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Characteristics of Composite Materials

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Presentation on theme: "Characteristics of Composite Materials"— Presentation transcript:

1 Characteristics of Composite Materials
Chapter 13

2 Unique Characteristics of Composites
A substance consisting of a minimum of 2 materials At least one material serves as a solid reinforcement The second is a binding material (matrix) Binding material begins as a liquid or slurry Will saturate the binding material as it solidifies Hold the reinforcement in a desired orientation

3 Mechanical properties of the composite determined by:
Position of the reinforcement material Shape of product Manufacturing process used Reinforcement materials carry the load Matrix material distributes the load and protects the reinforcement material

4 Composites can be used in a wide variety of service and performance conditions
Depends on: Selection of reinforcement materials Proper placement of reinforcement materials Selection of suitable matrix material

5 Structure of Composite Materials
Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) Most widely recognized Consists of glass fibers and polymer resin Glass fiber very susceptible to damage Polymer resin has low tensile strength Resin is tough, and protects glass fibers FRP composites made up of layers Called “lay-up” or “buildup”

6 FRP used in open molding (layup procedure)
A common low cost manufacturing process Layer of polymer resin is sprayed in a mold Layer of glass fiber is added Fiber is “wetted” with more resin Another layer of glass is added Process is repeated until desired buildup is achieved

7 FRP is competitive with woods, metals and plastics
Material costs more Lower cost comes from less expensive manufacturing processes for composites

8 Reinforcements Variety of reinforcement materials Three categories:
Fillers Fibers Solids

9 Fillers Added to resins to change their flow characteristics and increase the volume Dust like particles and short fibers Easy to handle – paste like Modest mechanical properties Typically used to fill in gaps and voids and improve surface finish Reduce cost Referred to as an extender

10 Classes of Fillers Mineral fillers Organic fillers Specialty fillers
Calcium carbonate Wood flour Microspheres Calcium sulfate Solid glass spheres Talc Walnut shells (ground) Hollow glass spheres Mica Corncobs (ground) Ceramic spheres Thermoplastic spheres Phenolic spheres

11 Fibers Mainstay of reinforcement Economical Good mechanical properties
Dependent on type of glass fiber and orientation Ingredients: Silica sand (primary) Metal oxides (added) Size of fibers – 3.5 to 24 microns

12 Most economical glass fiber
E-glass Most economical glass fiber Sufficient strength Low cost At least 50% silica oxide Also can have aluminum, boron, calcium, limestone, and others Accounts for nearly 90% of the glass reinforcements “E” refers to it’s outstanding electrical insulating characteristics

13 Chemical Resistant Glass
Glass fiber has good chemical resistance Over exposure to hot water will cause erosion to exposed glass fibers Corrosion resistant resin is added to slow the erosion Result it a composite with good chemical resistance Selection of appropriate fibers based on chemical exposure is also important

14 Specialty Fibers Higher tensile strength and stiffness than glass fibers Made from: Carbon Boron Aramid Much higher cost Exceptional performance for customer willing to pay Hybrid – specialty fibers mixed with glass fibers Helps control cost

15 Reinforcement Enhancements
Single strands of reinforcement are hard to handle and keep in place when adding a binding matrix Can result in a product with variable mechanical properties Time consuming to manufacture To solve this problem glass fiber must go through further processing Glass fiber gathered into bundles or strands Strand – collection of more than one continuous filament Roving – bundle of untwisted glass strands packaged like thread on a large spool

16 Fabrics are popular reinforcement
Mat – nonwoven fabric made from fibers held together by a chemical binder Chopped mat – randomly distributed fibers cut to length Lower cost Continuous-strand mat – swirls of unbroken fiber strands Stronger Plain weave – simple fabric, over under weave

17 Protecting the glass fiber during processing
Glass fibers can be damaged by abrasion while being handled Can cause breakage Sizing – chemical mixture to coat and protect glass fibers

18 Solid Reinforcement Creates stiff and lightweight composites
Also called laminate Core material - the solid reinforcement material Sandwich construction Face skin laminate (fiber reinforcement) Core material Reinforced back skin laminate Results in thicker, stiffer laminates

19 Weight is always a concern Core materials must be light and economical
Must be able to be bonded by the resin being used Polystyrene foam – dissolved by resin

20 Laminate bonds to the end grain of the wood
Balsa wood Marine hulls and decks Lightweight and rigid 6 to 16 lbs per cubic foot Laminate bonds to the end grain of the wood Improved crush strength Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) foam Combination of strength and low weight 4 to 30 lbs per cubic foot Linear PVC foam Mainly for marine industry Allows deflection before failure

21 In sheet stock or liquid that is foamed into place
Polyurethane foam In sheet stock or liquid that is foamed into place Used in cavity of boat hulls Add stiffness Buoyancy Low shear strength Not structural applications Also good thermal insulator (wall panels of refrigeration units) 2 to 20 lbs per cubic foot

22 Honeycomb cores Aerospace and transportation Made from: paper, aluminum, glass reinforced phenolic 1 to 6 lbs per cubic foot Very stiff Lightweight High crush strength

23 Creating the matrix in the composite
Matrix generally a resin Function to transfer the load to and protect the reinforcement fiber Most popular matrix materials are plastics Thermoplastic (re-formable) Thermosets (not re-formable) (primarily used)

24 Gel Coat Resin formulated to provide a quality finish to the outer surface of a composite Improves durability Provides color, gloss and environmental protection Not paint

25 Resin Additives Improve the chemical and physical properties of the matrix resin Many available additives: Fire retardants/suppressants UV inhibitors Conductive additives

26 Composite Stock Prepregs – sheets of fiber saturated with resin
Manufacturer molds prepregs into shapes Composite stocks usually made on site Purchase resins, reinforcement and additives separately Mix themselves

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