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Building and testing prototypes

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1 Building and testing prototypes
Why test? Form, fit & function Types of tests Types of prototypes Test plans Summary

2 Why Do Product Testing? Finished parts do not always look the same as designed Finished parts do not always fit together as designed Finished parts do not always work the way they were designed.

3 What do “form” tests determine?
Form test– Will the part/product have an acceptable appearance?

4 What do “fit” tests determine?
Fit test – Will the parts fit together or fit the user, with an acceptable precision?

5 What do “function” tests determine?
Function – Will the part/product perform as required?

6 Tests: Types & Timing -A
Formulation Concept Design “Proof of Concept” tests validate physical principles “Product Concept” tests validate product / appearance

7 Product concept and Proof-of-concept models
Mercedes F700

8 Tests: Types & Timing - B
Parametric Design Configuration Design “Virtual prototype” tests solid modeling CAD “Alpha prototype” tests actual geometry & materials but may not use actual mfg. processes

9 Virtual prototype Mercedes F700 MIT Smart City 2020

10 Alpha prototype The flying saucer
Sky Commuter is on the block on ebay. Starting bid: $55,600. Labels: Future Past, Technology The flying saucer

11 Tests: Types & Timing - C
Detail Design Manufacture “Beta prototype” tests parts made with planned mfg. processes volunteer customers / panel actual operating conditions, environment “Preproduction prototype” tests parts made with final mat’s & processes independent labs: UL, CPSC, NHTSA

12 need physical “prototype”
Testing Sequence Product concept Proof of concept Virtual prototype Alpha prototype Beta prototype PreProduction prototype less expensive more expensive need physical “prototype”

13 More prototypes Toyota Winglet Toyota i-Real Toyota i-Foot Toyota PM

14 Physical Prototypes Prototype… is a replica or model of the part showing principal geometric features Prototypes differ in: Scale - Reduced, Full, Expanded Fabrication Process - Same as mfg, Similar, Different Material - Same as final, Different, Similar Two ways to make prototypes: Traditional Rapid

15 Traditional prototypes
Clay models of new auto body for appearance testing, Wood models of heavy equipment patterns for metal castings, Manually machined metal airplane wings for function testing in a wind tunnel, Reduced-scale balsa wood models of large facilities, to examine equipment layout. Clay modeling: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

16 Some Disadvantages of Traditional Prototyping
Uses tools and fabrication methods that are labor intensive. Often require significant mechanical or artistic skills. Take a long time to fabricate an original. Revisions may require complete rebuilding of part Costly for duplicates. May not facilitate tooling design and construction

17 Rapid Prototyping NC/CNC Machining Selective Laser Apparatus
Fused Deposition Modeling 3-D Ink Jet Laminated Object Manufacturing Selective Laser sintering Service Bureaus

18 NC/CNC Prototyping (Subtractive process)
workstation Solid Modeling CAD software Saved Part Solid model file *.PRT NC code generation NC Machine instruction code file NC/CNC Machine e.g. mill, lathe Fabricated Prototype

19 Numerical Control Machining (NC/CNC)
CAD files are converted to NC – machine instruction codes for automatic machining Part can be made of metal Dimensions have excellent tolerances Multiple copies of parts can be made easily Prototyped parts are well suited for form, fit and function tests CNC

20 NC Machined part example
Mars rover wheels (Courtesy of HAAS Automation)

21 Rapid Prototyping – Additive processes
Solid Modeling CAD software Rapid Prototyper Slicing Program Faceted Model file *.STL Saved Part Solid model file *.PRT Fabricated Prototype RP Machine instruction code file RP Machine workstation

22 Stereo Lithographic Apparatus (SLA)
laser projection mirror (xy-axes) elevator (z-axis) Photopolymer (liquid resin) object being prototyped tank Solidified lamina SLA

23 (Courtesy of 3D Systems)
3-D Systems SLA 7000 (Courtesy of 3D Systems)

24 SLA Jaguar manifold (courtesy 3-D Systems, Inc)

25 Stereo Lithography Apparatus (SLA)
Parts exhibit superior finishes polymeric prototypes are weaker than metal prototypes (i.e.CNC) Prototyped parts are well suited for form, and fit tests. Some function testing

26 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Uses a high power laser to sinter together fusible materials, such as powdered metals, layer by layer. Sintering is the heating and fusing of small particles resulting in a hard bonded material block. The un-sintered powder supports the part as the layers are sintered. SLS

