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AusVELS Teaching depth studies Years 7 – 18 A few ideas

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1 AusVELS Teaching depth studies Years 7 – 18 A few ideas
An overview of possible approaches and resources. R. Smith Executive Officer HTAV.

2 How to look at the overview.
How long? What do I cover? I’ve got a semester – can I get it done in the time?

3 The Ancient Past The content provides opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries. The Level 7 curriculum provides a study of history from the time of the earliest human communities to the end of the ancient period, approximately BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE). It was a period defined by the development of cultural practices and organised societies. The study of the ancient world includes the discoveries (the remains of the past and what we know) and the mysteries (what we do not know) about this period of history, in a range of societies including Australia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India. The history content at this level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions. A framework for developing students’ historical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this level are: Key inquiry questions How do we know about the ancient past? Why and where did the earliest societies develop? What emerged as the defining characteristics of ancient societies? What have been the legacies of ancient societies?

4 Overview The following content is to be taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the level. Overview content identifies important features of the period, approximately BC (BCE) - c.650 AD (CE), as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies; and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period. Overview content for the ancient world (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, China and the Maya) includes the following: the theory that people moved out of Africa around BC (BCE) and migrated to other parts of the world, including Australia. the evidence for the emergence and establishment of ancient societies (including art, iconography, writing tools and pottery) key features of ancient societies (farming, trade, social classes, religion, rule of law)

5 Historical understanding Getting students to develop questions and then possibly their own conclusions Historical Understanding underpins both strands and a particular focus in the achievement standards: continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, significance, evidence and contestability Can become the focus questions in teaching and learning activities EG. Continuity and change: What’s the same? Different? Why? EG Cause and effect: What motivated young Australians to go to war? Why did the environment become a political issue in the 1970s and 80s? What were the short term and long term causes of WWII? What impact did Australia’s signing of the UNDR have on Australia? EG Perspectives: Whose viewpoint? How the same/different from others? What shaped/ possibly shaped particular views of events, people etc.?

6 Investigating the Past - What about your own dig?
Using archeaology as an introduction – but creating ideas of questioning and building hypotheses. Let’s use the sand pit and our imaginations. You will need to decide which era and culture you will dig for But first some props that need to be found bought or created. Tools and props needed. Camera/s Pegs Rulers Digging tools Artefacts Paint brushes Recording sheets String 89

7 Evidence

8 Preparation You will need to bury either artefacts or photographs of artefacts in various parts of the sand pit Put them at varying depths If you can borrow parts of a plastic skeleton and bury these as well Explain to the class that the sand pit is a newly discovered archeaological site and that they are going to carry out the dig

9 Artefacts Decide on your period Locate images or replicas of artefacts
Some examples are below Copy and laminate them Bury at different levels; particularly if you want more than one period at your site

10 Starting Divide the class into two groups; diggers and recorders
As the lesson progresses they can swap roles Peg out the site creating a series of equal size squares using the string and the pegs Allocate diggers to each square Get them to slowly remove layers using the trowels (you will need to have buckets and a place to store the sand) If discoveries are made the diggers need to stop and then the recorders move in to photograph, measure and record. Artefacts should be drawn as well as photographed. Their positions need to be carefully recorded on a site map Once the initial records are made the diggers can move back in to reveal more of the artefact, using the brushes

11 Questioning As each find is made the students need to question what it is and what it could tell them about the site or culture they are discovering By the end of the lesson the students should be able to hypothesise about the time period that they are exploring and how or why the skeletal parts are located there. For fun you might put an appropriate weapon part into the body

12 WRITE UP Create a timeline
Produce archeaological reports based on their evidence Use photographs and drawings to support their findings

13 Source based analysis Being able to identify the origin and purpose of primary and secondary sources Being able to locate, compare and select and use information from a range of sources as evidence Being able to draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources

14 How to use sources. The best advice is simply to read or look at the sources and think: what is this telling me? It sometimes helps to picture how the source was originally produced: to picture the person writing it (where were they? In what conditions?) or to picture the people who originally read, heard or saw it. Indeed, in many ways the most important question to ask of a source is also the most basic: 'What is this?' However, there are other subordinate questions – who wrote it? What for? Who for? When? – which help towards an answer to that overarching question and which help the historian to see how this source might be useful.

