips that vibrate to tell us when to switch teeth or evan play songs for us through the bones in our head.Intensity
28 EXPERIENCE DURATION TRIGGERS BREADTH INTENSITY Initiation Immersion ConclusionContinuationEXPERIENCETRIGGERSSightSoundSmellTasteTouchConceptsSymbolsBREADTHProductServiceBrandName(s)Channel/Environment(Space)PromotionPriceTime is the basis for story and narrative and represents the flow of how we experience things. We need to carefully consider the start, duration, and end of the experiences we design, make the transitions into and out of them appropriately comfortable. In addition, the times span of experiences are often much longer than we or our clients initially consider. Shopping, for example, is more than just the transaction. Some people are “shopping” for something all of their lives. Unless we consider the larger time frame of the human experiences we address, we miss opportunities to develop more successful experiences.INTENSITYReflexHabitEngagement
29 EXPERIENCE DURATION TRIGGERS BREADTH INTENSITY INTERACTION Initiation ImmersionConclusionContinuationEXPERIENCETRIGGERSSightSoundSmellTasteTouchConceptsSymbolsBREADTHProductServiceBrandName(s)Channel/Environment(Space)PromotionPriceInteraction is about involvement and it’s not the domain of only “interactive media.” In fact, so-called interactive experiences often pale in comparison to non-technical experiences in our lives. Interactivity comprises how we relate to the objects and people around us, and what we can do with them. Some of the components of interaction include the ability to control the experience, the amount of feedback we get within and about the experience, whether we can create or co-create the experience, whether we can communicate to others, and how the experience adapts to our needs, abilities, interests, and experiences. Experiences like team sports (futbol, for example), are often much more interactive experiences than the most advanced electronics device.INTENSITYReflexHabitEngagementINTERACTIONPassiveActiveInteractive
30 EXPERIENCE SIGNIFICANCE DURATION TRIGGERS BREADTH INTENSITY MeaningStatus/IdentityEmotion/LifestylePriceFunctionDURATIONInitiationImmersionConclusionContinuationEXPERIENCETRIGGERSSightSoundSmellTasteTouchConceptsSymbolsBREADTHProductServiceBrandName(s)Channel/Environment(Space)PromotionPriceBut the most important dimension of experience is meaning, or significance. This is how we relate products, services, events, and experiences to our lives. This is what governs what we care about, what we regret, and what we remember for the rest of our lives.INTENSITYReflexHabitEngagementINTERACTIONPassiveActiveInteractive
31 MEANING SIGNIFICANCE DURATION TRIGGERS BREADTH INTENSITY INTERACTION Status/IdentityEmotion/LifestylePriceFunctionDURATIONInitiationImmersionConclusionContinuationTRIGGERSSightSoundSmellTasteTouchConceptsSymbolsBREADTHProductServiceBrandName(s)Channel/Environment(Space)PromotionPriceBy putting meaning at the center of product and service development, and brand management, organizations can more likely succeed in connecting on deep levels with their customers and other stakeholders. We have models now for designing experiences.MEANINGINTENSITYReflexHabitEngagementINTERACTIONPassiveActiveInteractive
32 MEANING VALUES EMOTIONS PRICE FEATURES This represents a new model of meaning and significance--and one we can use in development.Meaning is the deepest level of five layers of significance. Whether we ask ourselves consciously or subconsciously, we’re always aware of these levels in the decisions we make. It’s more powerful than price and performance, more powerful even than emotions and values. For example...
33 Function (Performance): Does this do what I need?The most basic questions we ask about our experiences have to do with how they function and what they’re capable of. This is also fairly shallow and these questions are seen as “rational” and are mostly address consciously--often verbally.
34 Does this do what I need at a price I’m willing to pay? Price (Value):Does this do what I need ata price I’m willing to pay?The next level of questions we have about our experiences have to do with value, or price. Once we narrow down our choices, we narrow them further by consider how important or valuable they are to us. For example, you can fly across the Atlantic Ocean in an economy seat, business class, or first class seat. Each of these variations get you to the same place but at a very different price and with different features. We look for the combination of performance and price that represents what we think is “worth it.” This is also a very conscious, “rational” process that we often speak about out-loud.
