# Instructor: Prof. Yasser Gowayed

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Instructor: Prof. Yasser Gowayed
Knowledge based problems Fibrous composites Instructor: Prof. Yasser Gowayed Used with permission

Lecture outline Definition of composite materials
Types of composite materials Fibrous composites Textile composites

Definition Composite materials are made by mixing two or more distinct materials, having a macroscopically recognizable interface

Types of Composite Materials
Type of inclusion spheres, rods, fibers, flakes Type of material - Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) - Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) - Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)

Fibrous Composites Fibers: strong and flexible Matrix: rigid and inert

Textile Composite (3D XYZ woven)
Fibrous Composites Laminated Composites Textile Composite (3D XYZ woven)

Terminology – naming convention for laminated composites
Common industry practice to use angles to name layers: 0, 45, -45, 90 Laminates with similar number of like orientations share similar properties Naming convention: (0/45/90/90/-45/-0) (0/45/90)s

Terminology – balance and symmetery
Balanced laminate implies that for every + oriented layer there exists a - oriented layer of the same material (45,0,90,-45,0,90) balanced, un-symmetric (45,0,90,-45,90,0,45) unbalanced, symmetric (10,0,45,-45,-10,30,-30) balanced, un-symmetric (45,-45,0,90,0,-45,45) balanced, symmetric

The rule of mixtures The density of any composite is the product of the density of its constituents relative to their volume fraction rc= Vf * rf + Vm* rm Vf + Vm = 1 rc = composite density rf = fiber density rm = matrix density Vf = volume fraction of fibers Vm = volume fraction of matrix

Composite manufacturing – Compression molding
Fiber/matrix layers

Composite manufacturing - Vacuum bagging

Composites in Sports

Composites in Transportation

Composites in Space

International Space Station
Altitude: 220 n.m. (nominal) Inclination: 51.6 degrees Dimension: 290 ft (L) x 356 ft (W) Weight:: 940,000 lb Pressurized Volume: 43,000ft3 Power: 110 kW (total); 45kW (users) Final Configuration 2004

Textile CMC Turbine Engines
Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) CMC Combustor - Lifing & Sub-element Tests Textile CMC Turbine Engines NASA Glenn, Pratt &Whitney and GE