15 COMA: Content? Origin? Motivation? Audience?

16 Ancient past - cave paintings
Cave Painting Tum Pra Toon, Thailand Quite different parts of the world yet there are similarities. What can students see in the paintings that would help them talk about life at this time? What types of weapons are used and are they similar or different? In the Thai painting what animal do they believe is depicted (it is thought to be a tame dog) and what does that say about the living and hunting methods? Other questions could be raised about how the age of the painting is established. Deer and Hunters 17,000 BCE unknown shaman Paleolithic cave painting Lascaux, France

17 Comparison and contestability
Hand stencils in El Castillo cave Examples like the two above are good sources to create debate. The El Castillo example is thought to date back to at least 41,500 years ago. Any older and it is believed it would be the work of Neanderthals rather than modern humans. The Australian example to the right can be contrasted to it. Students could then talk about similarities and differences and questions that are raised about Aboriginal settlement in Australia. Does the Australian painting help prove an arrival time?

18 Creating a museum exhibit – identifying sources and questioning the past.
In setting up a display students would have to think about What was the objects purpose? What is it made of? Who was it made for? Should it be displayed with other items? What information should be provided about it? How can it be seen but be safe? Plan the display to show that all these questions have been answered. Stela 51 Mayan society Mexico

19 Perspectives In a group develop a script for an interview as if the person being interviewed was an Incan of the period. They should explain why human sacrifice occurred and their beliefs about its effect and its importance to their life as a society. Then look at the questions – Why do we find this practice wrong nowadays? What beliefs does the practice reflect that are no longer held? Would all of Incan society have held the belief at that time? She is La Doncella and she's at least 500 years old, a human sacrifice to the Andean elements.

20 Sources for the Ancient Past
Years: 6–10 Key curriculum links: Time, Continuity and Change; Culture; Investigation, Communication and Participation An important part of 'us' and our story is Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander heritage. This unit of work asks students to think about how the National Museum's First Australians gallery presents Indigenous cultures and history by looking at a number of important themes and events included in the gallery including: the origins of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life in Australia traditional land ownership and land rights trading materials and routes diversity, spirituality and technology early contact and conflict with European settlers the mission experience land rights The First Australians: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples gallery represents the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia and incorporates historical collections and exhibitions. To improve audience understanding of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history and culture, this National Museum of Australia gallery presents stories, objects and images that explore the culture and experiences of Australia's first peoples from time immemorial, through colonisation to contemporary Australian life.

21 Sources - continued AGORA No 2 Vol. 47 2012
Pre history and Archaeology For teachers – articles such as The Arrival of Humans in Australia Peter Hiscock University of Sydney Case Study in Australian History What are the Mysteries of Lake Mungo? Explore the nature of the sources for ancient Australia and what they reveal about Australia’s past in the ancient period, using the discovery of Mungo Lady and then Mungo Man as a case study. Students ‘visit’ the World Heritage Willandra Lakes site, of which Lake Mungo is part, through a 25-minute virtual visit film. They see both the environment, and the archaeological evidence that exists about life in that place in ancient times. They realise that the Lake Mungo of today is not the same as Lake Mungo in the past. And they are challenged to solve some of the mysteries of that past! For students and teachers


23 China

24 Australia and at least two other cultures.
The Three Sovereigns and the Five Emperors Chinese mythology tells us about the first legendary rulers of Ancient China. These wise men and demigods ruled long before the first Chinese dynasty. The Three Sovereigns were powerful demigods who lived to be very old and brought peace and prosperity to the land during their rule. Fu Xi - Fu Xi was said to have invented fishing, trapping, and writing. His sister was Nuwa. It was Fu Xi and Nuwa who crafted the first humans out of clay. Nuwa - Nuwa was the sister of Fu Xi. She helped him to create humans and also repaired the wall of heaven. Shennong - Shennong's name means "Divine Farmer". He brought the knowledge of agriculture to the Chinese people. He invented the plow, axe, hoe, irrigation, and the Chinese calendar. Other names for the Three Sovereigns include The Heavenly Sovereign, The Earthly Sovereign, and the Human Sovereign. The Five Emperors were perfect kings who ruled wisely and with honor. The most famous of the Five Emperors was the Yellow Emperor. He ruled for 100 years and brought about the start of the Chinese civilization. In addition to the Yellow Emperor were Zhuanzu, Emperor Ku, Emperor Yao, and Shun. The Yellow Emperor Mythology as a starter Link to existing knowledge by asking students to suggest ‘foundation’ mythology from Australia and at least two other cultures. The dragon was the symbol of the emperor. His throne was even called the Dragon Throne. It is said that the Yellow Emperor turned into a dragon and flew to heaven when he died.