27 Fused-deposition modeling (FDM) process
Filament Spool Heater Drive Wheels Table Fused Part Head motion Table motion Head Molten filament FDM, PDF

28 (Courtesy of Stratasys Corporation)
FDM – Stratasys 3000 (Courtesy of Stratasys Corporation)

29 Cowling (courtesy of Stratasys)

30 Trike (courtesy of Stratasys)

31 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
Parts can be made from high strength ABS plastic, impact resistant ABS, investment casting wax, and an elastomer. Prototype parts are well suited for form and fit testing. Some function testing

32 3-D Inkjet prototyping Glue-like binder selectively “printed” onto a layer of dry powder, layer by layer, which dries into a solid prototype. Similar process uses a print head to deposit a thermoplastic material, layer by layer. Quick and inexpensive The processes work well as concept modelers. Prototypes have limited dimensional tolerances Somewhat fragile unless coated with a hardener Prototypes made with this process are typically not function tested. 3DP

33 Z-Corporaton Z406 (“Inkjet”)
(Courtesy of Z-Corporation)

34 Chrome Wheel (courtesy of Z-Corporation)

35 Electrolux (courtesy of Z-Corporation)

36 Baby seat (courtesy of Z-Corporation)

37 3-D Inkjet Manifold (courtesy of Z-Corporation)

38 Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)
Laminating thin layers of paper, polymer or sheet steel, which have been cut using a numerically controlled laser. LOM prototypes can be sanded to reduce jagged edges, but are not able to be function tested such as for stress or strain due to the allotropic material properties of the laminate. LOM

39 Service Bureaus Product manufacturer s the solid model part file to the service bureau, typically as an *.STL file. The bureau uses its software to convert the *.STL file to a “sliced” file format specific to the selected prototyping hardware (i.e. FDM, SLA, SLS, LOM), Part is fabricated along with any duplicates. Part(s) may then be overnight-mailed to the product manufacturer.

40 Which Prototyping Method is Best: Traditional or Rapid?
Shape generating compatibility – Can the material be formed into the needed geometric features to adequately represent the part? Function testing validity – Are the material properties representative, or scalable such that the part when reduced (or expanded) in size, can be validly tested? Fabrication costs – Will the prototype costs for materials and labor be acceptable? Fabrication time – How long will it take to fabricate the original and one or more duplicates?

41 Engineering Tests Mechanical / modes of failure Manufacturability
Operation / maintenance Safety Environmental Engineering tests ≠ Experiments (Experiments validate phenomena)

42 Engineering Tests Briefly describe the difference between engineering tests and scientific experiments. Scientific experiments establish relationships between causes and effects. That is, they determine scientific principles. For example, a force exerted on a mass causes it to accelerate (effect). Engineering tests validate the application of principles given specific assumptions. For example, will a given sized motor produce enough torque given the frictional losses in the system.

43 1. Mechanical modes of failure
static strength fatigue deflection/stiffness creep, impact vibration thermal/heat transfer/fluid energy consumption / production friction (i.e. too much, too little) wear lubrication corrosion life, reliability

44 2. Manufacturability concerns
process compatibility/precision process technology readiness raw material quality assembly

45 3. Operation and or maintenance concerns
styling/aesthetics ergonomics maintenance repairs

46 4. Safety concerns risk to user, products liability
risk to consumer /society safety codes, standards (UL, NHTSA) risk to production worker (e.g. OSHA) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

47 5. Environmental protection concerns
air quality, noise water - quality, quantity solid waste – hazardous materials radioactivity – fallout

48 Test plans – written and approved
Objectives – list of items (parts, systems, models) to be tested purposes for which the tests are being conducted Workscope – narrative description: type of tests, test descriptions/procedures, experimental setup, experimental controls, design of experiments test matrix, and list of deliverables. Budget Schedule Examples: 1, 2, 3

49 Summary Companies build and test prototypes to ensure form, fit and function. Product development tests include: product-concept, proof-of-concept, virtual, alpha, beta, and preproduction. Prototypes can be built using traditional and rapid prototyping methods and materials. Rapid prototyping methods include NC/CNC, SLA, FDM, LOM, SLS, and 3-D Inkjet printing. Rapid prototyping takes advantage of CAD Part and product testing can include tests for: mechanical modes of failure, manufacturability, user operation & maintenance, safety and environmental protection. Product development often requires the preparation and completion of a detailed test plan.

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