35 Emotions (Lifestyle):Does this make me feel good? ...or scared or anxious or young or whatever? Emotions are powerful and important and still missing from most interactive experiences. This is where our processes turn subconscious and are caste as “irrational.” To the contrary, however, these are entirely rational decisions, but most people lack the vocabulary and model necessary to address them well. So, we call them irrational. We also make decisions at this level more instinctively and less consciously--especially at the moment they occur. Later, we may realize what took place. However, emotions are powerful forces and this level of engagement often overpowers previous decisions and requirements we’ve set regarding price and performance.
36 Status/Identity (Values): Is this me?More powerful still, are those experiences that connect with our values and cause us to consider “is this me?” Regardless of whether we should or shouldn’t be building our identities through the products and services we buy and use (as well as experiences), it’s a fact of human nature and the world we live in. Perhaps, we shouldn’t define ourselves by our possessions but, certainly, we’ve always done so based on our experiences. This level of engagement is much more difficult to reach because it requires much more detailed and individual knowledge about our audiences, customers, and participants than the more shallow levels of Significance.
37 Does this fit into my world? Meaning (Reality):Does this fit into my world?The deepest level of significance in the Meaning and Experience models is Meaning. This represents the most powerful aspect of any experience and the most difficult bond, usually, for people to break once made. The things and people we interact with must fit our model and understanding of the world in order to open a potential connection. Otherwise, we don’t see the value at all and often don’t “see” the experience at all. Often, models of reality are created at the levels of society and religion and can represent dogmatic perspectives about how the world works. To connect at this level, companies, brands, organizations, etc. must acknowledge and work within this Meaning framework and how their customers, audiences, and participants “view” the world.
38 Core Meanings: Accomplishment Beauty Creation Community Duty EnlightenmentFreedomHarmonyJusticeOnenessRedemptionSecurityTruthValidationWonderWe’ve identified 15 core meanings, only the positive ones, and there may yet be more. The most important aspect of meaning is that the are universal. Every person, no matter the culture they were raised in, understands these core meanings. These are only the positive ones, BTW. There are, no doubt, negative ones as well. However, we don’t all prioritize the same ones, and we express them differently (this is how they connect to our values) but we all understands their value and importance. Think about which are most important to you. Which to you actively seek? Which do you take for granted?
39 Core Meanings: Definitions: makingmeaning.org You can find the definitions of these core meanings at this URL.
40 Meaning is at the core of Values: Priorities and Expressions We hear a lot these days about companies and values and organizations responding to their customers’ values. This is critical to overall strategy. It also gives us a framework to both research and develop around our customers’ meanings, values, and emotions. Our values are our expressions of our meanings: religion, dogma, etc.
41 Nike: Accomplishment Beauty Creation Community Duty Enlightenment FreedomAccomplishmentBeautyHarmonyJusticeOnenessRedemptionSecurityTruthValidationWonderThis is how it plays-out for organizations. It’s probably not possible for an organization to focus on more than 3 core meanings.Freedom
42 Apple (iPod): Accomplishment Beauty Creation Duty Enlightenment FreedomBeautyCreationHarmonyJusticeOnenessRedemptionSecurityTruthCommunityDifferent offerings within the same organization may also shift these focii a little.FreedomValidation
43 Apple (Macintosh): Accomplishment Beauty Creation Community DutyEnlightenmentFreedomHarmonyJusticeOnenessRedemptionSecurityTruthValidationFreedomWonder
44 Disney Accomplishment Beauty Creation Community Duty Enlightenment FreedomBeautyCommunityHarmonyJusticeOnenessRedemptionSecurityTruthValidationWonderRedemptionWonder
45 Beauty, Community, Wonder... FilmsTV & RadioMusicTheme parksTravel (cruises, etc.)ClothingSouvenirsToysComputersGamesCars & Buses?Phones & PDAs?Furniture?Security Systems?Food & Agriculture?Education (schools)?Financial Services?Healthcare?Governments?What wouldn’t fit into Disney’s universe, as defined by their core meanings? All of these are successful businesses but they wouldn’t be good fits. This is a more grounded approach to brand strategy because it’s based on people’s inherent meanings.
46 Successful experiences are meaningful (and not merely novel)This goes to the heart not only of product development and experience expression, but of product and corporate strategy: what should we make, not just how should we make it.
47 Design is the process of evoking meaning Despite the title of the book, Making Meaning, we don’t actually MAKE meaning, we evoke it--through triggers. Meanings are made collectively across society via culture.
48 How does this relate to business & strategy? Companies can put Meaning at the center of their innovation efforts and, therefore, more easily create experiences (products, services, etc.) that are more meaningful and successful for their customers.