25 Depth study 3: The Asian world
China > Online Resources: East Asian History Sourcebook This website has information on Chinese cultural origins and religious traditions. Asia for Educators This site from Columbia University offers an on-line curriculum about East Asia including lectures, discussion questions, handouts and supplementary materials. The British Museum Young Explorers This website has a number of games that allow students to travel back in time to explore ancient cultures and rescue precious objects from imminent disaster. China Game This site asks students a series of true or false questions related to Chinese culture and historical traditions. BBC- Ancient China -NEW This website contains information on Crafts & Artisans, Geography, Time, Tombs and Ancestors and Writing.

26 Year 8 Level Description The Ancient to the Modern World c


28 Depth study 1: The Western and Islamic World > The Ottoman Empire (c.1299-c.1683)
The Ottoman Empire Lesson Plan - Discovery Education Lesson Plan Library This is a lesson plan provided by Discovery Education that aims to inform students about the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent. It explores trade routes within the Empire, and emphasizes the unique position of the Ottoman Empire as being at the crossroads of trade and culture between Europe and Asia. Discover the Ottomans A highly detailed resource that contains an array of excellent material pertaining to the history of the Ottomans, the army, family, art and culture. National Museum Australia - Travelling the Silk Road A journey along the Silk Road of the Chinese Tang Dynasty ( ). The Silk Road - Smithsonian Folk Festival An interesting overview of the history of the Silk Road categorised by the major cities along the route stretching from Venice, through Istanbul, Samarkand, and Xi'an, to Nara in Japan. Virtual Walking Tour - Suleymaniye Mosque This is a fantastic virtual walking tour of the Suleymaniye Mosque the largest mosque in the city of Istanbul. Teaching Ottoman History a Primer - Teach Mideast A detailed overview of the Ottoman Period designed for teachers including further resources, glossary and multimedia links. Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection - Historical Maps of the Middle East A large list of historical maps of the Middle East.

29 Year 8 Feudal through a modern example A role play
This hypothetical activity is an ideal lead-in to the feudal system. Your students will become expert wheelers and dealers in this problem-solving role play. Lynda Robertson, Henderson College, Irymple Group scenario A massive bushfire has swept across the Sunraysia District [northern Victoria-southern NSW]. Most people survived by taking cover in their homes, in pools or other buildings. The power station has been burnt to the ground, as has the water tower and the water treatment plant. Gas is leaking from pipes underground and sewage pipes across the district have exploded from the intense heat. Local businesses that survived the fires, including supermarkets, are closed since most of their products have been destroyed by smoke. There is no prospect of outside help or supplies – due to the drought and the hot weather, fires are raging right across Australia and local communities are struggling to survive. A few cars and trucks are still drivable, but eventually fuel will run out with no short-term prospect of resupply. In short, there is no food, water, fuel, electricity or gas. How will you survive? I allow students to organise themselves into groups of no more than four. Each group is then given a ‘Personal Circumstances’ sheet which explains how they have survived the bushfire, where they are located and the immediate resources they have access to.

