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ADD/ADHD Concentration difficulties have always existed. Dr Gerald, psychiatrist, conducted a survey among Bushmen and discovered that the hyperactive.

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Presentation on theme: "ADD/ADHD Concentration difficulties have always existed. Dr Gerald, psychiatrist, conducted a survey among Bushmen and discovered that the hyperactive."— Presentation transcript:


2 ADD/ADHD Concentration difficulties have always existed. Dr Gerald, psychiatrist, conducted a survey among Bushmen and discovered that the hyperactive hunter was regarded as a leader due to his acute senses. This enabled him to see or smell the prey before anyone else. Our current social setting and school system can be a disadvantage. ADD/ADHD can take 3 forms: – Predominant hyperactivity and impulsivity – Predominant attention deficient – A combination of hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention deficit


4 PHILIP Philip is a boisterous, noisy, over-active, impulsive, affectionate, quick tempered child, but never sulks and is usually cheerful. He is very forgetful and loses all his possessions. He is very distractible and easily bored, his handwriting is terrible, he under-achieves in class, but he loves and excels in sports. Although he often fights, he is well liked. He suffers from Eczema and drinks the taps dry. Philip has all 3 key symptoms.

5 JAMES James on the other hand is quiet, withdrawn and dreamy. He is never in trouble in class but his lack of enthusiasm and participation is worrying. He is bored and uninterested in his schoolwork and never finishes an exercise. His handwriting is terrible and although he would love to do well at sports for some reason he cannot shape. He is chronically anxious with compulsive mannerisms and habits and is often unwell with sinus and ear infections. James is ADD but hypo- rather than hyperactive.

6 LINDA Linda does well in school. Perhaps if she were to concentrate all the time she would excel. But she is not a happy child. She is loud, rough and very bossy. She is very argumentative, intolerant and quite aggressive. The other children do not like her and keep away. Deep down she is desperate to be liked and have a friend, but she covers this up with a thick I dont care shell. Linda has a touch of ADD but her main problem is hyperactivity and impulsivity.

7 PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS Genetic condition (bright, ambitious, interesting and often exciting individuals) Symptoms before the age of 7 Over-activity – shake a foot etc. does not sit still Constant purposeless activity Often underweight Allergies Always thirsty Run/walk on their toes – wear out socks under the balls of their feet Sensory defensive Can be vocal Speech difficulties are common Dont all have sleeping problems Poor motor skills / low muscle tone (confidence affected) Accident prone


9 ACADEMIC SYMPTOMS Over-activity – so much energy into sitting still the child has no energy left to concentrate Concentrate if material interests them (low boredom threshold) Distractibility (noises outside as well as thoughts going around in his head) Good at Maths difficulty with Languages (or other way round) Impulsivity Procrastination ** Short term memory problems which lead to learning difficulties Auditory/visual discrimination and perceptual difficulties Poor organisational abilities

10 ADD/ADHD is not the childs fault!

11 EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS Low frustration threshold Lack of persistence Lack of motivation (do minimal) Immature for their age Social difficulties (impulsivity, impatience, intolerance, irritability, urge to control and unpredictable behaviour) Tantrums Insecurity LOW SELF ESTEEM These children are different. They perceive the world differently. Their thought processes run along different lines. They display a deep need to be the same as everyone else, but their behaviour is often seen as somewhat weird.

12 Its not YOUR childs fault that he/she is ADD/ADDHD

13 CHILDREN AT CEDARWOOD DIET Avoid aspirin, artificial colourants, flavourants, certain preservatives Supplements are good if your child suffers from dry skin, respiratory problems hay fever, asthma, bronchitis, frequent colds and ear infections. Cut down on refined carbohydrate i.e. white flour, white rice, sugar Feed frequently to keep blood sugar levels stable Must not feel deprived. It is better to make them feel special! Diet Medication Therapy Relationships

14 Medication and Therapies Need medication for academic reasons Ritalin stimulates the production of dopamine Better marks Reduces impulsivity Improves handwriting Improves short term memory Improves sociability Self confidence Antidepressants e.g. Tofranil Eat nutritious meals before having medication Speech Therapy Occupational Therapy Physiotherapy Play Therapy Extramural activities


16 BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION Spanking works in the short term but often involves embarrassment, isolation, rejection and fear and should be avoided at all costs! Behaviour modification focuses on rewarding the positive » We are motivated by praise » We are motivated to work for rewards (children 4-10 are externally motivated) » 10-13 motivated to avoid disapproval and rules dictate

17 Example: Every morning brings the same battle – getting dressed. Your child fiddles and dawdles and makes the whole family late. What can you do? Nag Scream Threaten & punish You ignore You smack

18 BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION Target the inappropriate behaviour i.e. brushing your teeth after breakfast Negotiate the rewards Link praise to the reward – shift to higher level of moral development Reward the action 1 st stage: instant rewards (first week) 2 nd stage: delayed gratification (save money for Friday) 3 rd stage: intermittent rewards –praise often (one day) – want to please and follow rules 4 th stage: stopping one and starting another – a month to become a habit, keep praising

19 STAR CHARTS Star charts are aimed at behaviours that cannot be timed. One behaviour at a time. E.g. putting clothes in the wash basket, hanging up towels Negotiate reward Put star chart on the wall – small after 5, small after 10 and their main reward of 20 stars Only get a star if they complete the criteria completely – label the feeling for them you think you are cross with me for not getting the star but instead you are disappointed with yourself for not getting the star – it will just take one day longer thats all Use for 3-4 weeks