49 Corporate Meaning Priorities Strategic Design:Corporate Meaning PrioritiesYour FocusTeam Meaning PrioritiesCustomer Meaning PrioritiesBy evaluating and comparing core meaning priorities across these groups, overlap will tell the organization whether it has the right people (team) working for the right organization (itself) in service of the right customers. Three or more overlapping core meanings signify a high chance of success. One or no overlapping core meanings signifies tremendous risk and expense and, even then, not a high likelihood of success.
50 Corporate Meaning Priorities Strategic Design:Corporate Meaning PrioritiesYour FocusTeam Meaning PrioritiesCustomer Meaning PrioritiesTo whatever extent the core meanings an organization focuses on fall outside those of their competitors, this gives them a better chance to differentiate their offerings.Competitors’ Meaning Priorities
51 Strategic Design: Focus: Beauty & Wonder Corporate: Accomplishment Team:HarmonyBeautyWonderCustomer:SecurityBeautyWonderWhen there’s a high degree of overlap between all of these areas, there’s a higher degree of successfully creating meaningful experiences.Focus: Beauty & Wonder
52 Strategic Design: No Focus! Corporate: Accomplishment Beauty Wonder Team:HarmonyJusticeWonderCustomer:ValidationCreationDutyWhen there’s little overlap, that’s a signal for trouble.No Focus!
53 These are templates to help organize core meanings and elaborate on experiences.
54 How do you put this into the development process? This makes them critical to overall strategy. It also gives us a framework to both research and develop around our customers’ meanings, values, and emotions. Our values are our expressions of our meanings: religion, dogma, etc.
55 A meaning-filled development process: Developers have an opportunity to play a role not only in the product development realm, but also in the board room, where strategy for the company is set (and needs to reflect better customer understanding).
56 A meaning-filled development process: First, meaning research should be an integrated part of customer research. This is key data that should affect corporate strategy for your companies and/or clients.
57 A meaning-filled development process: Then, corporate strategy can start reflecting customer meaning. This is the first step toward specifying the right offerings (the right business to be in).
58 A meaning-filled development process: Then, meaning becomes an integrated, accepted part of the development process and you’re already working on the right offering. Now, you can concentrate on making it as great as possible.
59 Research Techniques: Interviews Careful Surveys Shadowing Games, etc. The Meaning of Thingsby CsikszentmihalyiIn essence, you can use most all of the research techniques you already do, but you need to augment them to look for core meanings, as well as their prioritization and expression. This leads you to the triggers. One of the only investigations into this is from a book published in 1981! This is pretty much the only thing published on the research techniques aside from a bit in Making Meaning.
60 DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY BUSINESS Increased change in all of these domains. They can no longer be considered outside the context of the other. Experience and Meaning bind these together, both in process and outcome, and are the key to creating deeper, lasting offerings with customers.BUSINESS
61 DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY MEANING EXPERIENCE BUSINESS Lying at the heart of these is the most valuable, important, and powerful aspect of brands, organizations, products and services. It’s my hunch, based on circumstantial evidence so far, that people with a lot of meaning in their lives lead more sustainable lives because they don’t need a lot of other stuff filling voids.I’ll talk more about Sustainability in the World Usability Day panel on Friday. I’m happy that Sustainability is the theme for theEXPERIENCEBUSINESS
64 Who’s doing this? You In short: no one. Everyone who is doing this well is doing so intuitively or accidentally. It’s already happening so it’s not actually new.Customers already have meaningful connections to some of the things they buy and use: Nike, Apple, Starbucks, Disney,It’s just that we have a process for it now. Cheskin uses it in their strategic consulting. I teach it to the students in my program.
65 What meanings doyour customers prioritize? It’s up to you to not only determine what your customers prioritize in meaning, but how they express it--and how they respond to triggers.
66 What experiences do they seek? And, don’t forget about the other attributes of experience.
68 Should companiesevoke meaning? Is this nefarious? Is it just another way for corporations to intrude in our lives? Or, try to convince us to buy their wares?
69 Does everything we design already evoke meaning? We’re already doing this accidentally and unintentionally. We might as well do it well. You can use it for good or you can use it for evil. Some admit that thy WANT to be manipulated--this is what entertainment is all about.
70 Are you creating anything meaningful? Are you adding meaning to people’s lives?
71 What’s meaningful to you? Perhaps, this is the most important question of your careers. If you don’t realize what’s meaningful to yourself, You’ll find it difficult to understand what’s meaningful to others. It may also make it more difficult to lead a satisfying life.