30 Personal circumstances
A Personal Circumstances sheet might look like this: Your group has found shelter in the Mildura Football Clubrooms on Eleventh Street. There is no bedding but the building seems to be structurally secure. There is no tap water and the toilet does not flush. The Club’s bar survived the bushfire and you have access to a small amount of bottled water and soft drink. All the alcoholic drinks exploded in the intense heat. The Clubrooms are located close to the Mildura Army Barracks, and although the building itself was demolished by the blaze a shed containing a car and an army transport truck survived. Both the vehicles still work and there appears to be around 150 litres of petrol in the facility’s underground fuel storage tank. The first task of each group is to take stock of the situation. I usually encourage groups to discuss this quietly, as they will later take part in a ‘District Meeting’ where they must negotiate with other groups in order to trade resources. Students are asked to allocate roles within their group; they must have a leader, a recorder and a reporter, and if possible a time-keeper and morale-raiser. They must maintain these roles throughout the task – the Reporter will be the group’s representative at the district meeting. When analysing their Personal Circumstances, each group must consider the advantages and disadvantages of the location and their building (or site). They then complete a mind-map of the problems their group faces. I provide groups with detailed maps of the local area (these are readily available from local council websites).

31 District meeting The next step is the district meeting. Students are told the following: Whilst collecting water from the river, your group has encountered a number of people who survived the fire. You decide to hold a meeting to see how you can help each other in this time of crisis. The Reporter from each group will attend the meeting. In your groups, discuss how much information you will give to the neighbouring groups. If you think your prospects for long-term survival are good, you may not want to tell everyone exactly where your group has found shelter OR the resources you have access to. However, if you think you have resources that other groups desperately need, you might use this to gain leverage or power in a time of crisis. At this point groups need to consider ‘Strategy’. When preparing for the meeting, students are asked to write down responses to the following points: • How are you going to find out which resources other groups have access to? • How will you gain access to these resources? What will you need to offer in return? • Do you NEED to help other people, or can you survive on your own? • Who will you ally yourself with? • Is your group’s long-term objective to place itself in a position of power, or is it merely to survive?

32 concept of the feudal system.
I usually stir things up a bit here – the temptation is too great to resist! There are some groups in a much better trading position than others, and I usually visit each group individually to ask if they are going to assist others, or if they are after ‘Absolute Power.’ There is ALWAYS at least one group that decides to pursue power, which later becomes an excellent way for me to introduce the concept of the feudal system. This hypothetical activity is an ideal lead-in to the feudal system. When I did it recently with a Year 8 class, the following social system emerged: I then go through this model in detail on the board (of course the students all LOVE being down the bottom of the pyramid!) I then get them to complete the following reflection questions: Describe the scenario in which your group found itself (e.g. where did you find shelter? What resources did you have access to?) • If you were to live in this environment, what do you think would be the biggest challenge to your survival? Why? • In what ways is this environment different to the way you live normally? • Did your group gain access to other resources as a result of the district meeting? • Do you think the formal structure of the meeting was effective for the exchange of information? Why/why not? • Suggest an alternative way of running the meeting that might have enabled more effective negotiation between groups. As a result of the meeting and subsequent negotiation, did your group’s long-term prospects for survival improve? Why/why not? • Why do you think some groups were prepared to share resources while others weren’t? • Why do you think money was not discussed in the meeting? Explain why other items were more valuable than money. • Did you enjoy this activity? Explain your answer. • Do you have any suggestions or comments? • Do you believe you put your best effort into this task and followed class norms? Explain.

33 Source Exercise 1: The Athenian Empire
Source Exercise 1: The Athenian Empire Source Exercise 2: The First Crusade Source Exercise 3: The Medieval Universe Source Exercise 4: The Wars of the Roses Source Exercise 5: The Henrician Reformation Source Exercise 6: The Divine Right of Kings

34 Source 1 In the time of King Henry II, when Bartholomew de Glanvill was castellan of the castle of Orford, it happened that some fishermen who were fishing in the sea caught a wild man in their nets. At this, the castellan of Orford was lost in wonder. The wild man was completely naked and all his limbs were formed like those of a man. He was hairy and his beard was long and pointed. Around the chest he was very rough and shaggy. The castellan placed him under guard, day and night, and would not allow him to return to the sea. He eagerly ate anything that was brought to him. He devoured fish raw rather than cooked, squeezing the raw fishes in his hands until all of the moisture was removed and then eating them. He did not wish to talk, or rather did not have the power to talk, even when suspended by his feet and tortured. On being led into the church, he showed no sign of belief or of reverence and he did not genuflect or bow his head when he saw anything holy. He always sought out his bed at sunset and always lay there until sunrise.