23 MAINTAINING THE STRUCTURE Do not shout at your child. Rather say, Wow it looks like you have had fun today. Lets pack your toys away so you can have fun tomorrow. Dont pack everything away yourself Dont stand and issue verbal instructions Every day for a week then ask questions such as whats next? Then begin process off and come back and praise 3 -4 weeks to develop a habit

24 THE MORNING/EVENING ROUTINE Mom, where are my takkies? Hurry up, youll be late for school! For the twentieth time, go and brush your teeth! Why must I nag you all the time? If you dont hurry up we are going to leave without you

25 AVOID POWER STRUGGLES Stay consistent and predictable 5 minutes is 5 minutes Use countdowns to prepare children for a change in activity Use the either/or approach e.g.: either you bath now or you wont get tuck money tomorrow

26 MORNING ROUTINE Do as much as possible the night before A picture says a thousand words


28 MAINTAINING THE ROUTINES You will have teething problems, you will fight, you will forget. Whatever the reason the first 3 weeks can be terrifying! But the long term benefits are enormous. Week 1: Instant rewards Week 2: Delayed rewards Week 3: Intermittent Rewards

29 WEEKLY PLANNERS Main reason is to schedule time for homework each afternoon and to know what activities he/she is doing on a given day Make own planner – 1. Fill in the non-negotiables (therapy sessions, homework) – Choose a colour for the different activities – 2. rest, change and eat – 3. Homework (work before play makes for a happy day) – 4. Free time

30 MONTHLY PLANNERS Big picture of all family members A3 - Dont laminate – smudge Birthday parties, school holidays, haircuts, dentists Have 3 months up at a time Learn a lot such as in 2 days time……

31 HOMEWORK DIARIES Nothing written down Too little written down Written down under the wrong day or month Cant read it OR Pen Listen Relevant worksheets/books arent packed Has to be done speedily before moving onto next lesson


33 THE FILE A large 3 ring binder file Four A4 dividers in different colours Coloured plastic A4 envelopes in 3 different shades Plastic filing pockets A zip-fastened pencil bag A bulldog clip A notepad

34 THE PENCIL CASE By attaching one to the file, there is less chance that it will be left lying around Only absolute necessities are kept in the pencil case » 2 blue pens » 2 pencils » 1 sharpener » 1 eraser » 1 small ruler » 2 coloured pencils » Tissues » A highlighter (older children)

35 THREE MAIN SECTIONS Plastic envelopes are divided into: Work to be done (number of envelopes may vary) Completed work (signed letters also go here) Papers to save (project tasks, study guides etc.) In the plastic sleeves – have information that your child needs to help with his/her homework

36 MAKING HOMEWORK A HABIT Schedule a daily homework time Setting Desk and chair Lighting Dustbin Stationery – 2 blue pens – 2 pencils – 30cm ruler – Sharpener – Eraser – 2 coloured pens – 12 coloured pencils – 1 glue – I pair of scissors

37 DOING THE HOMEWORK IS THE CHILDS RESPONSIBILITY Step 1 Check together what is for homework Categorise Break down into small manageable bits Step 2 Get out all the correct books Step 3 Begin Some may need a timer Step 4 Tick off task completed Step 5 Put completed work into completed work section Step 6 Bring homework diary for signing

38 TACKLING TESTS Eating the elephant one bite at a time! Break the study material into small bits – Get the big picture – Keywords, colour, symbols and mnemonics – Use the keywords in a sentence – One summary page (mind maps, tables, lists) – Revise the summaries – Set questions on the work – Link it to snakes and ladders – Confident

39 FUN WITH GAMES (Games are like onions, they have layers of benefits) Games teach social skills: following rules, taking turns, winning and losing gracefully. They have emotional benefits They build bonds They develop foundation skills

40 MAKE SPELLING SPECIAL Need: scrap paper, snakes and ladders, coloured pencils Make 2 packs of blank cards on 2 different coloured pieces of paper. Each pack must have all the spelling words. Check the spelling Snap, Bingo, Matching game, Memory Game, Snakes and Ladders Add: Rhyming the words, plurals, opposites


42 HANDLING TV TV has become a family member - the entertainer and the stress reliever. Intrudes into our lives. 2-3 hours a day is excessive It affects: » Weight » Physical development » Sleep patterns » Eye movement » Listening skills » Language development Play games instead No television in a childs bedroom Use television as a treat and choose the programmes with care

43 FEED YOUR CHILDS BRAIN Car = water, oil and petrol Human= water, omega oils, low GI carbohydrates and protein (Beetle or a BMW) Water: 70% of body, delivers oxygen, transports nutrients, removes waste products, regulates temperature. Drink 4 cups of water daily. Omega 3 and 6 Oils: essential for brain development. Omega 3 = salmon, herring, anchovies, eggs walnuts (x2 week)

44 FEED YOUR CHILDS BRAIN Protein: growth and maintenance of the body. Children should have protein at every meal. Rather eat 4 or 5 small nutritious meals a day. Low GI Foods: balances blood glucose levels e.g.: oats, Provita, Pronutro, low fat yoghourt, baked beans, apples, pears, peaches, homemade popcorn BREAKFAST IS ESSENTIAL! Not sugar frosted cereal Keep thinking: Water, Oil and Petrol and you wont go wrong


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