35 Simple task What is this object? What is it for?
Tasks needing alteration. Source 1. Try to work out an answer, however tentative, to each of the following: From what sort of work might this passage have been extracted? What sort of person might have written it? Who and what might it have been written for? Is there any evidence that the writer was directly connected with the events described? If so, how might that affect the way we read this account? Simple task What is this object? What is it for?

36 Secondary source exercises from Cambridge
The Roman World The Whig Tradition The Troubled Mind of Thomas Carlyle The History of the People The Uses of Facts Two Ways of Presenting a Crusade Two Liberal Prime Ministers Two Assassinations The Beliefs of the People New Fields of Study

37 Vikings > Vikings (c.790-c.1066)
Australian National Maritime Museum - Vikings Teacher Resource Material This resource for teachers provides an overview of the Viking era, information about key artefacts and contains questions for class discussions. Australian National Maritime Museum - Viking Traders An interactive resource that explores Viking trade routes, trading centres and goods, through animated maps. Discovery Education - The Vikings This lesson plan aims to help students understand; how the Vikings' physical environment helped shape their culture, the characteristics of Viking civilisation, and how biases affect historical understanding. It includes discussion questions and suggested readings. The Amazing Vikings - Time Magazine An interesting and informative article covering many aspects of Norse and Viking life. This would be useful for teachers hoping to gain a contextual overview of Viking history. BBC History - Vikings A detailed resource with a wealth of information concerning Vikings. This resource would also be valuable for teachers hoping to gain background knowledge and contextual insight. BBC History - Viking Quest Game A fun, interactive game whereby students retrace the 793 Lindisfarne Raid. BBC Primary History - Vikings Although this is a primary resource it does contain useful sources including letters, drawings, photos and videos that help to illuminate the history of the Vikings. Jorvik Viking Centre - Classroom Resources The Jorvik Viking Centre website contains a number of information sheets pertaining to many aspects of Viking civilisation. They include maps, drawings and photos as well as useful written information. BBC - Who were the Vikings? Neil Oliver goes in search of the truth about the Vikings beyond the accepted history of a band of blood-thirsty pirates raiding the peaceful monasteries of Christendom. This documentary comes in three episodes and covers the Viking age. 1066 online game New In this game students get to control the English, Viking or Norman armies.

38 Follow Me Cards – Vikings http://www. teachingideas. co
The downloadable file below contains 32 questions and matching answers. To use them as 'Follow Me' cards, follow these instructions: Cut out the 32 cards and shuffle them. Share the cards amongst the children in your class. If you have less than 32 pupils, some children may have 2 cards. Ask one of the children to read the question on their card. The answer to that question will be on another child's card. The child who has the correct answer reads it out and then reads the question on their card. Another child will have the answer to this question and the process continues until all 32 questions and answers have been discovered. If the class has answered the questions correctly, the game should end with the child who started it! You could also give a child, or a group of children, the entire set of cards and ask them to put them in the correct order, matching the questions and answers together. You might also challenge children to make their own sets of follow me cards based on their own knowledge of the Vikings.


40 The Asian World - Japan

41 Resources on HTAV site. Japan Under the Shoguns (c.794-1867)
Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire A fantastic visual resource, this website contains an excellent interactive timeline, numerous images and profiles on the many people that made up the ancient Japanese empire. Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire - Resources The resources section of the above website contains a number of informative resources including; bibliography, classroom guide, glossary and web resources. Japan: Memoirs of A Secret Empire - Episodes Episodes from the PBS Empire series. British Museum - Japanese Samurai and Shoguns This website contains an overview and sidebar with links to relevant museum objects. Medieval Japan: Ideas for Teachers - featured in Agora 2008, no. 3, vol. 43. This article outlines the political structures and cultural innovations that characterised medieval Japan during the Kamakura, Muromachi, Azuchi-Momoyama and Tokugawa periods respectively. It includes a number fun and practical classroom activities. Encyclopaedia Brittanica - Shogunate Useful for teachers hoping to contextualise the period. Tokugawa Shogunate This short video outlines the rise of Ieyasu Tokugawa the first Shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate.

42 Questioning documents and influences.
Prince Shotoku Prince Shotoku was a Yamato prince born in 573ce – the second son of Emperor Yomei. Around 593, Shotoku began his rule on behalf of his aunt, the Empress Suiko. Shotoku planned to strengthen imperial authority by building a strong government based on China’s example. He created a new constitution, outlining his plans for government. Shotoku’s constitution gave all power to the emperor, who had to be obeyed by the Japanese people. Control was centralised and all rice cultivation was brought under the control of the emperor’s court. Independent farmers were obliged to pay tax on their rice production and to offer military service for their right to hold land. Shotoku also created a bureaucracy and gave the emperor the power to appoint all the officials. The constitution listed rules for working in the government and set out a social system where people were promoted through 12 ranks based on their ability rather than their birth. The rules were taken from the ideas of Confucius, a Chinese scholar and teacher.

43 Written sources Source analyse. When was it created?
Who created it? What position did they hold? Why was it created? What can an extract such as the one to the left tell us about the rules or mores that Japanese society had to follow? Draw up the rules in modern form. Why was harmony considered to be so important? Harmony is to be cherished, and opposition for opposition’s sake must be avoided as a matter of principle … When an imperial command is given, obey it with reverence. The sovereign is likened to heaven, and his subjects are likened to earth. With heaven providing the cover and earth supporting it, the four seasons proceed in orderly fashion, giving sustenance to all that which is in nature. If earth attempts to overtake the functions of heaven, it destroys everything. Cast away your ravenous desire for food and abandon your covetousness for material possessions. If a suit is brought before you, render a clear-cut judgement … Punish that which is evil and encourage that which is good. Translated extract from The Seventeen-Article Constitution created by Shotoku What was the influence of other cultures on this Constitution? Is this important? COMA: Content? Origin? Motivation? Audience?

44 Additional resources

45 The World According to Student Bloopers
Without the Greeks, we wouldn't have history. The Greeks invented three kinds of columns - Corinthian, Doric and Ironic. They also had myths. A myth is a female moth. One myth says that the mother of Achilles dipped him in the River Stynx until he became intolerable. Achilles appears in "The Illiad", by Homer. Homer also wrote the "Oddity", in which Penelope was the last hardship that Ulysses endured on his journey. Actually, Homer was not written by Homer but by another man of that name. Socrates was a famous Greek teacher who went around giving people advice. They killed him. Socrates died from an overdose of wedlock. In the Olympic Games, Greeks ran races, jumped, hurled the biscuits, and threw the java. The reward to the victor was a coral wreath. The government of Athen was democratic because the people took the law into their own hands. There were no wars in Greece, as the mountains were so high that they couldn't climb over to see what their neighbors were doing. When they fought the Parisians, the Greeks were outnumbered because the Persians had more men. Eventually, the Ramons conquered the Geeks. History call people Romans because they never stayed in one place for very long. At Roman banquets, the guests wore garlic in their hair. Julius Caesar extinguished himself on the battlefields of Gaul. The Ides of March killed him because they thought he was going to be made king. Nero was a cruel tyrany who would torture his poor subjects by playing the fiddle to them. Then came the Middle Ages. King Alfred conquered the Dames, King Arthur lived in the Age of Shivery, King Harlod mustarded his troops before the Battle of Hastings, Joan of Arc was cannonized by George Bernard Shaw, and the victims of the Black Death grew boobs on their necks. Finally, the Magna Carta provided that no free man should be hanged twice for the same offense. In midevil times most of the people were alliterate. The greatest writer of the time was Chaucer, who wrote many poems and verse and also wrote liter- ature. Another tale tells of William Tell, who shot an arrow through an apple while standing on his son's head. The Renaissance was an age in which more individuals felt the value of their human being. Martin Luther was nailed to the church door at Wittenberg for selling papal indulgences. He died a horrible death, being excommunicated by a bull. It was the painter Donatello's interest in the female nude that made him the father of the Renaissance. It was an age of great inventions and discoveries. Gutenberg invented the Bible. Sir Walter Raleigh is a historical figure because he invented cigarettes. Another important invention was the circulation of blood. Sir Francis Drake circumcised the world with a 100-foot clipper.

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